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This Etymological Dictionary is the natural sequel to the His- 
torical Grammar. In that work I had traced out the history of 
French grammatical forms : with a view to the completion of my 
task, and the full cycle of the history of the language, I was bound 
to write also a history of its vocabulary. This is attempted in this 
volume, which seeks to register for general use the results of philo- 
logical enquiry, hitherto too much confined to a narrow circle of 
literary men. 

It is not that philological enquiry has been lacking in France 
during the last three centuries. In the anarchical period of philo- 
logy — the period between the sixteenth century and our day, during 
which philology was little but a confused mass of erudite errors — two 
etymological Dictionaries were written, that of Manage in 1650, and 
that of Roquefort in 1829. Seven years later the illustrious Frederick 
Diez pubHshed at Bonn the first volume of his Grammar of the 
Rornance Languages (1836), a comparative history of the six lan- 
guages which have sprung from the Latin, in which he showed by 
what invariable laws Latin passed into French, Italian, Spanish, 
Portugese, Wallachian; at the same moment he created a scientific 
history of the French tongue. Thenceforth French philology was 
revolutionised ; and, just as in the eighteenth century chemistry shook 
itself free from alchemy, so then the study of the French language 
became a science based on observation^ the progress of which was 
destined to be very rapid, under the influence of a spirit of exact in- 
vestigation : the latest born of experimental sciences, it seemed likely 
to outstrip them all, except chemistry, in the rapidity and unbroken 
succession of its discoveries. Every new result is enrolled in its order 
in the three etymological Dictionaries which followed one another at 
intervals: in 18^'^ Diez ipuhlished his I^/ymologi'sc/ier Worterbuch; in 
1862 appeared M. Scheler's Dictionary of French Etymology; in 1863 
the first parts of M. Littre's admirable Dictionary of the French 
Tongue came out. 

^ It is but fair to say that a Frenchman, M. Raynouard, had already prepared 
the way by a comparative study of the six Neo-Latin tongues ; still to M. Diez 
belongs the honour of having created the science by introducing into French phi- 
lology an exactitude quite unknown before his time. 


author's preface. 

These three works give us all the philological discoveries made 
during the last thirty years in the French language ; and the chasm 
which separates them from the dreams of Manage and Roquefort can 
only be compared to that which lies between the chemistry of Lavoisier 
and the reveries of Raymond LuUi, or Van Helmont. It may there- 
fore seem needless to wish to swell the catalogue with a new philo- 
logical Dictionary ; but still I have decided on writing this book ; for 
there is a blank to be filled up. In scientific subjects there is always 
room for two kinds of books — those which teach established scientific 
knowledge and transmit our learned acquisitions in a collective form, 
and those which leave former discoveries alone, in order to at- 
tempt new research, to work out the solution or the discussion of 
problems hitherto untouched. Thus, in zoology, a treatise intended 
for the general public would be silent as to all doubtful or unsettled 
questions (such as the origin of species, or the like), and would occupy 
itself solely with the minute proof of established truths : but if on 
the other hand the treatise were addressed to the narrower class of 
professed naturalists, it would be satisfied with simply stating known 
facts (assuming their proof to be known by the reader) and would set 
itself specially to elucidate by new observations or hypotheses those 
problems which were yet uncertain. 

This distinction applies with equal force to etymological Dictionaries, 
according as they address themselves to students of philology only 
or to the general literary public : in the former case the main task 
of the author will be to attempt unsolved etymological problems, 
simply stating established etymologies without stopping to give the 
proofs. This has been done by Diez, Scheler, and Littr^, who have 
been more anxious to discover or explore unknown regions than to 
descril2£_the^^nown. But by the side of these works, which assume 
in the reader a previous acquaintance with philological principles and 
a knowledge of the position of each question that comes up, there is 
room for another Dictionary which shall take the science in its pre- 
sent condition, shall provisionally regard the etymology of all words 
whose origin is still under discussion as unknown, shall limit itself 
to the statement of etymologies already settled, and shall then 
lay before the eyes of the reader all the philological principles 
on which these interesting results depend. Of such a kind is this 
manual of the science of etymology which I have endeavoured 
to make, in the full persuasion that, imperfect as it is, it may yet 
render some service to the cause of higher education^. 

/j ^ M. Breal, Professor in the College of France, has admirably pointed out the 

/ dangers of ' a method which professes to explain everything, and does not know 

^^ how to resign itself to be ignorant of many things.' For education nothing is so 

/': mischievous to the authority of a science as an inconclusive discussion. 



As an example of the difference between the two methods, let 
us take the two words marcassin and pourrir. The etymology of 
marcassin is unknown ; and while Diez and Littrd discuss the hypo- 
theses already started as to the origin of the word, and throw out new 
suggestions, I content myself with the simple statement that here is 
a blank in our knowledge, and so I leave it. For in education uncer- 
tainty is worse than ignorance, and the maxim ' in dubiis abstine ' 
finds its application. But under the word pourrir, whose etymology 
[l(from Lat. putrere) is well known, Littrd and Scheler merely 
[Imention the Latin word, and do not stop to explain ; but in my 
[•JDictionary I set myself to prove it, and to show how putrere becomes 
\pourrir, in answer to the questions, Why such and such a change? 
;Have the Latin letters been altered by chance .? or Is there any 
invariable law of change .? Has putrere become pourrir all at once, 
or have there been successive changes, letter by letter? and can one fix 
the steps of the process in their chronological order ^? — questions 
which a Dictionary professing to teach ' laymen ' (as the Germans 
would say) the science of etymology cannot possibly neglect. 
' Scientific etymology,' says M. Brdal, ' does not consist in a vague 
statement of the affinity which may exist between two words ; it must 
' track out, letter by letter, the history of the formation of a word, and 
show all the intermediate stages through which it has passed.' 

Thus, in the example taken above, one must show that the u of 
putrere has passed into on {pourrir), like ursus, ours\ surdus, 
sourd; turris, tour; — that the Latin tr becomes rr, like latronem, 
hirron; nutrire, nqurrir ; — lastly, that the long e of putrere is 
represented by the French i, like tenere, ienir ; abolere, abolir, &c. 
The philologer, when he has reached this point, has done but half his 
work ; he has shown that pourrir answers, letter for letter, to putrere ; 
he must now show how this change has come about : we have as yet 
only the end-links of the chain, we must find the intermediate and 
connecting ones. Between the grub and the butterfly the naturahst 
studies all the different conditions of the chrysalis ; between the Latin 
and the French we find, on the one side the Low Latin, on the other 
the Early French. Thus pourrir has not leapt at one bound from 
putrere : Latin MSS. of the Merovingian period show us that the 
word became first putrire, then pudrire ; whence the earliest French 
form podrir, whence follows porrir, and lastly pourrir. By what 
slow and almost insensible changes has the Latin word slipped into 

^ Our remarks on the three Dictionaries of Diez, Littre, and Scheler, must not 
■ be taken to indicate any want of esteem for such admirable works. Far from 
challenging their method I seek only to support it by supplementing it ; methods 
must vary according to the end proposed, the audience addressed. Let me seize 
this opportunity of expressing my hearty gratitude for the advantages I owe to 
these masters in the science of etymology, and to their labours. 

author's preface, 

French ! — tr has been successively softened into dr, thence into rr ; 
u passes through o into ou ; and, as one can prove by the steps taken, 
the Latin word has never accomplished more than one of these 
changes at a time. Thus penetrating by means of a strict 
analysis into the innermost organisation of language, one sees that 
living words change and grow, and that Latin and French, for ex- 
ample, are in reality only two successive conditions of one language. 

By patient study, by careful comparison of thousands of little facts, 
insignificant by themselves, etymological science has been able to 
prove that languages, like plants or animals, are born, grow, and die, 
according to definite determinable laws. This fact saves us from the 
reproach of lingering over petty details. * Every building raised on 
abstract ideas,' says Buflfon, in his noble language, ' is a temple 
dedicated to a lie.' It is high time that men should abandon meta- 
physical speculations as to the origin of human speech, and betake 
themselves to the humbler observation of facts : for they alone can 
lead us on to a just conception of the laws of language ; and one 
may apply to them the saying of Quinctilian, ' Parva quidem, sed 
sine quibus magna non possent consistere,' — these are but details 
indeed, yet without them general principles could not stand. 

A. B. 


September 3, 1868. 




Of the Rules to be followed in Etymological investigations 
Chap. i. Phonetics 
ii. History 
iii. Comparison 
iv. Variations of meaning 
V. Conclusion 

BOOK II, Etymological Elements of the pRENcri Tongue 

Part I, Elements of Popular Origin 

Chap. i. The Latin element 
ii. The Celtic element 
iii. The Germanic element . 
iv. The Greek element 
Part ii. Elements of Learned Origin 
Part hi. Elements of Foreign Origin 

Chap. i. Words of Provengal origin 
ii. Words of Italian origin 
iii. Words of Spanish origin 
iv. Words of German origin 
v. Words of English origin 
vi. Words of Slavonic origin 
vii. Words of Semitic origin 
viii. Words of Oriental origin 
ix. W^ords of American origin 
Part rv. Elements of Various Origin 

Chap. i. Words of Historical origin 

ii. Words of Onomatopoetic origin 

iii. Words of Unknown origin 

iv. Etymological statistics of the French Tongue 









XXX vii 



BOOK III. Phonetics, or the Study of Sounds. .... xlii 

"Part i. Description of Sounds xliii 

Chap. i. The vowels xlv 

ii. History of the Latin vowels . . . liii 

iii. The Latin diphthongs .... Ixxvii 

iv. The Latin consonants .... Ixxix 

Part n. The Principles which rule the Permutations of Language . xcv 

Part m. Exceptions to Phonetics. Effect of Corruption on the 

Formation of the French Language .... xcvii 

Part iv. Derivation c 

Section i. Derivation of substantives ci 

Chap. i. French substantives derived from Latin sub- 
stantives . . . . . . ci 

ii. French substantives derived from Latin adjec- 
tives cii 

iii. French substantives derived from Latin pre- 
positions cii 

iv. French substantives derived from Latin verbs cii 

Section ii. Derivation of adjectives cvi 

Section iii. List of nominal suffixes cvii 

Chap. i. Accented cvii 

ii. Atonic cxxii 

Section iv. Verbal suffixes cxxv 

Chap. i. Accented cxxv 

ii. Atonic cxxv 

Section v. Diminutive suffixes cxxvi 

List of Abbreviations ex. viii 




Axiomata a particularibus rite et ordine ahstracta nova particularia rursus facile 
indicant et designant, itaque scientias reddunt activas. — Bacon, Novum Organon, i. 24. 

§ 1. Etymology, which investigates the origin of words and the laws 
of the transformation of languages, is a new science. It is scarcely 
thirty years since it became one of the sciences of observation ; and 
the good work it has since done has speedily won for it among the 
historical sciences a place which it can never lose. 

Before attaining its present precision, etymology — like every other 
science, and perhaps more than any other — passed through a long 
period of infancy, of uncertain groping and effort, during which it 
subsisted chiefly on arbitrary relations, superficial analogies, and 
fanciful combinations. 

'One can scarcely imagine how arbitrary was the search for 
etymologies while it was solely an attempt to connect words at 
haphazard by their apparent resemblance, without any farther proof. 
The dreams of Plato's Cratylus, the absurd etymologies of Varro and 
Quinctilian, the philological fancies of Menage in the seventeenth 
century, are known to every one. There was no difficulty in con- 
necting jeiine with Jeune, for youth is the morning of life, and one 
rises fasting. Most frequently one word was derived from another of 
an entirely different form, and to fill up the gap between them, 
fictitious intermediates were invented. Thus Menage derived rat from 
the Latin mus ! " They must have said, first mus, then muratus, then 
ratus, then rat!' Nay, farther, they went so far as to suppose that an 
object could derive its name from a quality the opposite of that which 
that name denoted, because affirmation provokes negation, and so, 
. 'f b 


for instance, they affirmed that lucus came from luoere, " quia non 

At last, the dreams of etymologists became proverbial, and this 
branch of human knowledge fell into utterrtiost discredit. How then 
has this confused heap of erudite error given place to an established 
science of etymology? Simply by the discovery and application of 
the comparative method, the method of the natural sciences. * Com- 
parison is the chief instrument of science. Science is made up of 
general facts ; scientific knowledge is the formation of groups, the 
establishment of laws, consequently the separation of the general out 
of the particular. Now, if we would compel facts to surrender to us 
their inner meaning, we must draw them together, explain them by 
one another, in other words compare them. 

'Every one knows something of the discoveries of comparative 
anatomy. We know how the study of the structure of animals, and 
the comparison of organs, whose infinite modifications form the diifer- 
entiae of class, order, genus, have revealed to us, so to speak, the 
plan of nature; have provided us with a solid foundation for our 
classifications.' ^ 

Just so with languages also : here also comparison is doubtless as 
ancient as observation; but there are two kinds of comparison, 
or rather, two degrees of comparison through which the mind must 
pass in succession. 

§ 2. The first is hasty and superficial comparison, which was omni- 
potent in all physical sciences down to the end of the seventeenth 
century; it was satisfied with connecting beings or words by their 
superficial resemblances. Thus, naturalists called the dolphin and the 
whale fishes, by reason of their outer shape, their habits, their con- 
stant living in the sea; and etymologists derived the word par esse 
from the Greek irapfais ^, because of all words they knew this was the 
one most like the French word, and they concluded, without any 
further proof, that this was the origin of paresse : an easy proof indeed ! 

These arbitrary comparisons have been succeeded in our own days 
by thoughtful and methodical comparison, an exact and scientific 
method ; one not satisfied with outer resemblances or differences, but 
seeking by careful dissection to penetrate to the essence and inner- 
most analogies of things. 

The anatomist now studies the internal structure of the whale, and 
discerns that the conformation of its organs excludes it from the class 
of fishes, and places it among the mammals. And the philologist, 
instead of studying the mere outside of words, dissects them into their 
elements, their letters ; observes their origin, and the way in which 
they are transformed. 

^ M. Reville, Les ancetres des europeens. 
* E. Soberer, Etudes d'histoire et de critique, ^ See below, § 21. 


" It is by a strict application of this new method, by following facts 
instead of trying to lead them, that modern philology has proved that 
language is developed according to invariable laws, and follows in its 
transformations certain necessary rules. 

This book will lay out the principal characteristics of this natural 
history of language: it will be found that they furnish the ety- 
mologist with unexpected help, and are a valuable instrument, a 
powerful microscope for the observation of the most delicate 

§ 3. The instruments of observation are three in number : Pho- 
netics, History, Comparis.on. 




§ 4. Take any Latin letter, and ask what it has become in French 
you will soon see that the transition has followed a regular course, 
or, in other words, that each Latin letter passes into French in an 
invariable way : thus e long usually becomes oi : as me, moi ; regem, 
roi; legem, loi; te, toi ; se, sot; tela, toile ; velum, voile: ea be- 
comes che ; caballus, cheval ; ea^inus, chemin ; canile, chenil : 
o becomes ou ; tormentum, tourment ; vos, vous ; nos, nous ; sori- 
cem, souris ; &c. We give the name of Phonetics ^ to the collection 
of these laws of transformation. 

The bearings of this discovery are plain enough ; these laws of 
transformation once observed for each letter are a guiding line in 
investigation, and stop us if we are on a wrong track ; if the derivation 
does not satisfy the conditions of phonetic change, it is null and void. 

Thus then the knowledge of the sum total of these transformations 
from Latin to French letters^ is the first condition which must be fulfilled 
if we would busy ourselves with etymology. If any one thinks this 
preparatory study too minute or needless, we would remind him that 
anatomy observes and describes muscles, nerves, vessels, with most 
minute detail : this vast collection of facts may seem dry and tiresome ; 
but yet, even as comparative anatomy is the basis of all physiology, so is 
the exact knowledge of phonetics the starting-point for all etymology ; 
from it alone the science gets its character of solidity and exactitude. 

§ 5. We may then state this new principle as follows : — every ety- 
mology which does not, according to the rules of permutation laid 
down by phonetics, account for every letter kept, changed, or dropped, 
must be set aside as worthless. 

See below, § 37. ' Ibid. §§ 46, sqq. 



Taking this principle as our guide, let us look, for example, for the 
derivation of the word iai'/ue. One sees at once that the letters if 
represent the Latin ct, as is found \Xi fait from factus; lait from 
lactem ; fruit from fructus, &c. 

Thus then the first part of the word will answer to a Latin form 
lact ; what is the origin of the suffix -ue ? Now we can prove that 
this suffix comes from the Latin suffix -uca \ as in verr-ue, verr-uca ; 
charr-ue^ carr-uca, &c. Hence we arrive at the form lactuca, the 
actual Latin name for a lettuce. 

Thus it is seen that the search for etymologies corresponds to 
researches in chemical analysis. When a substance is put into the 
crucible and reduced into its elements, the chemist ought to find those 
elements equivalent in weight to the original substance : in this case 
the elements are the letters, and the analysis, that is, the etymology, is 
uncertain until all the elements are accounted for . 
j^ § 6. To sum up ; etymological research is subjected to two laws : 
(i) No etymology is admissible unless it accounts for every one of the 
letters of the word which it professes to explain; (2) In every etymo- 
logy which involves a change of letters we must be able to produce 
at least one example of a change thoroughly like the one suggested ; 
otherwise, so long as no such example can be adduced, the attempted 
etymology is valueless. 



§ 7. Every Latin word has undergone two successive changes in its 
descent to modern times : it has passed out of Latin into Old French, 
out of Old French into Modern French : festa became first feste, then 
fite. In searching for the origin of a French word it would be a great 
mistake to speculate on it in its present condition, and to leap at one 
bound back to the Latin : we ought first to enquire whether any intgr- 
ni^ediateiprms exist in Old French which illustrate the transition and 
mark the patH thirougli which the Latin word has passed down to the 
present time. These intermediate steps lead us up to the point of 
departure, and enable us to see with greater distinctness, and even 
sometimes to discover without any further investigation, the original 
word from which our French word is derived. 

One example will explain clearly enough the difference which sepa- 
rates the old from the new etymological method: formerly etymo- 
logists were much divided in opinion as to the origin of the word 
dme : some, thinking only of the sense, derived the word from the 

* See below, § 237. 


Latin anima, without being able to explain how the transformation 
was accomplished ; others, thinking this transformation from anima to 
dme too harsh, derived it from the Gothic ahnia (breath). The 
dispute would have still been unsettled had not modern philo- 
logy intervened with the solution of the problem in its hand. Substi- 
tuting for imagination the observation of facts, modern philologers 
laid it down that it is absurd to debate for ever over a word in its 
present form, without troubling oneself with the changes it has under- 
gone since the first beginning of the language ; and so, reconstructing 
the history of this word by means of the study of early texts, they have 
shewn that in the thirteenth c^ntury,it was written ^^a^^ in the de^yenth 
aneme, in'lhe~tenth anime, a form which leads directly back to 
anima. " ' ~ 

We can avoid mistakes only by observing step by step all the 
intermediate forms, so as to study the gradual transformation of the 
Latin word ; but even so, we ought to distinguish between two kinds 
of intermediates, those of the old and those of the new philological 
school. The first assumed at a venture a very dissimilar word as 
the origin of the word under enquiry, and then, in order to connect 
the two extremes, invented fictitious intermediates, which thus led them 
on to the point they wished to reach. Manage, for example, thought 
he found the origin of the word haricot in the Latin faba ; and, to fill 
up the blank between, he added, 'People must have said faba, then 
fabaricus, then fabaricotus, arieotus, haricot.' It is like a dream, to 
listen to such lucubrations : they more than justified the laughter of 
the wits, 

* Alfana ^ vient ^equus sans doute, 
Mais il faut convenir aussi 
Qu'a venir de la jusqu'ici, 
II a bien change sur la route.' ^ 

§ 8. But the intermediates which modern etymology demands are 
of a different kind : the science now no longer asks what people ought 
to have said, but what they did say. No more fanciful intermediates, 
invented as they were wanted : It is enough to trace the word through 
French texts from the nineteenth to the tenth century. Modern 
etymology notes the first appearance of words, and observes their 
changes age by age ; nothing is left to conjecture or invention. And 
this exact observation is a preliminary but indispensable portion of 
every etymological investigation: before passing on to the analysis 
of a French word in its present state, one must try to find as many 
examples as possible of the word in Old French. 

^ Alfana is the name given by Ariosto to the steed of Gradasso. Menage 
derives it from equus. 
^ The epigram is by the Chevalier d'Aceilly. 


Thus, instead of inventing an arbitrary series of intermediates, we 
must collect under each word a series of examples taken from actual 
documents, running back to the very origin of the French language. 
These landmarks once established, we must go on to discover the 
etymology, starting from the word as it stood at the very birthplace 
of the language. 

Thus then the comparison of Old French with Modern French — 
two successive states, in fact, of one language— is absolutely indispens- 
able. How much better do we understand that modulare is the parent 
of motiler, when we see the intermediate steps— the Merovingian Latin 
modlare, the old French modler of the eleventh century, molle of the 
twelfth. This word becomes mouler by the same change of ol into 
ou, which we find in fou from fol, cou from col, &c.^ We need not 
have any doubts as to the meaning of the word ddur/^oriQ who will 
no longer let himself be deceived {leurre), — when we have before us 
the old form deleurre. In many cases we have lost the primitive 
form in use in Old French, and have retained the diminutive, as 
alouelte, moiiette, belette, whose primitives aloue, moue, bele, are gone. 
We have no longer the old verbs lentir, freindre, penttr, oeuvrer, ver- 
gonder, bouter ; but we have their compounds, retentir, enfreindre, 
repent ir, de'soeuvrer, devergonde\ de'bouti : and it is important that the 
etymologist should know all these forms, as, before we find the origin 
of a word, we are bound to reduce it to its simplest form.^ 



§ 9. When popular Latin gave birth to the French, it created four 
other sister languages, formed, like the French, with amazing regu- 

^ The chief reason why the French language is so perfect a model for 
etymological study lies in the fact that these intermediary forms have an 
ascertained existence. We learn from this birth and this development of 
the French language, — in a historical age, well-known to us, — how such 
languages as Latin and Greek (which are known only in their full age) 
came first into being. This enquiry into the development of languages, 
through the study of the French tongue, in which all the conditions re- 
quired by the philologer are to be found, answers to the process in 
chemistry which is styled ' une experience en 'vase close.'' 

^ Other examples of primitives lost in Modern French, but retained 
solely in their derivatives, are to be seen under the words — accabler, beani, 
compagnon, corset, criance, dernier, doleance, effroi, emoi, engeance, finance, 
galant, herboriste, issue, laitance, mechant, mecreant, nuance, outrecuidance, 
sure an, &c. 


larity and similarity — the Proven9al, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese ;Mj 
or, as the Germans would say, the Romance languages. Consequently, uf 
we must use comparison between the Romance forms and the 
French, as a touchstone by which to verify and confirm our hypo- 
theses. We have, for instance, just shewn that laitue answers letter 
for letter to lactuca. If this etymology is correct, the Italian lattuga, 
the Spanish lechuga, must also come from the same word, their sense 
being also the same. Hence we may gather that the ItaUan // and 
the Spanish ch, came from the Latin ci, thus : — 

Italian : noile from noctem ; otto, octo ; biscotto, biscoctus ; tratto, 
tractus ; &c. ; — whence lattuga = lactuca. 

Spanish: noche from nocteia ; oc/io, octo; discocho, hiacoctus; irecho, 
tractus ; &c. ; — whence lechuga = lactuca. 

Thus one sees how a comparison of the Romance languages with 
the French confirms our'"pm[immary observations and verifies our 
hypotheses. These comparisons have a farther use : they often shew 
us the route we may follow. Between the Latin and the French the 
Romance tongues stand in the same relation of space as Old French 
does in relation of time : router seems less distant from rotulare when 
the gap is filled up by the Proven9al rolar (early Prov. rotlar) and 
Italian rotolare. Chou is directly related to caulis, through old 
French chol, Spanish col, Proven9al caul : between coude and cubitus, 
we find the Proven9al code, the old Spanish cohdo, the Italian cubito. 
The stages between nourrir and nutrire are filled up when one has 
passed through the three steps of Proven9al norrir, Catalan nudrir, 
Italian nutrire. If, on the other hand, we study the chronological 
sequence of the transformations of nutrire into the French language, 
we shall see that the word was nudrire in Merovingian Latin, nodrir 
in the eleventh century, norrir in the twelfth, nourrir in the thirteenth : 
and thence we may conclude that it is a natural law of such develop- 
ments, that the Romance languages off"er simultaneously to our sight, 
and, as it were, in living examples, the same series of linguistic degra- 
dations and dead forms that the French language sets before us at 
different periods in its history : just as the globe shews us in different 
parts the successive formations on its surface, while at the same time 
we have those same beds ranged one under another in a vertical 

§ 10. By the side of thesejour Romance languages, the great divi- 
sions of the Latin tongue, we have '"patois,'^vhich"are secondary divi- 

^ Other examples of the value of the comparison of Romance forms for 
French etymology may be found under the words courroucer, guere, pouj 
tuer^ tuyaUj &c. 



/ sions under each language. We have shewn elsewhere ^ that at first 
there was no one literary language in France ; that, in the different 
districts, the Latin was broken up into a like number of dialects — 
Norman, Burgundian, Picard, French (i.e. the dialect of the inhabit- 
ants of the He de France). We know by what succession of political 
events, by the conquests of the Dukes of France, and the successive 
augmentation of the royal domain, three of these dialects were ab- 
sorbed at last in the fourth, the French, which, as it rose to the rank 
of the one literary language, depressed the others into patois, at this 
day slowly dying out in the country districts. These patois are not, 
as is commonly thought, literary French corrupted in the mouth of 
peasants, but they are the remains of ancient provincial dialects, 
which, thanks to political events, have fallen from the position of 
official and literary languages to that of simple patois.^ The history 
of patois shews us their importance in the study of French etymology. 
Side by side with the fo ur Romance languag es, which form as it were 
four distinct colours, lie patois, filling up the intermediate spaces, and 
providing us with all the secondary and intermediate stages : thus 
regarded they throw a very strong light on many words. The bivalve 
shell, called in Latin musculus, is moule in French. How can we 
connect these words together, without passing through the Norman 
patois moucle, then the Languedoc mouscle, which form the inter- 
mediate links ? One can understand th^l/resaie and praesaga are the 
same word by seeing the forms presaie in Poitou, and bresague 
in Gascony.^ 

Even exceptions or corruptions of language often find their expla- 
nation in patois. At the outset it would seem very strange that the 
Old French ombril (the navel),* from umbilicus, should have become 
novibril in or about the fifteenth century. But if we consider that the 
Old' French aim (a hook), from hamus, has become naim in the 
modern patois of Touraine, by an euphonic corruption of un-aim, 
into un naim, whence h naim, we shall find that we have a clear 
instance of the process which has converted un-ombril into un 
nombril, le nombril. 

^ 111 the Historical Grammar of the French 7ongue,-p. i8, sqq. English 

^ In the same way the Tuscan obtained the supremacy over all the 
other Italian dialects (the Milanese, Venetian, Neapolitan, Sicilian), which 
dropped into the position of patois; and in Spain also, the Navarrois, 
Andalusian, &c., gave place to the Castilian dialect, which became the 
literary language of the whole country. 

^ For other examples of the value of patois in etymological research, see 
under the words coulis, godet, levis, nombril, &c. 

* Ombril is the form used in Froissart (?) 


Thus one sees what manner of help etymology may expect to get 
from the comparative study of patois. The li nguist can. .also, verify 
this fact, which appears in all the Romance languages : in them, as also 
in the patois, the Latin tongue becomes more dull and contracted the 
farther itjs removed in space from Latimn. And thus the progress 
of the Latin word is a kind of sensitive thermometer, which falls lower 
and lower as we^g^o^ northwards, by a series of slow and insensible 
degrees, not by a sudden leap or instantaneous change. 

Variations of Meaning. 

§ 11. Of the two elements which compose a word, its form and 
meaning, we have now considered the first, its form, ' in space and 
time,' as philosophers say — in space by means of Phonetics and Com- 
parison, in time by me ans of ..Hkt_Qry_._ But the knowledge of the 
history and changes of meaning in words is an indispensable instru- 
merifnT'the study of forms. In this branch of the subject we may 
study the history of the meaning either by following the changes in 
its own language, or by instituting a comparison, setting the word side 
by side with words of the same signification in other languages. 

§ 12. History of Meaning. — If we compare a number of French 
words with the Latin words whence they have sprung, we soon see 
that most of them have changed in meaning as they have passed from 
Latin to French, and have not retained their original intensity aiiH i 
power. Sometimes the meaning is wider : carpentarius (a wheel- 1 
Wright) becomes charpentier (a carpenter); caballus (a nag) has risen J 
to nobility in cheval ; minare (to guide a cart, or a flock) is menerl^ 
(to lead generally) ; villa ( = a farmstead, and then = a hamlet) be-j 
comes ville, a town.^ In other cases the sense is narrowed : passing \ 
from general to particular — ^jumentum (every kind of beast of burden) | 
becomes jument (a mare) ; peregrinus (properly a stranger, one who i 
travels) is restricted in pelerin to travellers to the Holy Land^ or 

^ For other examples of expansion of sense see the words abonder, abon- 
ner, acerer, accorder, accoster, agneau, alarme, alerte^ alter, arri-ver, bdtard, 
beugler, boucher, bourg, corbeille, corneille, &c. 

^ The Latin peregrinus (found in the form pelegrinus as e&rly as in 
the Inscriptions) had already taken the sense of 'pilgrim' in Low Latin. 
Thus Mapes, De Nugis Curialium, i. i8, has 'Miles quidam, a pago Bur- 
gundiae .... venit Jerusalem peregrinus.' 



some other holy place; arista (fish-bone or ear of corn) has lost 
its second meaning in ar^fe (a fish-bone); carruca (a chariot) be- 
comes an agricultural cart in charrue} 

Sometimes the abstract Latin word becomes concrete in French : 
as punctionem (the act of pricking), tonsionem (the act of clipping), 
morsus (the act of biting), become poin^otiy lotson, mors (used of 
horses' bites) : similarly nutritionem is the act of nourishing, and 
becomes nourrisson, one who nourishes.^ 

Sometimes, on the other hand, a Latin concrete word becomes 
abstract or metaphorical in French : thus ovicula (a sheep) has pro- 
duced the word ouailles, which in French ecclesiastical speech is used 
of the flock of a spiritual pastor.^ It is clear that the French lan- 
guage, having before it the many rich and slightly different senses of 
the Latin word, takes one of its facets, regards it as if it were the only 
one, and thus givesTTrth to the modern signification. 

§ 13. But these changes of meaning do not merely take place in the 
passage from Latin to French : * Consuetudo loquendi est in motu,' 
says Varro (De Ling. Lat. ix. 17); and if we were to confine our- 
selves to observing the history of the French tongue from the eleventh 
century to the present time, we should find, even in the heart of the 
language, many words whose sense has grown or shrunk as they have 
passed from Old to Modern French. Words formerly used in a noble 
or refined sense have fallen into the humblest and meanest condi- 
tion : thus pectus (the breast) kept its original sense when it passed 
into Old French ; and pis (from pectus, like lit from lectum, co7tfit 
from confectum) meant at first the breast or chest ; in feudal speech 
a man was said, in taking an oath, ' mettre la main au pis,' to lay his 
hand on his breast. The word has gradually been restricted and 
lowered to its present meaning. 

Mutare has become muer (so remutare, commutare are remuer, 
commuer). Muer, which had at first retained the whole energy of 
the Latin word (so Froissart says : * les dieux et les deesses muoient 
les hommes en bestes * '), presently was restricted to the moulting of 

' For other examples of restriction of sense see the words ame, ampoule, 
ancetre, andouitle, apothicaire, appeau, arche, billon, bdilan, botteux, brosse, 
brouette, couper, &C. 

^ For other examples see ablette, accessit, accoucher, aleruin, ambe, amble, 
angelique, armee, artillerie, braire, cannelle, corset, defense, dejeuner, diner, 
ecluse, engin, fort, habit, hiver, jour, maison, meute, mallet, poison, printemps, 
quaterne, rouget, serre, su(;on, temoin, tenue, terne. 

' For pther examples see barreau, cbambre, chancellerie, &c. 

* Voltaire has still preserved this etymological signification in the lines 
' Qui de Meduse eut vu jadis la tete 
Etait en roc mue soudainement.' 


birds, the skin-shedding of certain beasts; — labourer (laborare, to 
work) was restricted quite late to the sense of turning the soil. 
Oresme, in the fourteenth century, in translating the Ethics of 
Aristotle, says : * Les excellens medecins laboiirent moult a avoir 
cognoissance des choses du corps.' Mardtre (from matraster) 
meant only 'mother-in-law', or 'step-mother'; it later took the sense of a 
' harsh and cruel step-mother.' Pre'au (from pratellum, Yikefleau from'\ 
flagellum) is literally a ' little meadow,' and kept this sense in old I 
French; later ^ it was restricted to the meaning, a ' little meadow behind j 
a prison,' where the prisoners take their exercise ; thence, the prison- \ 
court.^ By the side of these narrowings and diminutions of meaning [ 
we must notice some cases in which it is extended and enlarged.^ Many \ 
terms of trade, or technical and special words, have thus entered into 
general use : and this has been specially the case with hunting terms. 
Attraper was at first ' to catch in a trap' ; leurrer to ' call in the falcon 
with the lure'; — one who refuses to be deceived by the lure is a 
de'leurre {p\d form of the modern deliire). When a falcon was caught 
after his second moulting season, he was hard to tame, and fierce, or» 
as the falconers said, hagard ; whence Fr. hagard, Eng. haggard, came 
to have the sense of wild, then wan and wasted. But when the bird 
was taken from the nest, it was called mats (nidacem from nidus) 
and the weakness of young falcons gave the word nzais, niaiserie, to 
express the simpleness and awkwardness of young people who ' are 
scarcely out of their nest.' Another term of falconry is the expression 
des siller les yeiix (formerly de'ciller). It was usual to sew up the eyes 
of falcons to tame them, an operation expressed by the word ciller : 
when the bird was tame enough, they re-opened its eyes {de'ciller^ by 
cutting the thread which sewed together the eyelids {cils)} 

It was, similarly, very natural that man should give to the machines 
invented by him in order to economise his energy, or to -augment the 
effect of his work, the names of beasts of burden or of other animals 
which paid him service, or interested him by some fanciful analogy. 
Thus the Latin aries is a ram, a buttress, and a war-engine ; capre- 

^ Marot, iii. 308 (sixteenth century), writes — 

'Bientost apres, allans d'accord tous quatre 
Par les preaux toujours herbus s'esbattre.' 

^ For examples see atterrer, dais, depit, ennui, etonner, fer, froisser, gene, 
granjelle, manant, &c. 

J For examples see arri'ver, aubaine, avanie, banal, banlieue, boucher, 
debardeur, &c. 

* For other examples see abois, ackarner, agacer, aburir, aigrette, ama- 
doner, ameuter (?), appas, bejaune, beugler, blottir, boucher, braconnier, brisees, 
brouter, bute, butor, curee, emerillonne , enjoleur, /ureter, herisser, bobereaux, 
ruser, sacre, taniere, trace, &c. 


olus has the two meanings of a chamois and of stays ; corvus is a 
raven, a grappling-hook, and a crane, &c. Similarly, the French 
language gives this kind of double meaning to several words : thus 
mouton is a wether and a rammer; corbeau, a raven and a corbel; 
grue, a crane and the engine which bears the same name ; b^lier, a 
ram and an engine of war ; chevre, a goat and a crab ; chevron, a kid 
and a rafter. In many cases the earlier sense, that of the animal, has 
disappeared from Modern French, and that of the implement has 
survived alone : thus poutre, a beam, signifies also a mare in Old 
French : * De toutes parts les poutres hennissantes,' says Ronsard 
(sixteenth century). This word, originally poltre, Italian poledro, 
comes from the Latin puUetrmn, a derivation of puUus, a foal, 
and found in the Germanic laws; thus in the Lex Salica, tit. xl. 
(sixth century), we read ' Si quis pulletrum furaverit.* Again, just 
as equuleus signifies a young horse, and a block, and the French 
chevalet is a little horse and a buttress, so poutre passed from the 
sense of a mare to that of a beam by the application of that well- 
known metaphor which likens a supporting piece of wood to an 
animal which bears up a burden.^ 

So also land and water transport are assimilated, sea-terms being 
applied to land journeys : thus debarcadere, derived from debarquer, to 
disembark, is used for the terminus of a road or railroad ; the platform 
of a station is called quai, a wharf: some kinds of omnibus are called 
gondoles or galeres ; coche signifies first a barge for travelling, then a 
coach; from caboter to coast from port to port comes cabotin, a 
strolling player who goes from town to town, &c.^ 

§ 14. To complete this series we must quote some very singular meta- 
phors which come from the vulgar Latin, and prove what a ^eat part 
the common_jpeople took in the formation-Qf^the Frendf language": 
from testa (a brokehvessel), gurges (a gulf),b6tellus (aTpudding), pellis 
(a fur hide), come the French tete, gorge, boyau, peau ; and the classical 
words caput, guttur, intestinum, cutis, are set aside. The French 
tongue adopted these metaphors from the vulgar Latin : testa means 
a *skuir in Ausonius, botellus an 'intestine' in Tertullian. These 
fanciful metaphors of the Roman common folk are not at all as- 
tonishing, if one remembers that in French slang a head is likened 
to a ball, the legs to skittles, the hand to pincers, &c. By the side of 
these metaphors, sprung from the Latin and transmitted thence to the 
French, there are a great number of native growth, and charming 
in their simplicity : thus the people have given the name of bergeron- 
nette ( = petite bergere, little shepherdess) to the wagtail, a meadow- 
loving bird; the bouvreuil (bovariolus from bovarius, = a little 

* For other examples see demoiselle, grue, &c. 
^ For other examples see canard, &c. 


bouvier, or neat-herd) is the bullfinch, a bird which follows the herds, 
and Hngers about in their neighbourhood. 

§ 15. Comparison of Meaning. — What we have already said is 
enough to shew how much more difficult it is to study the mean- 
ings than the forms of words. In dealing with the latter we have 
simply to deal with regular and observable changes. Climate and 
race have given to each of the peoples of Gaul, Italy, and Spain, 
a vocal apparatus differing in certain inflexions of pronunciation ; 
and according to these, the Latin language has been transformed 
with an unchanging regularity into three diflferent languages. This 
part of philology, styled Phonetics, is in reality a part of Natural 
History, for it depends, after all, on the physical conditions special to 
certain families of languages and peoples. In fact it is as much 
dependent on material conditions as the study of meanings is in- 
dependent of them. While the study of form can only have in view 
a single group or family of languages of common origin, the study of 
meanings attacks all languages alike, observes in all the progress of 
the human mind, and passes out of the domain of natural sciences 
into that of psychology : etymology draws largely on this comparison ) 
of metaphors which explain and cdhfirm the derivations suggested \ 
for certain words, even when we cannot give a full explanation \ 
of them. Thus, it is curious that popular language should have I 
called a certain bird (the wren) roitelei [= peiii roi, kinglet); but the ^ 
etymology becomes absolutely certain if we compare the Latin, Greek, 
German, Dutch, Swedish, Spanish, and Portuguese, and find the same 
metaphor in all.^ This coincidence does not indeed explain_the_cause A^ 
of the name^, but it proverifs~exrstence,"ahd"the correctness of the 
derivatlonr ""It makes it easier to understand that the Latin causa 
became chose, when one notices that the German <^ac^e has the 
meaning of both these words. We are certain that chardonnet, the 
goldfinch, means the bird which feeds on the grains of the thistle, 
chardon, when we see that in Latin the bird is called carduelis, from 
carduus, and in Greek aKavQX's, from uKavdos, in German 2)iftelfitif, the 
* thistle-finch,' in Dutch distelvink, in Italian cardellino, from cardo^ a 
thistle. We have just said that bouvreuil (from bovariolus, diminutive 

^ The wren, roitelet, is in all the following languages called by names 
which are connected with the word which signifies a king in each case : 
Latin, regulus, from regem ; Greek, ^aaCKiaKos, from IBaatXevs ; in Ger- 
rnan, 3*iunfonig (the ' hedge king ') ; in Dutch, Winter koningje (the ' winter- 
king'); fti Swedish, fugl-konung, and in DdLvash, fugl-konge (the 'bird- 
king') ; in Spanish, reyezuelo, from rey ; in Portuguese, reisete, from rei. 

^ The origin of this metaphor must be looked for in the legends of the I 
Indo-Germanic races, under the guidance of the principles of comparative ^ ' 


of bovariuB, a neat-herd) signifies a little neat-herd ; its English name 
bullfinch, and one of its Gefman names, !i8u(lenkipcr (the bull-biter '), 
join in confirming this derivation. Contree comes from Low Latin 
contrata ( = the land stretched out before one), and contrata comes 
from contra : here the German ©cgenb from the prep, gccjen ( = over 
against) explains and confirms the derivation. DejeUner (to break 
one's fast) from jeilner (like defaire, horn /cure), is used of the 
morning meal, just like the English breakfast, which means exactly 
the same thing. Corset is a diminution of corps'^, a little body — a 
metaphor confirmed by other like expressions, as the German HJeibcfcen 
(Ceib^, a body); English boddice, from body, Italian cor petto {corpo, 
a body). It seems quite natural that habitus, which signifies an 
habitual manner of being, should become in French habit, dress, 
when we see that the Greek (txw^^ ^^^d the Italian costuma have the 
same double sense of manner of being, habit and clothing. It is by 
making a delicate and careful comparison of the operations of the 
human mind that the etymologist is enabled to explain the origin of 
all such metaphors, which spring either from caprice, or the imagina- 
tion of the people.^ 



§ 16. By shewing that words have growth and history, and that, like 
plants or animals, they pass through regular transformations — in 
shewing in a word that, here as elsewhere, law rules, and that it is 
possible to lay down strict laws by which one language is derived 
from another — modern philologers have established the firm basis 
of comparative etymology, and have made a science of that which 
I seemed doomed to abide in the region of imagination and individual 

^ Originally written cors ; the p was added by the learned after the 
fourteenth century. At first the word corset was not used, but corps 
(the corset being regarded as the body of the skirt) : and in the eighteenth 
century, Rousseau found fault with the tightness of ladies' corps. Corset 
simply means a ' little body.' 

^ We must not imagine from instances like this that the German 
language has taught the French its method of procedure : the resemblance 
springs from the identity of the operations of the human mind in general, 
and is not transmitted from language to language. 

^ For other examples of the value of this comparison of meaning in 
other languages see arborer, helette, belier, berner^ blaireau, ble, boucher, 
bourdon, brocket, broder, cabus, chardonnet, &c. 


Of old, etymology tried to explain a priori the origin of words 
according to their apparent likenesses^ or differences^ : modern ety- 
mology, applying the method of the natural sciences, holds that words 
ought to explain themselves, and that, instead of inventing systems, 
we ought to observe facts, by the help of three instruments; (i) the 
History of the word, which by regular transitions leads us up to the 
derivation we are seeking, or, at any rate, brings us nearer to it; 
(2) Phonetics^ which gives us the rules of transition from one 
language to another, rules to which we must submit blindly, or 
we shall lose our way; (3) Comparison, which assures and confirms 
the results arrived at. 

To the fantastic aberrations of learned men of old is due the 
discredit into which etymology had sunk ; but it is by the strict 
application of this method and these principles that comparative 
etymology has risen in our days to the dignity of a science. 

^ For example, the etymologists of the seventeenth century deduced me, 
te, se, njos, nos, tres, heur, from the Latin me, te, se, vos, nos, tres, hora, 
without any suspicion that these words, which have certainly produced 
moi, tdi, soi, 'vous, nous, trots, heure, could not possibly have produced any- 
thing else. They similarly deduced boucher from bouche (as being the man 
who caters for the mouth), while the history of this word shews that it 
means the man who kills the houc or buck ; they derived cordonnier from 
cordon, forcene from force, while the Old French forms cordouanier and 
forsene prove at once that such derivations are impossible ; similarly they 
connected ecuyer and ecurie with the Latin equus, which has in reality no 
relation whatever to either of them. We may, in fact, always to lay down 
as an invariable axiom in etymology the principle that * t<u)o identical words 
are never deri-ved from one another.'' 

^ Were we not acquainted with the successive progress of etymological 
transformation, we could not believe that pou and peduculum., age and 
aetaticum, ^«^ and craticulum, y^ « and fatutum* were in reality the 
same words. 



§ 17. A VERY brief re'sum^ of the history of the French Tongue 
is necessary, if we would understand what is to follow. 

The * Vulgar Latin/ carried into Gaul by Caesar's soldiers and by 
colonists, quickly swallowed up the original Celtic language (see 
below, pp. xix-xxii), and four centuries later was deeply affected, as to 
its vocabulary, by the invasion of the Germanic tribes ; more than five 
hundred German words establishing themselves in the Gallo-Roman 
language (see pp. xxii-xxiv): this language, thus modified by the intro- 
duction of barbarous words, under the influence of slow and insensible 
changes, became a new language, the French tongue, which shews 
itself independent of the Latin from the ninth century. Between the 
eighth century and the eleventh this language advances, and in the 
twelfth century it may be regarded as fully formed; to this ancient 
and popular foundation are added successively, in the thirteenth 
century, a number of Oriental words, introduced by the Crusades; 
in the sixteenth century a certain number of Italian and Spanish 
words ; in the eighteenth, terms of German origin ; in the nineteenth, 
English words; to these must be added words borrowed by the 
learned from the Latin and Greek, between the fourteenth century 
and our own day. 

To sum up, the French language has two great deposits of words : 
one before the twelfth century, the unconscious work of the people, 
formed from the three elements, Latin, Celtic, German; the other 
later than the twelfth century, formed on the one hand of elements 
borrowed from the modern, on the other hand from the ancient 

Thus then French words must be divided into three classes, — 
words of popular origin ; words of learned origin ; words of foreign 





The Latin Element. 

§ 18. As we have shewn in the Historical Grammar of the French 
Tongue, we may study any language from four points of view : — 

1. The study of sounds, of the origin and history of each letter, 
called Phonetics. 

2. The study of words, of the manner of their creation or defor- 
mation ; this is called ' the formation of words! 

3. When we have thus studied the constituent elements of words, 
and their aggregation, we have still to consider how words are 
modified when they are brought together ; this is Inflexion (divided 
into declension and conjugation). 

4. Lastly, Syntax shews us how words may be grouped together so 
as to form phrases or sentences. 

In describing the transition from Latin to French we must review 
these four divisions in succession ; the third Book of this Introduction 
will give us the rules which have guided the Latin letters in their transi- 
tion into French ; — we have elsewhere studied the changes which the 
Latin declensions and conjugations have undergone ; how the article 
was created to replace case inflexions; how declension lost one 
gender, the neuter, and at first was reduced from six cases to two in 
Merovingian Latin and Old French, and then from two cases to one at 
the end of the thirteenth century ; how conjugation lost the passive 
voice, created the auxiliary verbs etre and avoir to take the place of 
the Latin compound tenses, and gave a new form to the future : we 
do not propose to reconsider these purely grammatical points. 

As to vocabulary, such French words as are the simple product of the 
slow development of the ' vulgar Latin' differ, necessarily and essentially, 
from those formed from classical Latin ; for sometimes the vulgar and 
the classical Latin had two different forms of the same word to 
express the same idea; thus doubler, avant, ivraie, come from the 
vulgar forms duplare, abante, ebriaca, while the classical forms 




duplicare, ante, ebrius have produced no French words : at other 
times the people and the learned employ two words of entirely different 
origin ; thus semaine, chemin^ bataille^ batser, iourner correspond, not to 
the classical forms hebdomas, via, pugna, osculari, verti, but to the 
popular words septimana, caminus, batalia, basiare, tornare. 

Many other Latin words have disappeared from different causes ; 
some because they had not sufficient hold on the language, or 
sufficient power of resistance — as e.g. spes gave way to speres, espoir, 
a word to be found in Ennius ; others because they would have pro- 
duced the same form in French as was being produced by some other 
word of different meaning, — as bellum disappeared because of 
bellus, beau, for the French word for 'war' derived from bellum 
must also have been beau; — lastly, many synonyms have perished, 
— thus fluvius, fleuve, has extinguished amnis and flumen ; janua 
and ostium have perished before porta, porte. 

Next after these modifications of the Latin vocabulary we must 
enumerate briefly the changes introduced in the formation of words 
either in derivation or in composition. Of these the most important 
is the addition of diminutive suffixes to Latin primitives, without any 
change in sense : thus we have stumus, sturnellus, ^tourneau ; 
corvuB, corvellus, corbeau ; passer, passerellus, passereau. The 
* Lingua Romana rustica,' the ' field-Latin,' had already shewn this 
influence by giving the full meaning of the primitive to its diminutives, 
as apicula for apis, comicula for comix, &c., whence we have in 
French chevreuil from capreolus, abeille from apicula, agneau from 
agnellus, &c., in which the diminutive signification is entirely lost 
in the French. 

Other means have also been employed to create new substantives 
from existing verbs. The Latin language had the remarkable power 
of being able to make substantives out of its past participles: e.g. 
peccatum properly the p. p. of peccare, scriptum of scribere, fossa 
of fodere. The French language has carried on this grammatical 
process, and has thereby produced thousands of substantives, as regu, 
fait, dH, the p. p. of recevoir,faire, devoir. And this is especially the 
case with feminine participles, as vue, e'touffe'e, venue, avenue, &c. ^ 

Next after the past participle comes the infinitive, whence are 
formed verbal substantives, about three hundred of them, answering 
to no Latin form, but derived directly from a French verb by cutting 
off the infinitival termination : thus, the Latin apportare, appellare, 
purgare have produced the French verbs apporter, appeler,purger, and 
these verbs in their turn, by dropping the verbal ending, become the 
verbal substantives apport, appel, purge, which have no corresponding 
substantives in Latin. But Latin and French are but successive con- 
ditions of the same language, and there is scarcely any grammatical 

* For details, see the Historical Grammar, pp. 140, 141. 


procedure employed in French whose germ cannot be found in Latin : 
so the Latins also created their verbal substantives by means of the 
infinitive ; from notare, copulare, probare, &c., came the substantives 
nota, copula, proba ^. 

Thus, too, it is after the Latin pattern that the French language has 
formed new verbs by means of the participles of existing verbs : from 
edere, cogere, quatere, detrahere, videre, they had formed, by 
adding the infinitival ending to the participles editus, cogitus, 
quassus, detractus, visus, the verbs editare, cogitare, quassare, 
detractare, visere ; and the * rustic Latin ' built a crowd of verbs on 
this plan; it rejected such primitives as uti, radere, audere, &c., and 
from the participles usus, rasus, ausus, produced the verbs usare, 
rasare, ausare, &c., whence have sprung the French verbs user, 
raser, oser, &c. 

These are the principal changes introduced into the structure of 
the Latin language by the Gallic peoples^. We shall see in the 
Etymological Dictionary, and in the next book of the Introduction 
{Phonetics), through what intermediate stages the Latin, thus mo- 
dified in inflexion, syntax, formation of words, passed before reaching 
its present state in Modern French. 

The Celtic Element. 


§ 19. We need not again ^ discuss the reasons of the absorption of 
the Gallic language by the Latin : let us simply state that two centuries 
after Caesar's conquest, the Celtic tongue had all but disappeared 
from Gaul. Still that language did not perish without leaving behind 
it slight but yet distinct traces. Thus, the Romans noticed that their 

^ The subject of verbal substantives has been exhaustively treated by 
M. Egger, in an admirable article in the Memoires de V Academie des In- 
scriptions, 24. 2, a model of sure and acute scientific study, which leaves 
his successors no gleanings in the field which he has reaped. 

^ There are many more modifications, but they will be found in the 
body of the Dictionary ; we here attempt only a general view. 

^ See the Historical Grammar, pp. 4, 5. It is so difficult to describe 
the etymological elements of the French tongue without reproducing 
the history of the language, that the reader must excuse our frequent 
references to the book in which that history has already been given ; 
the introduction of certain elements in the language can only be ex- 
plained by a historical account of the vicissitudes of that language ; and 
thus we have more than once repeated here what we have already said 

c 2 


galerita (the crested lark) was called 'alauda' by the Gauls; that 
fermented barley, theii; zythum, was in Gaul ' cervisia ' ; they 
accepted these words as incomers; and from them, six centuries 
later, sprang the French words alouette \ cervoise. 

This is also true of bee, Iteue, alose, braie, banne, arpent, brasseur, 
bouleau, marne, which answer to beccus, leuca, alosa, braca, benna, 
arepennis, brace (Pliny), betula, margula, words which Roman 
writers cite as borrowed from the Celtic. There are also many Latin 
words, which have not descended to the French, which are stated to 
be of Gallic origin: such are ambactus, bardus, druida, galba, 
rheda, soldurius. These isolated words, and certain other such^, 
especially names of places, are all that are due to the Gallic language ; 
and indeed, to speak more exactly, nothing is due to it, for these 
words have reached the French through the Latin ; they did not 
p^ss straight from Celtic to French, but underwent a translation 
into Latin first. In short, these words " are so few that one may 
fairly say that the influence of the Celtic on the French has been 

' Thus, while the French nation is in the main Celtic, the French 
language has preserved but a few words which can be traced to a 
Celtic origin : — a singular fact, and one which shews even better than 
history can do, how absorbing was the Roman power. 

The Gallic language, thrust back into Armorica by the Roman 
conquerors, survived in isolation for centuries ; in the seventh century 
its strength was renewed by the immigration of refugees from Wales. 
The Bretons resisted the Frankish conquest even as they had resisted 
the Roman ; the Low Breton dialect of the present day is the direct 
heir of the old Celtic speech. It has a considerable literature, tales, 
national ballads, plays, — which, however, date no farther back than 
the fourteenth century. For a thousand years it has been incessantly 
pressed, in its last refuge, by the French language, and it is there- 
fore now very different from the original Celtic : the original Celtic 
elements have necessarily suffered degradation from eighteen centuries 
of use, and, besides, many strange, that is, French, words have forced 
themselves in. And thus many Breton words run in pairs, the 

^ Alauda is not the immediate parent of alouette, but of aloue, which 
existed in Old French ; alouette is its diminutive ; cp. cwvette and cwve^ 
amourette and amour, &c. 

^ Bagage, balai, barre, betoine, bidet, bouge, bran, bruyere, bassin, claie, 
cormoran, cruche, darne, dartre, dru, galerne, garotter, gober, goeland, goelette, 
harnais, houle, jarret, lais, matras, pinson, pot, quai, ruche, sornette, toque, 
truand, 'vassal. And beside these there are the words which modem 
history has introduced, as loans from the Latin (such as barde, ambacte, 
druide), or from the Low Breton (as dolmen, men-hir\ 


one old and of Celtic birth, the other newer, French in origin, and 
dressed up with a Celtic termination : thus the French word 

juste is, in Breton, either egwirion or just, 

k trouble „ „ enkrezet or trouhlet, 

^^ ■' colere „ „ buanegez or coler, &c. 

Of these synonyms, the first column {egwirion, &c.) is of old words 
of Celtic origin; the second {just, &c.) is of French words slightly 
altered. It would not have been needful to insist on this simple 
matter, had not some bold speculators in the eighteenth century, 
struck with this resemblance, concluded at once that such words as 
just, trouhlet, &c. were not French importations, but were rather the 
originals of the corresponding French words. Le Brigant and the 
illustrious La Tour d'Auvergne (as bad as a philologer as he was 
good as a patriot) declared that the French language was derived 
from the Low Breton ^ They would have been rather astonished had 
they seen the proof that the contrary is the case, and that these words 
{just, troublet, &c.) instead of being the parents, are the children of 
the French language, French words corrupted and concealed under 
a Celtic termination. These etymological follies, which Voltaire 
derided under the name of ' a Celtomania,' formed the amusement of 
the eighteenth century ; the * Celtomaniacs ' gave loose rein to their 
fancies, and declared that the Celtic was the language of Paradise, 
and that Adam, Eve, the serpent himself, talked Low Breton. » 

One would have thought that, after all the discoveries of modern 
philology, which has cleared up the Latin origin of the French lan- 
guage, and has worked out by observation the laws of its transforma- 
tion, there would have been an end of such fancies; on the contrary, 
the Celtomaniacs are as lively as ever, and we may read in the 
Memoirs of the Celtic International Congress, that ' France, whose 
magnanimity impels her to the four corners of the earth to succour 
the oppressed, will never allow the literature whence hers has sprung 
to languish at her side. The Pelican feeds her young with her 
blood; we have never heard that they have shewn themselves 
ungrateful for such unparalleled generosity. But I am wrong: — 
such ingratitude does exist! The Celtic tongue has nourished all 

^ These unfortunate mistakes have also had a worse result — that of 
throwing undeserved discredit on Celtic studies. Instead of trying to 
p. ove that the French language springs from the Celtic, as the Low Breton 
philologers have done, they ought to have studied the Celtic in and for itself, 
and to have written the comparative history of the dialects of Brittany, 
Ireland, Scotland, and Wales, as has been done for Italian, Spanish, and 
French. It is to a German, Zeuss, that Breton philologists owe the com- 
pletion of this task, in an excellent work, the Grammatica Celtica, published 
at Leipzig in 1853. 



the languages of Europe, and specially the French, with her best 
blood: must we then say of France what we cannot say of the 
Pelican's offspring — s/ie has forgotten her mother * ?^ 


The Germanic Element. 

§ 20. Since the formation of the French language, it has received a 
considerable number of German words, brought in by the invasion of 
the Germanic tribes. Three successive strata of such imported words 
may be noted : (i) those prior to the invasion introduced by the bar- 
barians who served under the Roman eagles, such as burgus, used by 
Vegetius for a fortified work; (2) war-terms, feudal-terms, &c., which 
Franks, Goths, and Burgundians brought in with them ; (3) a great 
number of sea-terms, imported in the tenth century by the Normans. 

Under these three heads there are, in all, about 450 words ; if we 
were to add German words imported into Modern French, the number 
might easily be doubled. This invasion of foreign words seems to be 
the necessary consequence of the adoption of barbaric manners and 
institutions. How could such ideas as those expressed by the words 
vassal, alien, ban, mall, fief, be rendered into Latin? When the con- 
(juerors substituted the feudal regime of the Germanic tribes for the 
monarchical and centralised organization of the Roman Empire, they 
were obliged at the same time to introduce into the language words 
relating to their institutions ; and thus the titles of the feudal hierarchy 
and all terms referring to its political or judicial institutions are 
of German origin. Thus, such words as mahal, bann, alod, skepeno, 
marahscalh, siniscalh, &c., introduced by the Franks into the common 
Latin, became mallum, bannum, alodium, skabinus, mariscallus, 
siniscallus, &c., and when, together with the rest of the common 
Latin, they passed into French, they became mall, ban, alien, echevin, 
mare'chal, se'ne'chal, &c. ^ These words, thus introduced, represent 

' Congres Celtique international, Saint-Brieuc, October, 1867, p. 309. 

2 These German words having been latinised by the Gallo-Romans, we 
will cite them as much as we can in their Latin form, which lies between 
the German and the French. Thus, echevin is nearer to scabinus than 
to skepeno. 

There are also two other questions connected with this subject, which 
have not yet been noticed: (i) the exact determination, in the case of 
each word, of the particular German dialect to which it belongs; (2) the 
date of its introduction into the Low-Latin. There is one class whose origin 
we know, the sea-faring terms, which come, almost without exception, 
from the Dutch or the Norse. This uncertainty, and our ignorance as to 
the ancient German dialects, have hindered us from giving (as we have done 


classes of ideas of very different kinds ^ ; war, seafaring, hunting, 
are the most considerable, as may be seen by the following 

The following is a full hst of these borrowed words, classified 
under a few of the most general heads : — 

1. Military terms : — arroi, auberge, balk, bande, baudrier, beffroi, 
berme, blinder, boulevard, bourg, brandir, breche, brette, bride, briser, 
butin, cible, dard, de'sarroi, drille, e'charpe, e'craser, e'curie, e'peron, epier, 
esquiver, ^tape, e'trier, fourrage, fleche, fourreau, f rapper, gage, galoper, 
gonfalon, guerdon, gue'rite, guerre, guet, guichet, guide, hallebarde, halte, 
haubert, heaume, Mberger, he'raut, houseaux, housse, marcher, marichal, 
marque, navrer, rang, rapiere, targe, treve, vacarme. 

2. Seafaring terms : — agres, amarrer, avarie, bac, bitte, bord, brasse, 
canot, caquer, chaloupe, cingler, crique, digue, drague, e'cume, elingue, 
equiper, esquif, esturgeon, e'tangue, falaise , foe , fresange, fret , gaffe , gar er , 
guinder, halage, hamac, hauban, hdvre, hisser, hune, lisse, mat, mousse, 
quille, rade, radouber, tillac, vague, varangue, varech, voguer. 

3. Hunting terms, names of animals, &c. : — aigrette, baudir, be'lier, 
blesser, bramer, braque, breuil, broncher, brouter, caille, canard, carpe, 
chopper, chouette, clabauder, clapir, crabe, creche^ croupe, ^caille, e'chasse, 
e'chine, e'crevisse, e'peiche, epervier, ipois, estrive, f anon, faucon, gar enne, 
gerfaut, glapir, grimper, grincer, gripper, grommeler, hanche, hanneton, 
happer, hareng, hargneux, heron, homard, le'cher, leurrer, madre', 
marsouin, mite, mouette, mulot, rat, re'nard, rosse, rotir, taudis, trappe, 

4. Titles, and names of political or judicial institutions: — aban- 
donner, alleu, ban, bedeau, carcan, chambellan, e'chafaud, e'chanson, e'chevin, 
e'cot,fourrier, fief , franc, gabelle, gai, galant, hanse, hardi, haro, honnir, 

joli, lisle, lot, malle, marc, mignard, mignon, nantir, orgueil, race, radoter, 
riche, saisir, se'nechal. /. G^k 

5. Cardinal points, and geographical terms : — dune, est, nord, ouest^ '' 

6. The human body : — blafard, ble'mir, bosse, bot, brun, dandiner, 
danser, empan,forcene, gauche, giron, grimace, gue'rir, hocher,jaser, laid, 
lippe, moue, nuque, rdler, rider, rincer, t^ter, touffu, toupet. 

7. The vegetable world: — alise, aune, bille, bois, bourgeon, brouir, 
drageon, dreche, eclisse, e'laguer, epeautre, emousse, framboise, gale, gaude, 
gerbe, grappe, groseille, gruau, haie, haver on, hetre, houblon, houx, laiche^ 
regain, roseau, saule, tuyau. 

8. The earth, eleinents, &c.: — fiaque,frimas, gazon, gres, vase. 

for the Latin element) a complete phonetic system for the words of 
German origin ; we have only given, under each word, the chief examples 
which support the observed rules. 

^ This intermixture of German words affected only the Latin vocabulary ; 
it left the syntax almost untouched, and was scarcely more than an acci- 
dental and superficial disturbance. 


9. Dress, &c. '.—agrafe, brodequin, coiffe, cotte, etoffe , fard, feuire.froc, 
gantygodery guimpe, guipure, haillon, laye, layette, mitaine, rochet, touail/e. 

10. Instruments, &c. : — anche, banc, bloc, brandon, canif, clinquant, 
crampe, crampon, cremaillhe, ^matl, /tau, fauteuil, gaule, hanap, houe, 
huche, latte, loquet, manne, mannequin, noue, pincer, rdper, iamis, tas, 
ionneau, triteau, vilbrequin. 

11. Dwellings: — /choppe, e'tal, itayer, ituve, gdcher, halle, hameau, 
hanter, hutte, loger, salle. 

12. Food, &c. : — beignet, bief, bihe, drogue, flan, gdteau, gaufre, 
saur, soupe. 

13. Abstract terms, &c. : — affreux, agace, bafouer, blanc, blette, bleu, 
imboiser, imoi, gai, gris, guere, hair, hdle, hdve, teste, sombre, sur. 

14. Other words: — bisse, bouter, braise, brelan, broyer, bru, bru/e, 
choisir, choquer, cracher, clocher, dauber, de'chirer, defalquer, de'guerpir, 
d&ober, drole, iclater, ipeler, faude, fournir, frais, gaber, gagner, 
gamboison, garant, garder, garnir, garou, gaspiller, gatine, gauchoir, 
gehir, gletteron, glisser, gratter, graver, grenon, groupe, guerpir, guille, 
guiller, guise, harangue, hdte,jardin, lot, marri, meurtre, musser, regretter, 
river, rouir, sale, siller, sillon, souhait, suif, suie, suinier, taisson, tarir, 
ternir, tirer, toucher, trdle, trop. 

The Greek Element. 

§ 21. The Greek language has given scarcely anything to the French 
since the time of its popular formation ; it could not be otherwise, as 
the Gallo-Romans and Greeks never came into contact, and all the 
patriotic tales invented by Henri Estienne, Manage, and others, to 
prove the affinity between French and Greek, are mere fancies. The 
one city which could have brought France into connection with the 
Greek language, Marseilles, a Phocean colony, was early absorbed into 
the Roman Empire, and lost its Greek character and language. There 
are a few Greek words ^, such as, chere, somme, parole, bourse, bocal ; 
but these do not come straight from the Greek Kapa, adyfia, napa^oXri, 

' We are speaking here of words of popular, not scientific, origin. We 
must also distinguish, in the case of Greek compounds, between those 
which existed in Greek, as dpio-roKpaTfia, aristocracie, and those which have 
been framed by French writers, as photographic, typographic, &c. ; in the 
latter case we must study each of the elements of these new words, un- 
known to the Greek language ; in the former case, we should be wandering 
into the history of the Greek language were we to decompose these words 
and their component elements. As for the numerous class of words in- 
troduced from Greek into Latin (such as allegoria, philosophia, carya- 
tides, &c.), they have come to the French language through the Latin, 
and are therefore, for our purposes, Latin words. 


^vpaa, ^avKciXiov, but from the Latin cara, sagma, parabola, byrsa, 
baucalis, derived from the Greek ; all these words are to be found in 
Latin authors of the seventh century \ The discovery of the laws of 
transformation of Latin into French has given us the true origin of 
many words formerly considered as derived from the Greek; thus, 
the chance likeness oi par esse and trap^cns had led etymologists in old 
times to connect the two words ; but if we divide the word par esse 
into its elements, we shall see that the suffix -esse must answer to a 
termination -itia^ (trtstesse, tristitia, mollesse, moUitia, &c.) ; such 
words as entiere from Integra, noire from nigra, shew us that the 
r oi par esse answers to a Latin gr; the French a is the Latin i (as in 
balance, bilancia ; aronde, hirundo, &c.) ; and thus we reach, by these 
three observations, the word pigritia, the true original oi pares se. 

To sum up, we may say for Greek what we said for Celtic ; its 
influence on popular French has been altogether insignificant. 




§ 22. By words of learned origin we mean all words introduced into 
a language after the epoch of its formation ^ ; that is, in the case of 

^ To this list may be added adragant, almanach, bouteille, chomer, gouff're, 
golfe, osier, serin, poele, plat, chimie, emeri, dragee, migraine, clopin. Mangon- 
neau, chaland, accabler, are military terms, imported into the French lan- 
guage at the time of the crusades by the Byzantines. Two Oriental words, 
chicane and a'vanie, have passed into the language through the medieval 

^ It is not always easy to distinguish between words of popular and 
words of learned origin. I have placed among the latter a very large 
number of words composed of two parts, the one popular, the other 
learned ; sometimes a learned prefix has been joined to a popular word, as 
in ad-joindre, ad-mettre, sub-ordonner, pro-ft, pro-duire, dis-joindre, dis-courir, 
in-clinaison, im-payable (words which should have been a-joindre, a-mettre, 
sou-v-ordonner, pour-fit, pour-duire, de-joindre, de-courir, en-clinaison, en- 
payable); sometimes a learned termination suffixed to a popular word, 
as in^ en-luminer, fer-mete, nourri-ture (which should have been en-lumer, 
fer-te, nourr-ure'). Among these words we meet with some ghastly philo- 
logical monsters, like pre-alabk, in-surmontable. 

^ The persistence of the Latin tonic accent (see § 49) is the rule and 
guide for the discovery of such words. All popular words introduced dur- 
ing the formation of a language res pec t the Latin accent, proving that they 
have been formed by the ear, not by the eye, and spring direct from the 
living and spoken language. All words which neglect the accent are of 


the French language, between the eleventh century* and our own 
days. They have been created, long after the death of the Latin 
language, by learned men and clerks, who got them out of books, as 
they needed them to express their thoughts, and who transplanted 
them just as they were into the French speech. Thus, in the eleventh 
century we find in some MSS. the word innocent, the exact and servile 
reproduction of innocentem ; the French tongue had then no term 
for such a quality, and the writer, embarrassed in his attempt to ex- 
press himself, was obliged to copy the Latin word. The learned 
origin of the word is shewn from the fact that it has not undergone 
those transformations which popular usage imposes on all the words 
it adopts; thus, in popular words, in becomes en (as infantem, 
enfant ; inimicus, ennemi), and nocentem becomes nuisant ; so that 
if innocentem had suffered popular transformation it would have 
become ennuisant, not innocent. Popular words are the fruit of a 
spontaneous and natural growth, learned words are artificial, matters 
of conscious reflection ; the former are instinctive, the latter deliberate. 

At first, each learned word, for some time after its introduction into 
the French language, remained as unknown to the people as scientific 
terms are in our day. The barons and villains of the days of Robert 
the Pious were as little able to understand the word innocent, as the 
labourers of our day are to Q,OTi\^x€^t.xidi paleography or stratification ; 
but as there was no popular word for the thing, innocent presently 
passed out from the learned into general use : it appears for the first 
time in ecclesiastical works ; less than a century later it is to be found in 
the Chanson de Roland, and other popular poems ; it has passed from 
the scientific and ^special vocabulary to the usual and daily language 
of men ^ 

In writing the history of the French language, it is necessary to 
state that it is in the popular part alone that we can grasp the laws 
according to which the instincts of the people have transformed Latin 

learned origin. This distinction enables us to determine exactly the time 
when the French language took its birth ; the French tongue, that is, the 
popular and vulgar tongue, was born, and the Latin language was utterly 
dead from that day on which the people no longer spontaneously recog- 
nised the Latin accent. This was about the eleventh century; thence- 
forward the formation of the popular French is complete ; all the rest is of 
learned origin. 

^ These are words borrowed from ancient languages — at any rate, from 
Greek or Latin ; as to words borrowed from modern languages, they will 
be found below, under the head of ' Elements of Foreign Origin ' (§ 23). 

^ Philologers who divide all languages into two deposits, the instinctive 
and the conscious, need not draw any distinction between learned words 
and what we call scientific words ; for both of these are of conscious 
origin (whether they are in common use, like innocent, or technical, like 
paleograpble) ■ and besides, each word in common use whose origin is 
learned has begun by being a scientific term, employed by the few. 


into French; from this point of view, learned words are'useless to the 
philologer ; but this settled, we must not think that learned words are 
therefore to be banished ; they have proved their right to exist by 
existing ; as M. Sainte-Beuve has rightly said, ' ils sont une des saisons 
de la langue;' when the French language was formed the popular 
speech was meagre \ answering to the wants of a simple and un- 
refined state of society, and to the scanty ideas of a warlike, 
agricultural, and feudal population ; all scientific ideas, the property 
of the clerks, were expressed only in Latin. After a time feudal so- 
ciety was modified, then declined, lastly perished, and gave place to 
a new order; to expre-ss new ideas the French language had to 
enrich itself by either developing popular terms ^, or borrowing from 
the 5eacr languages learned terms, which after a time passed into the 
comiTLQQ tongue. These borrowed words, rare in the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries, and more numerous in the fourteenth, have 
become countless from the sixteenth downwards ; they have increased 
in proportion to the growth of ideas, and the daily quickening succes- 
sion of inventions and discoveries ^. 



§ 23. Besides the classes already enumerated there are many words 
of foreign origin, borrowed directly by the French from now existing 
languages. These follow no fixed law, being the simple results of 
chance. Thus a succession of marriages in the sixteenth century 

^ In the French language, there are not much more than 4000 popular 
primitives. See below, § 36, for the statistics of the language. 

^ By means of compounds, or fresh derivatives; as from regie have 
sprung in course of ages, deregler^ dereglement; regler, reglementer, regie- 
mentation, &c. 

^ I only give the immediate etymology, having neither time nor room for 
more. Thus I simply cite enormis as the primitive of enorme ; if I went 
on and gave the derivation of enormis (ex norm.a), I should have to write 
the history of the Latin language. Those who desire to know more of 
that history are referred to the valuable Manuel des racines grecques et latines 
by M. Bailly. It often happens, that after a Latin word has produced a 
popular French word, it produces, later on, a learned term ; thus from 
rationem, raison in popular French, comes later the learned ration ; this 
process of double reproduction has received, from a seventeenth-century 
Grammarian, the name of ' Doublets.' I have abstained from dealing here 
with this subject, as I have already studied this philological phenomenon in 
detail in a Dictionnaire des Doublets ou doubles formes de la langue /ran^aise ; 
Paris, 1868. 



between Valois princes and Italian princesses brought in suddenly 
a number of Italian terms : when France borrowed from England last 
century some of her judicial and political institutions, she also took 
jthe terms which expressed them. Thus a minute study of the political, 
(artistic, or colonial history of a country enables us to shew the precise 
/part taken by each language in the vocabulary of its neighbour. On 
the other side, the attentive observation of early texts will teach us the 
age of these words, and will give us one more element of our know- 
ledge by fixing for us the epoch of their introduction. Thus we know 
th3.t piano ( = soft) is imported from Italy, partly because the word exists, 
and means the same in Italian, partly because it does not appear in 
French musical writings till the end of the sixteenth century. Besides 
these a posteriori proofs, furnished by history, there are other a priori 
proofs, provided by philology, which enable us to declare at once 
that the word sought for is not of French origin, and point out to us 
its true source. These words have all entered in since the formation 
of the language : accordingly, they have not penetrated or combined 
with it, nor have they received any of the characteristics which the 
French language impresses on those words which it assimilates. 
Thus, to refer again to the word piano ; we have already studied it 
by the historical or a posteriori method; let us see what philology 
tells us about it. Piano, which answers to the Latin planus, cannot, 
a priori, be a word of French origin, for pi never becomes /'/in French, 
but remains pi ; plorare, pleurer ; plenus, plein ; plus, plus, &c. ; 
but more, piano must be of Italian stock, for in Italian only does pi 
turn into pi, witness plorare, piorare ; plus, piii ; plenus, pieno, &c. 
Thus it is seen how the laws discovered by philology often enable us 
to anticipate correctly the inductions of the historical method. 

To enumerate according to the scale of importance the languages 
which have thus affected the French, we must begin with the family 
of the Romance languages (Proven9al, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese) : 
these have furnished the most. It was natural that the kindred 
languages should provide most : then comes the Teutonic family 
(German, English, Flemish). Modern Greek, Hungarian, and the 
Sclavonic tongues (Polish, Russian) have given some words. If we 
leave Europe, something is due to the Semitic languages (Hebrew, 
Turkish, Arabic), and also to the East Indian, Chinese, and Malayan. 
The American Colonies have introduced a few special terms into the 
French language. 

We have now nothing to do but to lay before our readers a formal 
catalogue of all these borrowed words, and the history of these 
importations ^. 

^ As we have done in the case of Greek and Latin, we only give in this 
Dictionary the immediate etymology of the words borrowed from modern 
languages ; thus we shall see that the French dilettante is a nineteenth-cen- 


Words of Provencal Origin. 

§ 24. Some persons may doubtless be astonished at seeing the 
Proven9al here as a distinct language, parallel with Italian, Spanish, 
Portuguese. But if we would really understand its importance, and 
the influence it has exercised over the French, we must leave off 
regarding it in its modern form, an obscure despised patois, and 
look at it in its historical development ; we shall . see that before its 
decadence it had, between the eleventh and the fourteenth century, 
a brilliant and flourishing existence. 

Proven9al, or the ' Langue d' Oc' is the language of all the population 
of the Garonne basin, and of the southern part of the Rhone basin : 
it gives the name to a race of men, quite distinct from the French of 
the North ; it is parent of a brilliant lyrical literature, translated into 
German in the thirteenth century, admired by Dante, imitated by 
Petrarch ; and lastly, it satisfies the two criteria which in a historian's 
eyes distinguish a language from a patois — it is the instrument of a 
people and of a literature. The philologer sees stilTniore clearly the 
lingufstic originality of the language when compared with the French ^ ; 
of equal age, it has certain more archaic characteristics, which bring 
it nearer the Latin and give it the same intermediate position between 
Frencnand Italian that Provence holds geographically between France 

tury importation of the Italian dilettante ( = amateur, slight person of taste) ; 
but it would be outside our sphere, and a part of the history of the Italian 
language, to go on and shew that the Italian dilettante comes from the 
Latin delectantem., like atto, friitto, &c., from actum^, fructum, &c., by 
regular change of ct into tt. Want of space forbids us to carry out the 
relationship between words of French origin and those of foreign origin 
which have a common root. Delectantem, for example, has produced 
the Italian dilettante, the French delectant ; in the nineteenth century 
dilettante crossed the Alps and became French : it would be interesting to 
explain that delectant and dilettante are two forms of a common root, that 
dilettante is a ' double ' of delectant, and that these two words form what 
we call a 'doublet' (see § 22, note 3). 

^ In the middle ages the southerners regarded the French language as 
so thoroughly foreign that the Leys d' Amor (a kind of poetical and gram- 
matical code of laws, written in the fourteenth century) says (ii. 318) 
of the French language : ' Apelam lengatge estranh coma f ranees, engles, 
espanhol, lombard.' ' We mean by foreign tongues such as the French, 
English, Spanish, Lombard.' In 1229, in a municipal document of Albi, 
a notary excuses himself for not having read the inscription on a seal ([If*' 
because it was in French, or some other foreign tongue : ' In lingua 
Gallica vel alia nobis extranea, quam licet literae essent integrae, perfecto 
non potuimus perspicere.' 




and Italy. But the course of events quickly put an end to this inde- 
pendent life. The rivalry between South and North which ended 
with the Albigensian war and the defeat of the South, gave a deadly 
blow to the Proven9al tongue. 

In A.D. 1272, Languedoc fell into the hands of France, and the 
introduction of the French language followed close after. The 
Proven9al was no longer written; it fell from the rank of a 
literary language to that of a patois. The Proven9al, Langue- 
docian, and Gascon patois of our day are the mere wrecks of that 
' Langue d'Oc ' which in its day had been so brilliant. But it has 
left in the French language a great number of terms of different 
meanings, introduced chiefly during the middle ages, since the twelfth 
century ; and a small number in modern times. These words repre- 
sent the most different ideas ; thus there are seafaring terms, carguer, 
cap, espade, gabarrit, aulan, mistral, corsaire, carre, vergue ; names of 
plants and animals, dorade, ji'gale, cabri, carnassier, ortolan, isard^, 
grenade, radis, bigarrade ; abstract terms, jaser, ruser, fdcher, roder, 
malotru, hadin, badaud,fat, croisade,/orgat, donzelle, m^nestrel ; names 
of precious stones, cornaline, grenat ; terms of dress, dwelling, hor- 
ticulture, camail, barette, bastide, pelouse, caisse, cadenas, cambouis ^. 

Words of Italian Origin. 

§ 25. The expeditions of Charles Vlll, Louis Xll, and Francois I 
beyond the Alps, and the prolonged sojourn of the French armies 
in Italy, during the early years of the sixteenth century, made the 
Italian language very familiar to the French. * The brilliancy of arts 
and letters in the Peninsula attracted men's minds at the very time 
when the regency of Catherine dei Medici set the fashion of ad- 
miring everything Italian ^.' 

This Italian influence was omnipotent over the courts of Francis I, 
and Henri II, and the courtiers did their best to make it felt through- 
out the nation. Then for the first time there appeared in the 
writings of the day a crowd of hitherto unknown words ; terms of 
military art used by the French throughout the middle ages, such as 
heaume, haubert, &c., disappeared, and gave place to corresponding 

* Peculiar to the Beam patois, which has also given the word beret. 
Before leaving the countries which border on France, let us say that the 
Walloon has contributed ducasse, and the Orisons' patois ran%, chalet^ 
avalanche, cretin. 

^ Add to these ballade, baladin, beton, cdlin. ' M. Littr^. 


Italian words, brought in by the Italian wars. From this time date 
terms of fence, dof/e, escriine ; words relating to military usages and 
qualities, affront, brave, altier, bravade, bravoure, bravache, accolade ; 
camp-words, fortification, alarme, alerte, anspessade, bandiere, ban- 
douUere, barricade, bastion, bastonnade, brigade; weapons, arquebuse, 
.baguette, bovibe, &c. 

This mania for ' Italianisms' roused the just wrath of a cotemporary, 
Henri Estienne : ' Messieurs les courtisans se sont oubliez jusque-la 
d'emprunter d'ltalie leurs termes de guerre sans avoir esgard a la 
consequence que portoit un tel emprunt; car d'ici a peu d'ans qui 
sera celuy qui ne pensera .que la France ait appris Tart de la guerre, 
en I'eschole de Tltalie, quand il verra qu'elle usera des termes italiens ? 
Ne plus ne moins qu'en voyant les termes grecs et tous les arts 
liberaulx estre gardez es autres langues, nous jugeons, et a bon droict, 
que la Grece a dt^ Teschole de toutes les sciences ^! 

But Catherine dei Medici brought in not only court terms, and 
words expressing amusements, but also terms of art, needed to 
express new ideas, which had come from Italy with Primaticcio and 
Leonardo da Vinci; such as architectural* words, painters' and 
sculptors' words, terms of music, brought in at the end of the 
sixteenth and throughout the seventeenth century, commercial words, 
sea terms, thief-language, names of plants, diminutives, and many 

We subjoin a full list of these borrowed words : — 

1 . Court-terms : — accolade, accort, affide, affront, altesse, altier, banquet, 
bravade, brigue, cameriste, canaille, caracoler, carrosse, cavalcade, cavegon, 
cocarde, cortege, courtisan, escorte, estafier, estrade,fanfreluche, grandesse, 
grandiose, imbroglio, incognito, page, paladin, partisan, s&e'nissime. 

2. Names of games, &c. : — arlequin, baladin, bamboche, batifoler, 
bouffon, burlesque, cabriole, capot, caricature, carnaval, carrousel, 
comparse, entrechat, escapade, gala, gambade, Jovial, lazzi, loio, mascarade, 
pasquinade, polichinelle, prestidigitateur, quadrille, raquette, saliimbanque, 
tarot, tremplin, voltege. 

3. Terms of art. Architecture: — arcade, archivolte, balcon, balda- 
quin, balustrade, balustre, belve'dere, cabinet, campanile, casino, cata- 
falque, cimaise, corniche, coupole, dome, fagade, galbe, niche, paravent, 
pilastre, stuc, villa. Painters terms : — aquarelle, calquer, canevas, 
carmin, diaprer, esquisse, estamper,fresque, gouache, grotesque, tncarnat, 
madone, maquette, modele, mosdique, pcilette, pastel, pastiche, pittoresque, 
profit, se'pia, virtuoso. Sculptors' and other artists' terms: — artisan, 
bronze, burin, buste, came'e, cicerone, concetti, dilettante, feston, filigrane, 
filoselle, girandole, improviser, madj'igal, midaille, orvi/tan, panache, 

^ Henri Estienne, Conformiie du langage franqois a'vec le grec, ed. 
Feugere, p. 24. 


ptVdes/al, porcelaine^ stance^ stage, torse. Musical terms: — adagio, 
andante, ariette, arplge, barcarolle, bicarre, be'mol, cadence, cantate, 
cavatine, concert, crescendo, ipinette, fausset, fioriiure, fugue, mandoline, 
op&a, oratorio, piano, preste, rebec, ritournelle, solfege, solo, sonate, 
soprano, t/nor, timbale, trille, trombone, violon, violoncelle, vite. 

4. Terms of commerce : — agio, banque, banqueroute, bilan, billon, 
bulletin, cambiste, carafe, carton, citadin, colis, contracter, dito, doge, 
douane, ducat, franco, gazette, grege, jeton, mercantile, noliser, nume'ro, 
patache, piastre, pistole, sequin, tare, tarif tirelire, tontine, turquoise. 

5. Seafaring terms : — bastingage, boussole, brigantin, calfater, cara- 
velle, coche, e scale, escadre,fanal,felouque,fregate,gabier,gondole, nocher, 
palan, regale, tartane. 

6. Terms of war: — alarme, alerte, arquebuse, arsenal, bandiere, 
bandouliere, baraque, barricade, bastion, bombe, botte, bravache, brave, bra- 
voure, brigade, calibre, canon, cantine, caporal, carabine, cartel, cartouche, 
casemate, casque, castel, cavalerie, cavalier, chevaleresque, citadelle, colonel, 
condottiere, croisade, cuirasse, embusquer, escadron, escalade, escarmouche, 
escarper, escopette, escrinu, espadon, esplanade, esponion, estacade, estafette, 
estafilade, estoc, estramagon, fantassin, fleuret, fougue, fracasser, gabion, 
generalissime, giberne, infanterie, javeline, manage, mousqueton, parade, 
parapet, pertuisane, patrouille, pavois, pennon, piller, plastron, poltron, 
rebuffade, redoute, reprisaille, sacoche, saccade, sentinelle, soldat, sol- 
datesque, spadassin, taillade, vedette,, volte, 

7. Names of plants, &c. : — artichaut, belladonne, brugnon, cabus, 
caroubier, ce'drat, ce'leri, espalier, gousse, lavande, muscade, muscat, 
oleandre, pisiache, primevere, scorsonere. 

8. Dress, &c. : — cadenas, calegon, camisole, capote, casaque, costume, 
grlgues, pantalon, parasol, perruque, pommade, postiche, satin, serviette, 
simarre, valise,- zibeline. 

9. Names, &c., of animals : — balzan, cagneux, caresser, ganache, 
impregner, madrepore, marmotte, perroquet, piste, tarentule, zibeline. 

10. Food: — biscotte, brouet, candi, capiteux, capon, carbonnade, casse- 
rolle, cervelas, frangipane, macaron, macaroni, marasquin, marmite, 
massepain, muscadin, panade, reveche, rissoler, riz, salade, semoule, sir op, 
sorbet, zeste. 

11. Man's person: — attitude, caboche, camus, carcasse, esquinancie, 
estropier, in-petto, moustache, pavaner, scarlatine, seton, svelte. 

12. Thief- terms and slang : — bagne, bandit, bastonnade, bravo, 
brigand, charlatan, chiourme, contrebande, escroc, espion, estrapade,faquin, 
lazaret, lazzarone, rodomont, sacripant, sbirre, supercherie. 

13. Diminutives: — babiole, bagatelle, baguette, bambin, caprice, pec- 

14. The elements, &c. : — bise, bourrasque, brusque, calme, cascade, 
filon, granit, lagune, lave, sirocco, tramontane, volcan. 


15. Other terms, not classified: — anspessade, ballon, balourd, haster^ 
boucon, boutade, camerine, cantone, capilotade, capiionner , cariole, cala- 
combe, chagrin, deesse, desinvolte, douche, fiasco, forfanterie, frasque, 
gabie, gambet, gigantesque, girouette, gourdin, isoler, improviste, ingambe, 
Ihine, malandr in, palade, pas sade, pedant, piston, populace, revolte, riposte, 
sarbacane, sorte, talisman, iromblon, ville'giature. 

Word's of Spanish Origin. 

§ 26. The Wars of the League and the long occupation of French 
soil by Spanish armies towards the end of the sixteenth century spread 
wide among the French nation the knowledge of the Castilian speech. 
This invasion which lasted from the time of Henry IV to the 
death of Louis XIII left very distinct marks on the French 
language. Hence come the names of many exotic plants and 
their manufactured products, as cannelle, vanille, indigo, tabac, tomate, 
cigare, benjoin, abricot. Union, jasmin, jonquille, jujube, savane, tulipe, 
Union ; animals ^, musaraigne, epagneul, me'rinos, cochenille, anchois, 
pintade ; colours, basa7ie, alezan, nacarat, albinos ; parts of dwelling- 
places, alcove, case, corridor ; furniture, calebasse, cassolette, mantille ; 
dress, galon, savate, pagne, mantille, basquine, caban, chamarrer ; con- 
fectionary, marmelade, caramel, chocolat, nougat ; some musical terms, 
castagnette, guitare, se're'nade, aubade ; games, or enjoyments, sieste^ 
sarabande, regaler, hombre, ponte, dominos ; titles or qualifications, 
laquais, menin, duegne, grandesse ; sea terms, arrimer, embargo, embar- 
cadere, de'barcadere, mousse, cabestan, pinte, recif, subre'cargue ; military 
terms, adjudant, caserne, diane, colonel, escouade, camarade, haquen/e, 
cabrer, caparagofi, salade, espadon, incartade, algarade, capitan, matamore. 

Abstract terms are rare, baroque, bizarre, disparate, casuiste, barbon, 
paragon, eldorado, transe, soubresaut, risquer, hdbler '^. Creole, muldtre, 
negre, come from the Spanish-American colonies, as also does liane, 
which is not to be found in Hterary Spanish. We may add that most 
of these importations are later than the time of Charles IX, with 

■^ Certain organs also, as carapace, or their products, as hasane. 

^ Habler comes from hahlar, ' to speak,' and answers to the Low Latin 
fablare from fabulari. As it passed into French the word took the sig- 
nification of exaggeration in speech. It is curious that the same change 
has overtaken parler ; the Spaniards borrowed the word in the seventeenth 
century from France, and have given to it the sense of boastfulness in 
speech. Ambassade came from Spain about the end of the fifteenth 


xxxiv INTR on UCTION. 

the exception of a few words like algarade, which is to be found 
as far back as the middle of the sixteenth century ^ 

The Portuguese language has given some words bearing on Indian 
and Chinese manners, as he'zoard, bayadere, mandarin, caste, fetiche ; 
one term signifying an ecclesiastical punishment, auto-da-fi ; one of 
military discipline, chamade ; and some names of fruits, coco, abricot, 

Words of German Origin, 

§ 27. All French words of German origin are later than the first half 
of the sixteenth century. The religious wars, the Thirty Years' War, 
the German wars of the eighteenth century, have introduced a number 
of military terms, bivouac, blocus, blockhaus, chabraque, colback, jiam- 
berge, fifre, havresac, hourrah, loustic, lansquenet, retire, obus, sabre, 
rosse, sabretache, schlague, vaguemestre ; words expressing drink, pot- 
house terms, trinquer, brandevin, choucroute, cannette, gargotte, kirsch, 
bonde, fleche, nouille ; some names of animals, dan, renne, hamster, 
brtme ; some terms of art, graver, estomper ; of dancing, valser ; of sea- 
faring, bdbord'^. Mining industry, so general in Germany, has given 
a great number of specific mineralogical terms, bismuth, cobalt, cou- 
perose, igriser, emb&ize, gangue, gueuse, glette, manganese, potasse, quartz, 
spath, zinc. Nickel is a Swedish word. 

We have said above that French words of German origin are not 
earlier than the sixteenth century; but this remark does not apply 
to words of Old Gennan or Teutonic origin, which came into the 
Latin language between the tenth and the thirteenth centuries, and 
passed from the Latin into the French. These two classes of words 
are very distinct ; the Teutonic, in passing through the Latin, have 
lost their native form, and have gone through regular transformations 
before becoming French ; the others, German words, borrowed 
straight from Modern German, and introduced in their natural 
state, break into the general regularity of the language. The former 
unite closely and absolutely with the French, the latter are but super- 
' ficially connected : in the language of chemistry, words of German 
origin mix only with the French, those of Teutonic birth enter into 
combination with it. 

^ Add, as debts to the Spanish, the name of one metal, platine, and of 
a typographical abbreviation, cedille. One word, mesquin, came in about 
the twelfth century. 

"^ House furniture owes to German some special terms, hahut, edredon. 
Abstract terms are few, chenapan, gamin, chic, anicroche, and almost always 
bear a bad sense. The Flemish has given bouquin ; the name of a plant, colza, 
and one name of a festival, kermesse. 



Words of English Origin. 

§ 28. Communications between England and France have daily grown 
more and more frequent from the time of the Restoration, and have 
brought with them a large number of English words. These refer to 
industrial pursuits, tender, rail, wagon, tunnel, ballast, express, coke, 
flint, lias, malt; agriculture, drainer, cottage; poHtics, legislation, 
budget, jury, bill, convict, comite', speech, verdict, club, meeting, pamphlet, 
toast ; banking, cheque, warrant, drawback ; sundry moral states, spleen, 
comfort, humour, dress, chdle, car rick, redingote, plaid, lasting, spencer ; 
food, bifteck, rosbif, pudding, mess, bol, grog, gin, punch, rhum ; racing, 
sport, amusements, sport, boxe, turf, jockey, clown, bouledogue, groom, 
steeple-chasse, stalk, tilbury, break, dogcart, festival, raout, lunch, whist, 
touriste, fashionable, dandy ; medicine, croup ; sea-terms, many of 
which are of old standing in the French language, dock, bosseman, 
accore, beaupre, cabine, boulingrin, cabestan, cachalot, cambuse, coaltar, 
cutter, eperlan, flibustier, hiler, interlope, loch, lof, paquebot, poulie, 

Words of Slavonic Origin. 

§ 29. The Polish language has provided certain dance-words, ;5<?/^^, 
mazurka, redowa, the word caliche, and one heraldic term, sable. 
Russian gives steppe, knout, czar, palache, cosaque, cravache (though 
this last word travelled into France through Germany). 

Besides the Slavonic languages the Uralian tongues have also borne 
their very slender part in influencing the French language ; Louis XIV 
having introduced the hussards (a Hungarian word), the new corps 
kept its Magyar name, huszdr, and some of its old technical terms, 
shako, dolman. In the fifteenth century, horde, a word of Mongol 
origin, meaning in Tartar the camp and court of the king, was 
brought into France. 

Words of Semitic Origin. 

§ 30. The Semitic words in the French language are Hebrew, or 
Turkish, or Arabic. It was a pet notion of the old etymologists to 

^ France also owes to the English the w^ords square, billet, and alligator, 



derive all languages from the Hebrew : the labours of modern philo- 
logers have shewn that such dreams were a vanity: and the most 
important result of modern science has been the discovery of the law 
that elements of languages answer exactly to the elements of race. Now 
the French belong to a very different race from the Jew, and therefore 
the relations between the French and Hebrew tongues must be illusory, 
a mere chapter of accidental coincidences. When St. Jerome ren- 
dered the Old Testament out of Hebrew into Latin, he brought into 
his version a number of Hebrew words which had no Latin equivalent, 
such as seraphim, gehennon, pascha, &c., and from ecclesiastical 
Latin they passed, five centuries later, into French, se'raphin, gene, 
pdque, &c. * But it is through the Latin that the French received 
them, and we may fairly say that Hebrew has had no direct influence 
on French. The same is true of the Arabic, whose relations to the 
French have been entirely matters of chance : without saying anything 
of words expressing things purely Oriental, like Alcoran, bey, cadi, 
caravane, derinche, firman, janissaire, narghiU, odalisque, pacha, cara- 
vanse'rail, babouche, cimeterre, drogman, calife, mameluk, marabout, 
minaret, marfil, mosque'e, turban, chacal, gazelle, girafe, genette, once, 
talisman, sequin^ serail, sultan, vizir, &c., which have been brought 
straight from the east by travellers, the French language received 
during the middle ages several Arabic words from another source : the 
effect of the crusades, the great scientific progress made by the Arabs, 
the study of oriental philosophers, common in France between the 
twelfth and fourteenth centuries, have enriched the vocabulary with 
words bearing on the three sciences cultivated successfully by the 
Arabs, namely, astronomical terms, azimuth, nadir, zenith ; alchemist 
terms, alcali, alcool, alambic, alchimie, elixir, borax, ambre, julep, sir op ; 
mathematical terms, alglbre, algorithme, zero, chijfre ; but even these 
words of exclusively learned origin, did not pass straight from Arabic 
into French, but passed first through the scientific medieval Latin. 

The commercial relations between France and the East have also 
introduced a number of terms bearing on dress, bouracan, colon, 
hoqueton, taffetas, jupe, colback ; on building and furnishing, kiosque, 
divan, matelas, sofa, bazar, magasin ; jewellery, colours, perfumes, 
nacre, laque, carat, orange, azur, lazuli, talc, civette ; lastly, words 
which come under no special classification, echec, mat, hazard, cafe', 
tamarin, amiral, haras, truchement. 

The frequent invasions and long sojourn of the Saracens in 
Southern France between the eighth and the eleventh centuries have 
left absolutely no traces either on the southern dialects, or on the 
French language ^. 

^ We may add to this list the Talmudic words cahale and rabbin. 
* See Reinaud, Invasions des Sarrasins en France^ pp. 306, 307. 


Words of Oriental Origin. 

§ 31. By words of Oriental origin are meant all those terms which 
have been brought by travellers from India, nadad, drakme, palanquin^ 
pagode, paria^ jongle, carnac, bambou, mousson, &c. ; from China, the ; 
from the Malay Archipelago, casoar, orangoutang. 

The word zebre is of African origin. 


Words of American Origin. 

§ 32. The words collected in the three last chapters do not express 
French notions, and are, properly speaking, not French words at 
all ; the same is true of local terms introduced into the language by 
the relations kept up between France and the American colonies. 
Such words are acajou, ananas, boucanier, cacao, caiman, calumet, 
chocolat, colibri, condor, jalap, mais, ouragan, quinquina, quinine, sagou, 
tabac, tapioca, tatouer. 



Under this head come all the words whose introduction into the 
language may be said to be purely accidental, whether their origin be 
historical, as the word S^ide ^, or onomatopoetic (due to the imita- 
tion of sounds), as craquer. After these, which will close the list of 
words of known origin, we shall come to a hst of all the words as to 
which etymology has arrived at no definite conclusion. 


Words of Historical Origin. 

§ 33. These words, few in number, are due to some accidental cir- 
cumstance ; but this makes it all the more needful to recognise them 
properly ; for if we were to shut our eyes to their origin, and try to 
discover a scientific etymology for them, we should be sure to go 

1 From Voltaire's Mahomet, in which there is a blind agent of the 
Prophet's will named Seide^ the French form of the Arabic Sdid, 


wrong. If we were to forget that guilloiine, macadam, mansarde, 
quinquety are named after their inventors, and set ourselves to de- 
compose them into their elements, with a view to finding, by the 
rules of permutation, their Greek or Latin origin, we should certainly 
fall into the most fantastic mistakes. 

Words of historic origin almost always refer to concrete things or 
material objects, and especially, as is natural, new inventions or impor- 
tations, as, for example, stuffs, madras, nankin, mousseline, cachemire, 
calicot, astrakan, rouennerie, gaze, from the names of places, Madras, 
Nankin, Mossoul, Cachemire, Calicot, Astrakan, Rouen, Gaza, where 
these goods were first made ; carriages, berline, made at Berlin, fiacre, 
Victoria, d'Aumont, &c. ; vegetables. Dahlia, named after the botanist 
Dahl by Cavanilles in 1790, cantaloup, or melon, cultivated at Can- 
ialuppo, a papal villa near Rome, &c. 

Abstract words are scarcer : such as jirimiade, from the Prophet, 
lambiner, from Lambin (d. 1577), a professor in the College of 
France, and famous for the immense length of his explanations, and 
the diifuseness of his commentaries. Other words are either invented 
by the learned, as gaz, which was created in the sixteenth century by 
Van Helmont the alchemist, or they are the expression of some 
ancient circumstance, as the word greve ( = combination of working 
men) comes from the phrase se mettre en Greve, and this from the 
fact that under the old regime the working men of the different cor- 
porations used to assemble on the old Place de la Greve at Paris, to 
wait to be hired, or to prefer complaints against their employers 
before the Pr^v6t des Marchands ^. 


Onomatopoetic Words. 

§ 34. There are very few words in the French language which are 
formed ' onomatopoetically", that is, by imitation of sounds. These 
express the cries of animals, croasser, miauler, hdfrer,japer, taper ; the 
phases of human speech, babiller, fredonner, caqueter, chuchoter, chut, 

^ The following is the list of French words of historic origin : — Artesien, 
Amphitryon, Angora, Atlas, Assassin, Ba'ionnette, Balais, Baragouin, Basque, 
Beguin, Berline, Besant, Bicoque, Biscaien, Bougie, Bretteur, Brocard, Bareme, 
Cacl^emire, Calepin, Calicot, Canari, Cantaloup, Cannibale, Carlin, Carmagnole, 
Carme, Casimir, Cauchois, Celadon, Chiner, Cognac, Cordonnier, Cranjate, 
Curasao, Dahlia, Damasser, Damasquiner, Dedale, Dinde, Echalotte, Epa- 
gneul, Esclave, Escobard, Espiegle, Faience, Fiacre, Flandrin, Florin, Fontange, 
Fra7ic, Frise (cheval de), Futaine, Galetas, Gal'vanisme, Ga'vote, Gaze, Gilet, 
Gothique, Guillotine, Guinee, Gre've, Guillemet, Hermetiquement, Hermine, 
Hongre, Inde, Jarnac, Jaquette, Laconique, Louis, Lambiner, Jeremiade, 
Macadam^ Madras^ Meringue, Magnolier, Mansarde, Marionnette, Marotte, 


cancan, marmotter, hoquei ; certain conditions of size or movement, 
bouffer, botcffir, zigzag ; some natural sounds, dapoier, croquer, humer, 
claque, crac, craquer, eric, tic, toper, pouffer, bruissement, cliquetis, fan- 
fare ; the speech of children, manian, papa, fanfan ; and some inter- 
jections, from bah, ebahir ; from hu, huer. 


Words whose Origin is Unknown. 

§ 35. We have now described all the known provinces of that vast 
domain which men call the French Language, but there are other 
provinces which philologers have not yet recognised or explored. The 
limits of these must now be carefully traced out on our linguistic map 
of the language; the line which separates the known from the 
unknown cannot be fixed till we have made out the map of the 
former, and have fixed the frontiers of the provinces with which we 
are certainly acquainted. 

This unknown region, as might be expected, embraces hardly any 
but words of popular origin, and gives us a collection of more than 
six hundred words whose derivation is as yet undiscovered. It would 
be not strictly true to say that the etymology of all these words is un- 
known to us ; there are very few of them as to which the philologer 
cannot give us several conjectures, each equally plausible ; and it is 
quite certain that the day will come when the science, with more 
powerful instruments, will resolve all these problems ^ ; but in the 
present state of our philological knowledge, these hypotheses can 
be neither verified nor refuted, and we therefore pass them by in 
silence, deeming unknown all those words as to which philology has 
not attained to any definite conclusion. 

To reproduce discussions which lead to no conclusion, would be to 
act in opposition to the end we have set before us ; for purposes of 
instruction, doubt is worse than ignorance, and in teaching the young 

Maroquin, Marotique, Martinet, Mercuriale, Mousseline, Nankin, Nicotine^ 
Pierrot, Patelinage, Perse, Persienne, Phaeton, Pistolet, Praline, Quinquet, 
Renard, Ripaille, Robinet, Rouennerie, Roquet, Salsepareille, Serin, Sansonnet, 
Sardonique, Sarrasin, Seide, Serin, Silhouette, Simonie, Strass, Tartufe, Truie, 
Tournois, Turlupinade, Faude'ville, Vandalisme. 

^ It is hard to foresee into what these 650 words will be resolved ; a 
large and marked portion of them is certainly formed from words altered 
from the Latin or the Teutonic, and the action of degradation has been so 
great that it conceals from us their origin. The rest, doubtless less 
than one half, are related, and will be traced back, to the indigenous lan- 
guages, the Basque, the Celtic, &c., which were spoken on the Gallic soil 
at the time of the Roman Conquest. 


we are apt to lose some of the fruits of knowledge unless the distinc- 
tion between the known and the unknown is laid down clearly and 
without hestitation. 

The French words whose origin is unknown amount to about 
650 ^ : — Adn, accoufrer, atgrejin, ai'se, ajonc, aloyau, amalgame, amphi- 
gouri, andouiller^ antilope, antimoine, ardillon, ardoise, aigot, armet, 
atieler, aiiifer, aube, aumusse, auvent. 

Babine, babouin, bdche, badigeon, baguenauder, bala/re, balise, baltverne, 
halle, bancal, bancroche, barai, baratte, barder, barguigner, baril, baron, 
basan/, bascule, bdiir, baudruche, bauge, bedaine, blgue, belitre, bercer, 
berge, berne, besogne, besoin, biche, bidon, bielle, bifier, bigarrer, btgle, 
bigot, bijou, bilboquet, billevesie, billon, bimbeloi, bique, bis, bise, biseau, 
hisquer, bistouri, bistre, blaser, blason, blette, blond, blotiir, blouse, bobeche, 
bobine, bombance, bombe, borgne, bosse,. bot, bouder, boudin, boue, bougon, 
boulanger, bourbe, bourdon, bourreau, bousculer, bouse, braire, branche, 
brande, branler, braquemart, braquer, bredouiller, brehaigne, breloque, 
bretauder, bretelle, bribe, bricole, brimborion, brin, brioche, broc, brocanter, 
brou, brouir, bruine, bruire, buffet, burette, butor. 

Cabaret, cabas, cafard, cagot, cahoter, caieu, caillou, calembour, cali- 
fourchon, calotte, camard, camion, camouflet, cant, canton, caramboler, 
cassis, catimini, chalet, chalit, chamailler, chambranle, chanfrein, charade, 
charangon, charivari, chassie, chiffe, choyer, ciron, ciseau, civiere, claque- 
murer, cocasse, coche (a notch), cochevis, colifichet, complot, concierge, 
copeau, coqueluche, coquin, corme, cosse {/cosser), coterie, cotret, courge, 
cre'celle, crepe (a cake), cretonne, creuset, crotte. 

Dague, dalle, dibaucher, dicruer, de'gingande', de'gringoU, divelopper, 
diner, disette, dodu, dorloter, doucine, douve, drap, dupe. 

Eblouir, ibouriffer, ^carquiller, e'chouer, eclabousser, eclanche, ecran, 
icrouer, e'crouir, egrillard, embaucher, imoustiller, empeigne, endever, 
engouer, enlizer, enticher, ^pargner, iparvin, ergot, estaminet, itancher, 
dtoiler, Etiquette. 

Fagot, falbala, falun, fardeau, farfadet, felon, feuillette, filou, 
flagorner, flanelle, fldner, flatter, foulard, fredaine, freluquet, fretin, 
fricasser, friche, fricot, frime, fringant, fripe, f riser. 

Gadoue, gaillard, galet, galetas, galimatias, galvauder, ganse, gargon, 
gargote, gargouille, gargouse, gibet, gibier, giboule'e, gifle, gigot, givre, 
se goberger, godailler, godelureau, gogo, goinfre, gonelle, goret, gosier, 
goujat, gourmand, gourme, gourmet, grabuge, graillon, gravier, gredin, 
grile, gribouiller, groimoire, gringalet, grive, gruger, guenille, guenon, 
gueridon, guetre, guilleret, guimbarde, guinguette, guisarfue. 

Harasser, hardes, haricot, haridelle, heurter, horion, houille, houppe- 
lande, houspiller, hure. 

^ This is calculated on the base of the Dictionnaire de V Academic ; if we 
were to include every unknown word in the language the number would be 
considerably larger. 


Jachere, Jalon, jargon, J auger, javarte, javelot, jucher. 

Laie, laiton, lambeau, landier, laudanum, liais. Hard, lice, lie, lijigot, 
lopin, losange, loupe, luron, lutin, luzerne. 

Mdche, machicoulis, macquer, magnanerie, magot, viammouth, niani- 
gance, manivelle, maquereau, maraud, marc, marcassin, marmot, mar- 
mouset, viatelot, matois, matou, mauvais, megissier, meleze, meringue^ 
merisier, merlan, mievre, mijauree, mijoter, mince, mirliton, moellon, 
moignon, moquer, moquette, morgue, morlaise, morue, motte, mouron^ 
mufle, maser. 

Nabot, nigaud. 

Omelette, orseille, ouate. ■ 

Patois, patraque, patte, pepin, percale, percer, petit, pile (reverse, of 
coins), pilori, pimpant, pingre, pirouette, piton, pivot, pleige, pompe, 
pompon, potele', potiron^ preux. 

Quinaud, quintal. 

Rabdcher, rable, rabougrir, rahrouer, racher ; rafale, rainure, 
ratatiner, raz, ren/rogner, requin, r^ve, ricaner, ricocher, ronfler, rosser, 

Sabord, sabot, salmis, sarrau, sebile, semelle, serpilliere, sobriquet, soin, 
sot, soubrette, souche, soupape, souquenille, sournois, sparadrap. 

Tache, taloche, tan, tangage, taper, tapir, tarabusier, tarauder, tarte, 
tintamarre, trancher, trapu, tricoter, trimbaler, trimer, tringle, tripot, 
tripoter, trique, trogne, trognon, frompe, truffe, trumeau. 

Varlope, vasistas, vigie. 


Of the Statistics of the French Language. 

§ 36. Let us finally express in figures the chief results we have now 
arrived at: although statistics are hardly in their right place here, 
and although we may not wish to follow Malherbe's precept, that it is 
very pretty to ' nombrer ndcessairement,' we may apply to our subject 
M. Sainte-Beuve's excellent maxim, that il faut, tot ou tard, dans ce 
vaste arriere humain qui sainoncelle, en venir . . . a des reglements du 
passe', a des conceptions sommaires,fussent elks un peu artificielles, a des 
me'thodes qui ressemblent a ces machines qui abregent et re'sument un tra- 
vail de plus en plus interminable et infini'^. We must not, then, press 
our figures too hard ; they only express approximately the relations 
and proportion of the different elements which combine to form 
the French language. 

^ Sainte-Beuve, Nowveaux Lundis, VIII. p. 44. 


Statistics of the Modern French Language. 

1. Words, whose origin is unknown 650 

2. Words of popular origin: — 

i. Latin element (primitive words) . 3800 

ii. Germanic element 420 

iii. Greek element 20 

iv. Celtic element 20 


3. Words of foreign origin : — 

i. Italian 450 V 

ii. Proven9a:l 50^ 

iii. Spanish 100 

iv. German 60 

V. English . 100 

vi. Slavonic 16 

vii. Semitic no 

viii. Oriental 16 

ix. American 20 


4. Words of historic origin . 115 

5. Ononiatopoetic words 40 

Total number of words 5987 

If we substract from the 27,000 words contained in the DicHonnaire 
de tAcademie these 5987 just enumerated, we shall find a remainder 
of about 21,000 words, created either by the people from primitive 
words, by composition and derivation, or by the learned, who have 
borrowed a crowd of words direct from Greek and Latin. 



§ 37. There are two objects which Phonetics set before them : first, 
the description of sounds, which are the elements of language ; 
secondly, the study of the origin and history of these sounds when 
once we have clearly described them \ 



§ 38. Without attempting to describe the organs of the human 
voice, or encroaching on the sphere of the anatomist, we must still 
state in this place (though without endeavouring to prove our pro- 

^ I have already defined Phonetics (§ 4), and have shewn what help 
etymology gets from it : guided by these fixed laws of transformation of 
sounds in passing from a parent language to its offspring, etymology is no 
longer obliged to trust to fallacious analogies of sound or signification; 
but can usually tell beforehand the form which any particular Latin word 
naturally adopts in French. 

The true place of Phonetics is under the head of Grammar, of which 
it is an integral part; and I have discussed the Phonetics of the French 
language in the Historical Grammar. It might have been enough to refer 
the student to that work ; but as I am now endeavouring to lay before 
him for the first time the proof of every etymology, I wish him to have 
ready to hand the means of verifying and controlling my statements, and 
the complete collection of the transformations of Latin into French. 

These two treatises on Phonetics are not the same. In the Grammar 
I limited myself to the exposition of the chief laws, with a few examples 
only; but here, on the contrary, I lay down not only the list of facts 
which confirm the chief laws, but also most of the secondary laws and 
the exceptions. 


positions) the chief results which have been attained by physiology *, 
in its researches into the mechanism of language and the classification 
of sounds. It is only by dissecting sounds that we can get a detailed 
account of the marvellous instrument on which, as Max Miiller well 
says, * we play our words and thoughts.' And besides, these physio- 
logical preliminaries are an indispensable prelude to the study of the 
history of the sounds of the French language. 

§ 39. All that the human ear can perceive may be divided into 
sounds, or successions of periodical vibrations, and noises, or irregular 
successions of discontinuous vibrations. Sounds may be noted musi- 
cally ; noises cannot. The human voice is a current of air emitted 
from the lungs, under the pressure of the thorax, vibrating as it passes 
across the vocal chords. 

§ 40. If the current of breath reaches the open air without having 
been interrupted or troubled in its passage through the mouth, there 
is produced a sound, which we call a vowei'^. 

§ 41. If, on the other hand, this current of air is suddenly stopped 
in its progress by any barrier, such as the tongue, teeth, or lips, the 
sound is spoilt, and instead thereof comes out a noise, known by the 
name of consonant; whose different varieties are due to the differences 
in orjgans (tongue, teeth, lips), which thus interrupt the emission of the 

Thus, then, human speech is to be divided into two modes and 
forms ; the consonant which is but a noise; and the vowel which 
is a sound, and is consequently subject to certain musical conditions 
which we must now pass on to discuss. 

^ The two works of the highest value on this subject (placed in chrono- 
logical order) are Briicke's Grundziige der Physiologie und Systematik der 
Sprachlaute (Vienna, 1856), and Helmholtz's Lehre von den Tonempfindungen 
(Brunswick, 1863). Of these, the former has settled, quite finally or nearly 
so, the laws of consonants ; the latter is all-important for the vowels. 
Both have been combined, and thrown into a short and useful form, by 
Dr. Rumpelt, in 1869 {Das naturliche System der Sprachlaute'). I need 
not name Mr. Max Miiller's admirable lecture (Lect. II. p. 103) on the 
same subject : it is a real chef-dcewvre of penetration and clearness. 

2 Literally an emission of the voice : 'vocalis from vox. 



The Vowels. 

§ 42. Setting aside the question of its duration, each note has 
three aspects : — 

1. As to its elevation or tone; that is, its place in the scale of 
sounds. The elevation of a note is a result of the number of vibra- 
tions which take place in a given time. When we say that a si is 
more shrill, a higher note than a mi, we mean to say that si is pro- 
duced by a greater number of vibrations in the same time than are 
required to produce the sound called mi. 

2. As to it's, power; that is, the degree of intensity with which the 
note strikes the ear. This depends on the length of the curves of 
oscillation of the air-particles ; or (as it would be phrased in acoustics) 
on the amplitude of the vibrations. When we sing a note softly 
we displace or set in vibration a less volume of air than if we were 
singing the same note at the full pitch of our voice. 

3. As to its quality; that is, the timbre, or sonorous characteristics 
of a note. Thus, if we hear the same note sounded at the same 
moment on a violin and on a piano, why is it that we distinguish 
the two? Whence comes it that these two notes, of the same 
elevation and power (identical, that is, in number and amplitude 
of their vibrations), are yet perfecdy distinguishable? The answer 
is that the piano and violin have different qualities; they give, as one 
may say, two distinct colours, just as when we see the same object 
through two panes of coloured glass, one making it look green, the 
other red. Each instrument has its own peculiar quality; a colour 
which tinges each sound, and gives its timbre to it. This modification 
of sounds arises from the different shapes and materials of the in- 
struments which generate them ; for these differences in shape and 
material naturally produce a corresponding difference in the form 
of the vibrations which create the sound. But whence then comes 
it that, in the case of two notes, identical in intensity and eleva- 
tion, the form of the vibrations can produce this diversity of quality ? 
This brings us to the theory known under the name of that of * Multiple 
Resonance,' or of 'Harmonic Sounds.' As long ago as a.d. 1700, 
Sauveur remarked that if the string of a clavichord be pinched 
tight, one hears at once, in addition to the note which has been 
struck, and at the same time with it (supposing the ear is acute and 
practised), other notes which are more acute than the one struck, 
and which sound feebly through a sort of sympathy. These accom- 
panying secondary notes, which emerge directly we strike a note, 
are called 'the harmonics' or 'resonant sounds:' the experiment by 


which the existence of these harmonics can be materially proved is 
well known : — if we put leaden soldiers on the notes of a piano, and 
then strike a note, all the men standing on the notes which are 
harmonics to the note struck will be upset, while the others all remain 
unmoved. Helmholtz then discovered the important fact that the har- 
monics which wait on each note vary in number and quality, according 
to the nature of the instrument ; or, in a word, that the form of the 
instrument giving its own form to the vibrations, the harmonics were 
modified in different ways, while the note struck remained always the 
same, and this difference in the nature and intensity of the harmonics 
was in fact the cause of that difference in quality of which we have 
been speaking. This discovery, that the shape of the instrument 
modifies the form of the vibrations, and that this determines the 
different varieties of harmonics, whence come the varieties of quality, 
gave Helmholtz the clue to the explanation of the manner in which 
vowel-sounds are produced. Thinking that, in order to pronounce 
each of the vowels a, z, u (the last to be sounded ou, as in Italian), 
we have to modify the form of the tube made by the cheeks, and that 
thereby we modify the form of the vibration, and thereby also we 
change the character of the harmonics, Helmholtz succeeded in 
proving that the different vowels are only the different qualiiies (or 
iimbres) of the human voice, due to the different forms taken by the 
orifice of the cheeks, the mouth, during the emission of the voice. 

§ 43. The gamut of vowels, as Helmholtz has established it, is : 
«, 0, a, e, i ; the relationship and transformation of the vowels will be 
more visible by means of the vocal triangle, as Briicke determined 
it in 1856 1: — 

o(aa in e^trorfj 

This triangle shews us the progress of vowel sounds as they pass 
through the phases of their transformation: -thus on its way to H 

* In this diagram are given the sounds which exist in French or Latin. 
Briicke's triangle marks several other vowels, foreign to these two lan- 
guages, and therefore not inserted or studied here. 

THE VOWELS. xlvii 

must necessarily first pass through eu ; and this law, directly established 
by physiological investigation, is confirmed by history, which shews 
that it has always existed, and has always been obeyed: thus Lat. 
morum became first O. Fr. meure, and is now mure; motum, O. Fr. meu^ 
now mu. Is it not clear then, that the previous study of the physio- 
logical law of sounds is a very valuable guiding fine for the history 
of the transformations of language ? In fact, strange as it may seem, 
this preamble to etymological research is an absolute necessity. 
The human organs ever obey the same laws, and it is natural 
that we should make use of discoveries made by investigation into 
the Hving organ, if we would explain the changes of sound caused 
by the vocal organism of races which have now disappeared from 
the earth. 

§ 44. By the side of these vowels which we have just studied, 
known by the name of 'pure or sonorous vowel-sounds,' we find 

a second class of vowels known as the 'nasal or muffled vowel 
sounds ; ' so called, not because they are really pronounced through 
the nose, but because in pronouncing them the veil of the palate 
is lowered, and the air thus compelled to vibrate through the cavities 
which connect the nose with the pharynx : in fact, if while these 
sounds are being emitted, we close the nose altogether, we make 
the vowel still more strongly nasal, which shews that they cannot 
be formed through the nose. These nasal sounds, unknown to the 
Latins and to most European languages, are, we may say, a French 
speciality, represented by the following groups of letters, an, en, in, 
on, un. 

§ 45. In addition to these vowels, pure and nasal, are the diph- 
thongs, or mixed sounds, made up of two vowels pronounced together 


by a single voice-utterance : these we must consider ilext. Now, 
according as we rest on the first or on the second of these vowels, 
so shall we produce one or other of two kinds of diphthongs : those 
which are accented on the former vowel, as the Italian ^i {poi, nSi), 
we will call strong diphthongs ; those accented on the latter vowel, 
like the French oui, are called the weak. 

§46. Application of the above-stated Principles. Inventory of 
Latin Vowels. 

I. There are eleven Latin vowels : a, a ; e, e ; 6, 6 ; i, i ; y ; u, u. 

The pronunciation of a, o, i was identical with that of the French a, o, i; 
e was pronounced like the open French e (as in aprh) ; u like the 
French ou; y was a sound unknown in common Latin, and imported 
into dbe_learne3~iaSguage from Greece ; It answeT5~to- French «, 
or to"(jerman ii in Muller, with, however, a somewhat more marked 
tendency to pass into i. The nasal sounds are unknown in Latin. 

II. The diphthongs. These are six in number, all of them with 
the accent on the former vowel : they are du, 6u, 6i, ui, de, 6e. 
These strong diphthongs are pronounced as follows : — 

'Au like German au (in ^avi^))^ and answers to the combination 
of French letters dou : thus, durum was pronounced aouroum : in 
the latter days of the Empire this aou became o in the speech of the 
peasantry; for Festus (p. 189) tells us that from the third century 
downwards the peasantry said orum for aurum, oricula for auricula 
('orum pro aurum rustic! dicebant'). 

'Eu was pronounced eou (as in Italian Europa). 

'Ei like the French eille (in corbeille), or like Spanish ey (in rejf), 
or like Italian e'i (in le'i). 

'Ui, like the French out, if the accent be shifted to the earlier part 
of the diphthong {dUi, instead of oui) : the Italian ui (in fui) exactly 
reproduces the Latin sound. 

It is useless to say anything about the pronunciation of ae and 6e, 
which at quite an early Latin period were transformed into e (as 
in edus for hoedus, Mesius for Maesius). 

§ 47. Further application of above-stated Principles. Inventory of 
French Vowels. 

I. The pure vowels. As is well known, the French alphabet is 
very ill constructed ; for it has several orthographic signs for the same 
sound, and, on the other hand, it is so meagre that it has to denote 
several different sounds by the same letter : thus, for the one sound 


0, it has the three signs o, au, and eau ; while for the two different 
sounds of c, hard and soft, it has only one sign, c (as in calomnie 
= kalomm'e, and cerveau = sefveau). Further on we shall explain the 
grounds of this lack and surplus in French orthography, when we 
treat of the history of the language; now we will only deal with 
the list of French vowels, neglecting the multiple orthographic signs 
which stand for one sound. The French vowels, then, are eleven 
in number : a, d; e, ^(also written as e or ai); o, 6 (also written au, 
eau); i (also written j/), i; u; ou; eu (also written oeu, as in boeu/, 
and ue, as in accueillir). 

If we compare this list with the Latin vocal sounds, we shall 
see that the French language has gained the sounds ii and eu, and 
the closed /, none of which existed in Latin; the letter u (which 
in Latin marked the sound ou) is used in French to represent the 
new sound u, and in order to represent the Latin sound, the ou 
group has been created : thus murum has become mur, while ursus 
is ours. Hence has come an unfortunate confusion : it would have 
been better to keep for the letter u the sound it already had in Latin, 
and to represent the Modern French u sound (as the Germans have 
it) by u. 

Another and more important gain to the French language is that 
of the vague sound indicated by the name of the e mute. This 
sound, unknown in Latin, is produced from every one of the Latin 
vowels : thus the Latin a, e, i, o, u, have all alike become e mute, 
as in rosam, rose; caballum, cheval; venire, venir ; fraXveva., frere ; 
vestimentum, vetement; minutum., menu; conucla*, quenouille; ju- 
niprum, genievre ; templimi, temple. Now if we draw the Latin vocal 
triangle within a circle, the circumference will stand for the e mute, 
that sound to which, in French, all the Latin vowels descend when 
they become deadened ; thus — 

e mute 



e mute 

This loss of vocal power in the Latin final vowels had advanced 
far at the time of the fall of the Empire ; and Inscriptions of that 



period are full of such forms as domino for dominiun (see Schuchardt), 
in which the final vowels are confused with one another and used 
one for another, a confusion which shews how very undecided their 
pronunciation had become : towards the seventh century all these 
vowels were lost in one common sound, which was between the French 
eu and o, an uniform sound which really required only one sign, and 
has been represented in French orthography by the e mute. But 
this symbol was not adopted at once : in the very first specimen of 
the French language — the well-known Strasburg Oaths of a.d. 842 ^ 
— we find, two lines apart, two different signs for the silent final 
vowels : thus the Latin fratrem is thrice rendered by fradre, once 
hy /radra; instead o{ nStre, peuple, Charles, we find thus nostra, pobloy 
Karlo, which is also written Karle. This difiiculty, experienced by 
the scribe in rendering this new sound by a common and uniform 
sign, may be seen at every step in the linguistic remains of the period 
between the ninth and the eleventh century. After that time e is 
always used to represent the mute sound. This letter was not chosen 
because it answered to the e sound (for that new mute sound 
would have been better represented by or eu than by e), but simply 
because, as a matter of fact, of all the Latin final vowels, the e was the 
one which occurred the most frequently. But this e mute, which now 
is almost imperceptible in pronunciation, was, up to about the middle 
of the sixteenth century, a distinct and sufficiently marked sound 
(like the final still heard in the pronunciation of the Proven9al 
peasantry, as in franciso, musico, pSsto, for frangaise, musique, posle). 
Palsgrave, the old English grammarian, in his Esdaircissement de la 
langue frangoise, a.d. 1530, says expressly (lib. i. regula 5, ed. G^nin, 
p. 4) : ' If ^ be the laste vowell in a frenche worde beynge of many 
syllables, eyther alone or with an s ffolowynge hym, the worde not 
havyng his accent upon the same e, then shall he in that place sound 
almost lyke an and very moche in the noose, as these wordes homme, 
fimme, honeste, pdrle, hSmmes, /e'mmes, honesies, shall have theyr laste 
e sounded in maner lyke an 0, as hommo,/emmo, hones io, par lo, hommos, 
femmos, honestos : so that, if the reder lyft up his voyce upon the 
syllable that commeth nexte before the same e, and sodaynly depresse 
his voyce whan he commeth to the soundynge of hym, and also 
sounde hym very moche in the noose, he shall sounde e beyng written 
in this place accordyng as the Frenchmen do. Whiche upon this 
warnynge if the lerner wyll observe by the frenchmen's spekynge, 
he shall easely perceive.' Then, passing from theory to practice, 
Palsgrave gives us (p. 56) the pronunciation as it ought to be : La 
tr/s honnore'e magnificence {la-tres-ounororio-manifisdnso) : secretaire du 
roy nostre sire {secretdyro - deu - ray - nStro - siro) ; glorieuse renommee 
{glorieUzo renoumme'o). This leaves us no room to doubt what was 

^ See the Historical Grammar, p. 14. 




the pronunciation of the e mute at that time, and shews that it was 
plainly discernible. 

How to study the transit of the Latin Vowels into French, 
and the Rules of Accent. 

§ 48. If we compare words to a living organism, the consonants 
will be the bones, which can only move by help of the vowels, which 
are the connecting muscles. The vowels then are the fugitive and 
shifting part of a word ; the consonants its stable and resisting part. 
Hence the permutation of vowels is subject to less certain laws than 
that of consonants ; they pass more readily from one to another. 

The Latin vowels must be studied in two ways, — as to quantity, 
and as to accent. 

1. As to their quantity ; they may be short like the e of ferum, 
long by nature like the e of avena, or long by position ^ like the e of 
ferrum. This distinction may seem trifling, but is really far from un- 
important ; for, following these three differences of quantity, the Latin 
e is transformed into French in three diff"erent ways : the short e be- 
comes ie (ferus, fier) ; the long e becomes oi (avena, avoine) ; and 
the e long by position does not change (ferrum, y^r). 

2. As to their accent ; in every word of more syllables than one 
there is always one syllable on which the voice lays more stress than 
on the others. This raising of the voice is called the * tonic accent,' or 
more simply, the ' accent.' Thus in the word raison the accent is on 
the last syllable ; in raisonndble, it is on the last but one. This syl- 
lable, on which the voice lays more stress than on the others, is called 
the ' accented ' or * tonic ' syllable : the others are unaccented, or, as the 
Germans name them, ' atonic ' ^. The tonic accent gives to each 
word its proper physiognomy, its special character ; it has been well 
called ' the soul of words.' In the French language the accent is 
always placed on one of two syllables ; — on the last when the termina- 
tion is masculine^ (as chanteiir, aime'r,finir, recevrd) ; on the penulti- 
mate when the termination is feminine (as r6ide,p6rche, voyage). In 
Latin also, the accent occupies one of two places; penultimate, when 

^ A term borrowed from Latin prosody, which so calls words followed 
by two consonants, which are * long by position,' not by nature. 

^ In short, every word has one accented syllable, and only one ; the rest 
are unaccented, or atonic ; thus, in the word formule, the last syllable is 
tonic, the other vowels are unaccented ; in Latin, in cantorem, the penul- 
timate is accented, the others are atonic. 

^ That is to say, when the word does not end with e mute ; when it 
ends with e mute, the termination is said to be feminine. 

e 2 


that syllable is long (as cantorem, amare, finire), antepenultimate, 
when the penultimate syllable is short (rigidus, porticus, viaticum). 

We have just seen how important it is, with a view to the origin of 
the French language, to distinguish the quantity of the Latin vowels. 
It is still more so to distinguish their accent ; the tonic and atonic 
vowels do not change into the same vowels in French. 

We will now state the five rules of Phonetics : they are the 
fundamental laws for the transformation of Latin into French, and 
of the constitution of the French word. 

§ 49. I. The Latin Accent always survives in French ; i.e. the 
tonic accent always remains in the French on that syllable which it 
occupied in the Latin word ; whether that syllable was the penulti- 
mate, as in amdre, aimer ; t6mplum, temple ; or the antepenult, as 
ordcTilum, oracle; articulus, article ; durdbilis, durable. Thus we 
see that the accented syllable is the same in each language ^ 

In studying the fate of the other syllables, which are of course all 
atonic, we must distinguish between those which come after the tonic 
syllable, as the e of cantorem, and those which precede it, as the a 
of cantorem.. 

We will first consider those which follow the tonic syllable ; they 
can occupy only one of two places, the last syllable, or the last 
but one, when it is a short syllable. 

§ 50. II. Every atonic Latin vowel, in the last syllable of a 
WORD, DISAPPEARS IN French. — Thus, m^re, mer ; amare, aimer ; 
porcus, pore ; mortdlis, mortel; or, which is in fact the same thing, it 
is written as an e mute, as ^wsi\x^, ferme ; templum, temple. 

§ 51. III. When the penultimate of a Latin word is atonic, 
the Latin vowel disappears in French. — In words accented on the 
antepenult, as ordculum, tabula, articulus, durabilis the penultimate 
vowel is necessarily short in Latin ; this vowel, being absorbed by the 
tonic vowel preceding it, was scarcely sounded at all; the refined 
Romans may have given it a slight sound, but the popular voice 
neglected altogether such delicate shades of pronunciation. In 
all the remains of popular Latin that have come down to us (the 
Graffiti of Pompeii, inscriptions, epitaphs, &c.), the short penultimate 
is already gone : we find oraclum, tabla, postus, moblis, vincre, 
suspendre, &c. ^; and when this common Latin became French, 
the words thus contracted became in turn oracle, table, poste, meuble, 
vaincre, suspendre, &c. Indeed, by the law which forbids the French 

^ We are not speaking here of words of learned origin ; these rules 
refer only to words of popular origin. 

^ In more than one case the short penultimate had already disappeared 
even in classical Latin, as in saeclum, poclum, vinclum. 


language to throw the accent farther back than the penultimate syl-*^"^?^ 
lable, it was compelled, if it would retain the Latin accent in its proper 
place in words formed from oraculum, tabula, &c., to suppress the 
short u of the penultimate, and to say oracle, table, &c. 

We have now considered the two classes of atonic syllables which 
follow the tonic syllable, let us go on to enquire according to 
what law atonies which precede the tonic syllable pass into French. 
These atonies may be divided into two classes : those which precede 
the tonic syllable immediately, as the o of derogare, and those which 
are at a farther distance from it, as the e of derogare. 

§ 52. IV. Every AxoNit Latin vowel which immediately precedes 


LONG \ — It disappears if short, as sanitatem, bonitatem, positura 
becom2 sante, bonM, posture'^. It remains if long, as coemeterium, 
ornamentum, cimetiere, ornemeni. 

§ 53. V. Every atonic Latin vowel which precedes the tonic 


o in positura remains in the French posture ; sanitatera, sant^ ; ves- 
tim6ntum, vitement. (See the Dictionary, s.v, ble', briller.) 


History of the Latin Vowels. 

Thus, by help of the Latin accent, and the quantity of syllables, 
we have fixed the five laws according to which the Latin vowels dis- 
appear or remain in passing into French. Let us now reconsider these, 
and see whether the French language has retained intact the vowels 
it has received from the Latin, or has altered them, and, if so, after 
what laws. This study of Latin vowels in their nature must be 
thus divided — first the simple vowels (a, e, i, o, u), then the diph- 
thongs (ae, oe, au, eu), and each of these subdivided again into 
accented and atonic. 

History of A. 
§ 54. I. The Latin a, when long by position, remains, as arbor, 

^ For examples, see the Dictionary, s.v. able, affable, ancre, asperge. 

* For examples, see the Dictionary, s.v. accointer, aider. I have also 
rorked out these two laws in detail in the Jahrbuch fur romanische Lit- 
tratur (Leipzig, 1867). 

" In a very few instances it becomes e (see acheter'), or at (see aigle). 


2. The Latin a and a, treated alike in French, become ai before 
the liquids /, m, n, if these consonants are followed by a vowel. 
This at answers also to e, and is found under that form in the 
suffix len (see ana'en), which stands for iai'n by a slight alteration. 

3. a and a may also become at, by the attraction of the t, in words 
which have the accent on the antepenultimate, when the t is con- 
sequently penultimate (see dnier). 

4. a and a become e before the rest of the simple consonants ; 
they become an open e before a consonant followed by r {br, tr, 
dr, pr) ^, as fratrem, frere ; they become a closed e before mute 
consonants (see abbi), and before final consonants. 

5. a and a become also ie in some words like canis, chien ; gravis, 
grief; pietatem, pili^ ; but this has been arrived at by passing 
through <?, and then by strengthening the e with an i, which has 
produced the diphthong I 

History of E. 

§ 55. We have already said (§ 46) that the Latin e was sounded 
by the Romans like the open French e in aprh ; and e was a similar 
but longer sound, like the French e in tete. 

L— E. 

§ 56. The Latin e becomes a diphthong ie in French (except before 
gutturals): as in ferum, jff^ry mel, miel ; fel, fiel ; pedem, pied; 
tenet, iient ; venit, vient ; -getvaiXCi, pierre ; febviva, fievre ; deretro, 
derriere ; palpebram, paupiere ^ : and this tendency to turn e into 
a diphthong is so strong that it affects even the French ^ in position 
and treats it as e before a simple consonant; as in ped(i)ca, 
piege ; lep(o)rem, lievre ; tep(i)duiQ, tiede ; eb(u)luin, hieble ; he- 

^ R in this case does not lengthen the preceding vowel by position. 

2 a becomes / in eerasus, cerise ; in tabanus, taon ; phiala,/o/^. 

^ Brefirom. brevis, tu es from es, are not true exceptions to this rule ; 
for in Old French the words were more correctly brief and tu ies : the 
words have been re-fashioned by the clerks and latinists of the close of 
the middle ages, in order that they might be brought to a nearer re- 
semblance to the Latin forms. The only true exception is et from et. 
Such words as lepra, lepre ; tenebras, tenebres ; celeber, celebre, are 
learned, not popular, words. 


d(e)ra, lierre ^ The history of the change of e into the diphthong 
ie is very short; it did not take place in Latin times, for there is 
no trace in the common Latin of that strengthening of the sound 
which is got by the change into a diphthong le; still the common 
Latin bears witness in its own way to the need it felt of strengthening 
the short e ; for we find it constantly written ae after the sixth cen- 
tury : thus inscriptions and barbarous diplomas always write paedem 
for pedem, faerum for ferum, paetra for petra; an important fact, 
which shews, not that the Mer^viugians pronounced e as ae, but 
that they gaye^^the. | so much emphasis as to oblige Jhe_.s^^^ 
find _a distinct _symbol to expxess„, 5Qu.nd. From the ninth 
century downwards ze is found (as c aelum, d el, in the Song of St. 
Eulalia ; ' Qu'elle Deo raneiet chi maent sus en del,' literally ' Quod 
ilia Deum renegabit qui manet sursum in caelo '). 

The only word which is a true exception to this rule is Dieu from 
Deum, D6um first became, in very early French, De'o, and is so 
written in the Oaths of a.d. 842 ; it is also written Deu in the eleventh 
century in the Oxford Psalter (Ps. 149, 6) ^; then Diu, by the change 
of eu into , m. Next the accent was displaced, Diu becoming 
Dm, and the strong diphthong a weak one. Finally, Dm becomes 
Dieu, just as plus becomes pieux. 

§ 57. Let us pass to the case of e in a word accented on the ante- 
penult, and followed by eus, ius, ia, ium : we shall see that it becomes 
ie in levium, lie'ge ; ministerium, me'iier ; melius, O. Fr. miels, 
mieux ; but i in imperium., empire ; pretium, prix ; mLedium, mi ; 
ingenium., engin ; species, e'pice. 

§ 58. Before gutturals e and e are treated in the same manner 
in passing into French ; we shall therefore treat of these together, 
although this chapter properly deals with e only. 

E and e before a guttural pass into i (this influence of gut- 
turals in like manner affects a, by transforming it into ai) : 
thus, nee, ni ; decem, dix ; legit, lii^ ; peius, pis; vervecem, 

^ The exceptions are gen(e)rum., gendre ; ten(e)rumi, tendre ; and this 
exception is doubtless due to an intercalated euphonic d, which made a 
group of these consonants, and weighted the word so heavily, that it was 
easier to keep the short e than to pronounce the diphthong ie. Merle 
(mer(u)la), was written correctly mierle in Old French, and transformed 
into merle by the learned. 

2 For the accentuation of this Psalter, and its value as helping to fix 
the history and pronunciation of the French vowels, I refer the reader 
to my article in the Reruue Critique, 1871, ii. 247. 

^ Legit is written ligit in several Merovingian documents of the seventh 
century : this i was certainly pronounced very much like ei, and did not 
take the sound of i pure till after it had received its French form. 



hrehis ; and this tendency is a very early one, for we can trace 
the change from e into i even in the common Latin (as berbicem 
for vervecem in the Lex Salica). Before hard g and c, e and e 
change to oi ; as legem, loi ; neco, noie. 

The chronological evolution of e may be expressed thus : — 

e (as in pedem, medium, legit, &c.) 


ae (in the 6th century, 
nq ^ as paedem) 

2 <T> 

^ ft) 

ie (from the 9th cent, as pied). 

i in the 3rd century before 
^ ^ gutturals, &c., as ligit, 
;5 p- midium, &c.) 

5 3 

/ (from the 8th century ; as //V, 
mi^ dix^ &c.). 

IL— B. 

§ 59. E is found to have taken the i form in early common Latin 
documents ; and Inscriptions of as early a date as the second century 
(see Schuchardt, i. 104) are full of such forms as mercidem, dibet, 
virus, cadire, capire, tradire. This i must have had a sound inter- 
mediate between closed / and pure i (perhaps one something like 
that of the French ei in veille), for it has taken two different French 
sounds, as i on the one side (mercedem, mercidem, merci) and 
as ei on the other side, whence comes the oi of Modern French 
(thus verum. Low Lat. virum. Old Fr. veir, Mod. Fr. voir). We 
must consider these two developments of the Latin e in detail, and 
trace the path by which they have at last arrived at two such very 
different results. 

§ 60. To clear the way ^, let us begin by at once making out a 
list of the words which have sharpened into a pure i the natural 
tendency of the Latin e to become i in Merovingian days : e became 
i before a simple consonant (except the nasals) in the following words : 
mercedem, merci; cera, cire ; berbecem, brebis ; presus *, pris ; 
pagesis *, pays ; marchesis *, marquis ; and sometimes even before a 

^ In a very few instances, and before /, n only, e continues unchanged : 
strena, etrenne; candela, chandelle; crudelis, cruel. All other cases of 
the continuance of the e, such as severus, se'vere; extradere, extrader^ 
are cases of learned words. 


nasal, as in venenum, venin ; saracenus, sarrasin ; racemus, raisin ; 
pullicenum, poussin ; pergamemum., parchemin ^. 

§ 61. Before the nasal consonants, e, after becoming ?', is developed 
into ei; just as before the nasals a becomes ai (§ 54). This e, which 
became ei before a nasal at the very origin of the French language, was 
accentuated on the former vowel, and was pronounced sonorously, 
like the /?' in Ital. ///. In the eleventh century we find in the Oxford 
Psalter (of which we have already spoken in § 56) the forms con- 
se'il, ceint, vie'il, veine ; and, in the sixteenth century, Palsgrave gives 
us the true pronunciation of ei in his * Example howe prose shulde 
be sounded' (Book i. p. 57). There he writes the phrase conseil de la 
souverdyne, by the phonetic forms ' counsey de la sovuerdyne! After 
the sixteenth century ^i was flattened into ei, then into /: thus vena 
was vina in Merovingian Latin, veine in the eleventh century, veine 
in the sixteenth, and now is pronounced vene, though still written 
veine, a form which remains as an orthographic indication of the 
old pronunciation which has gone. The like change is to be found 
in serena, sereine ; verbena, verveine ; balena, baleine ; ren, rein; 
plenum, plein ; frenum, frein ^ / and in some cases this ei has dropt 
to oi, as avena, O. Fr. aveine, Mod. Fr. avoine ; fenum, O. Fr. fein, 
now foin ; and indeed the process has gone yet further, and has 
reached to ai, as terrenum, terrain ^. 

§ 62. Before a simple consonant (except the nasals) e becomes 
oi, in : habere, avoir ; sapere, savoir ; debere, devoir ; sedere, seoir ; 
raesiB'^ , mois ; hourgesia* , bourgeois ; regem., roi ; legem., loi; serus, 
soir ; verus, voir; heres, hoir ; me, mot; te, loi; se, soi; tres, 
trois ; tela, toile ; velum, voile ; in which words oi is pronounced as 
French oua : in a few other cases oi has gone and is replaced by 
ai : thus theca, O. Fr. loie, taie ; creta, O. Fr. croie, craie ; alnetum, 
O. Fr. Aunoi, Aunay ; franeesis *, O. Fr. Frangois, Frangais. 

But hitherto we have only stated the mechanical facts of these 
changes; we must also describe their history, and point out (i) how 
e becomes oi ; (2) how, and in what cases 02' becomes ai. 

§ 63. How e becomes oi, and then ai. 

We have seen already (§ 60) that before nasal consonants the 
classical Latin e becomes i in Merovingian Latin, then a sonorous 

^ For the nasal sound of i in in, see § 73. 

2 Notice that ei is sounded like e when n has continued to be sounded, 
as in sereine, •veine; while it takes the nasal sound of in in words of a 
masculine termination, such as frein, plein, whose ein is sounded exactly 
like the in of -venin, raisin : for this nasalisation, see § 73. 

^ In the body of the Dictionary will be found the explanation of the two 
exceptions, remus, rame ; sebum, suif. 


ei in the oldest French monuments, then was stopped in its progress, 
and was flattened to I. Before all other consonants, on the contrary, 
this development was not so suddenly arrested : thus debere, francesis, 
become successively debire, francisis (seventh century), deveir, 
fran^e'is (tenth century). At the end of the tenth century this 
sonorous // became a sonorous Si'^, and we get devoir ^ frangSis. By 
the end of the twelfth century this sonorous 6i is softened into a 
sonorous 6e : just as the Latin foidere, Coilius became foedere, 
Coelius, so devSir, frangois changed their pronunciation and became 
devSer, frangSes. But it may be noticed that at the end of the 
twelfth century it was a characteristic and uniform mark of French 
vocalisation, that it weakened all the strong diphthongs, and that the 
accent passed from the first vowel of the diphthong to the second : 
then devoer, frangSes became devoe'r, frangoe's. In this thirteenth- 
century pronunciation the modern pronunciation can already be 
recognised ; for Modern French has been formed by the simple change 
of the strong diphthong into a weak one. 

Let us now sum up this first period of the evolution of change by 
means of a table : — 

Classical Latin . . 

. . e 


Merovingian Latin . 

. . i 


Tenth century . . 

. . ei 

Before a.d. 1050 . . 

. . oi 

After A.D. 1050 . . 

. . oe 

Twelfth century . . 

. . oe 

From the fourteenth century onward a new evolution of oe' begins 
to take place, and this in two directions : (i) 0^' advances towards 
a more closed sound ; (2) towards a more open sound. 

1. The closed sound. — Just as the Latin foem.ina, coelum, poena, 
coena, quickly took the weaker forms femina, eelum, pena, cena, 
so did the French 0/ in certain cases drop to the weaker e (between 
the thirteenth and the fifteenth century) : thus the pronunciation 
Frangois, Angloes^ dropped to the simple sound Frange's, Angle's. 

^ By sonorous oi I mean the sound of oi in the English word 'voice 
(which is also the Italian and Greek oi) ; that is to say, a strong diphthong, 
accented on the first part, in contradistinction to the sound of the Modern 
French oi ( = Fr. oua), which is a weak diphthong, accented on the last 


This new sound is often, in documents before the seventeenth cen- 
tury, rendered by e, which is its proper symbol; but for the most 
part the Old French spelling in oi was kept, as in Frangois, Anglois, 
although it in no way answered to the pronunciation. In order 
to end this discrepancy between the sound and the spelling, Nicolas 
B^rain (a.d. i68i?), and after him Voltaire, proposed to represent 
by ai'^ the sound so ill represented by oi ; it would have been more 
logically proper had this sound, really an open e, been expressed 
by e ; but at was chosen, a symbol which simply still farther in- 
creases the orthographic difficulties of the French language. Adopted 
and pushed by Voltaire, the fashion of spelling in ai triumphed, 
and the French Academy adopted it authoritatively, to the exclusion 
oi 01, in the sixth edition of its Dictionary (a.d. 1835). 

II. The open sound. — In another direction, oe instead of becoming 
weaker constantly gathered strength. From 0^ in the fifteenth century 
it passed to the sound oue, transformed in the sixteenth by popular 
usage into oua. Palsgrave, in his specimens of French pronunciation 
(a.d. 1535), Book i. p. 61, gives us droit, vicioire, pronounced as 
droat, vicioare. Still this pronunciation of oi as oa, which was that 
of the Parisian citizens (as Henri Estienne tells us), was not at 
once adopted by the court and the literary circles : they retained the 
oue' sound for more than two centuries. Moli^re makes fun of the 
peasantry for saying oua for oi', and Louis XIV and Louis XV used 
to say un ouezeau (oiseau), la /oue {/oi), la hue {lot) : the oua sound 
did not triumph finally till the end of the eighteenth century. The ( 
stage stuck to oue up to the beginning of the present century ; and | 
Lafayette in 1830 pronounced le roi, le roue'. The oua sound, — which 
has two shades of pronunciation, oua when it stands at the end of 
a word, as /oua {/oi), loua {loi) ; and oa when the word has a final 
consonant which is sounded, as devoir, gloire, vidoire, — is then ex- 
pressed in French by oi, which is the eleventh century orthography. 
By this example may be seen how in certain cases orthography falls 
far behind the progress of pronunciation. 

§ 64. The study of the history and developments of the Latin e 
will best be shewn by the following table : — 

^ This ai at a later time became confounded with e, and finally sup- 
planted it, very wrongly; for the two symbols e and ai originally re- 
presented two entirely different sounds. 






t— I 





g w g « 

J^ 2 " -^ 

_•« a a o . 

r o o o o 

>. >» 


c o 
i2 o 



__.^^ <» 'W 

« Z 

O J2 


•5 S 


O C 3 3 

ir o fe o 

Cm w> > en 

w no 

.5 h So 



III. — E in Position. 

§ 65. E in Latin position (i. e. when it is followed in the Latin 
word by two consonants) always remains unchanged : as herba, her be ; 
testa, teie ; festa, fete ; fernim, /er ; inferniun, enfer ; hibemum, 
hiver^ ; except that before gutturals the e is 'iotacised,' or passes 
into the i form, under the usual influence (§ 58) of the guttural: 
and this either into /.' as pectus, />u/ lectum, lit ; confectum, confit ; 
sex, six ; despectum, de'pit ; or into ei, as sed'cim, tred'cim, seize, 
treize ; and later on this ei becomes oi, as tectum, toit ; cresco 
(by transposition crecso*), crois ; directiun (Low Lat. dirictum, 
drietum, O. Fr. dreii), droit ; and finally into ai, as in paresco (Low 
Lat. parisco, O. Fr. pareis, then parois), parais. 

For e becoming ei, oi, and ai, see §§ 61, 62, 63. 

§ 66. E in French position (i. e. when followed in the later 
stages of transition by two consonants), as debita, deb'ta, dette. 

1. e is treated as if it were not in position, and therefore it follows 
the course of e, which passes into ie (§ 56): as lep(6)rein, lievre ; 
ped(i)ca, /"/^"^ / tep(i)dus, tiede ; eb(u)luni, Jiieble, &c. ^ 

2. e in position remains unchanged: as deb(i)ta, dette ; quadra- 
ges(i)ma, careme ; cler(i)cus, clerc, &c. 

And this may be thus expressed : — 

E in Latin position 

I -^ -1 

before gutturals becomes continues as e, except 

Merovingian i, before gutturals ; as 

which passes into whence Fr. / ; 

1 . ei ; as sed'cim, seize, as lectum., //'/. 

2. oi; as tectum, toit, 

3. ai; as -pareaco, parais. 

herba, berbe. 

^ The only true exceptions are lucerna, lucarne, and lacerta, le%ard: 
in the Dictionary will be found the history of each of these exceptional 
forms. The change of e into a before r (as is also seen in per, par) follows 
a secondary law which is explained in my Memoire sur le changement de 
/'e latin en a, in the Memoires de la Societe de Linguistique, i. 418. In 
niece from neptia, tiers from tertius, the ie has been formed by the 
transposition of the i; as also in siecle, which is a bad and semi-learned 
form, as is shewn by the retention of the c ; seule would have been the 
good form of the word. 

^ Merula, posterula, and asperagus*, have been treated as if they 
had an e in Latin position ; and have given rise to merle, poterne, 


E in French position 

I ' 1 

if e, if e, 

becomes ie ; as remains unchanged ; as 

lep(o)rein, lie'vre. dericus, clerc, 

§ 67. General r^sumd of the passage of the Latin e into the French 
language : — 

I. e always becomes ie (except before gutturals, when it always 
becomes i). 
• 2. e becomes t, which sometimes, though very seldom, con- 
tinues as t ; but usually passes on to ei, oi, ai. 
3. e in Latin position always remains unchanged (except before 
gutturals, when it becomes i)\ e in French position re- 
mains as ^, if long ; becomes z<?, if short. 

History of I. 
L— i. 

§ 68. The Latin i is treated in common Latin, and also in 
French, as if it was e. We have seen, § 63, that the classical Latin 
e took in common Latin an iotacised sound, like ei, which became 
i, and was developed consecutively into ei in Old F>ench before 
the eleventh century ; then into oi, as legem, ligem, le% hi. 

Similarly the Latin i, in Merovingian times, was sounded like ei, 
and written in Merovingian texts as e\ which simply became e'i in 
very early French, then 6i\ as fidem, Merovingian Latin fedem, 
O. Fr. fei, then foi. 

This remarkable parallel may be best seen by the following 
table :— 

Classical Latin e (legem). i (fidem.). 

Merov. Latin, i, pronounced 6i (ligem). e, pronounced 6i (fedem). 

French of the nth century . . . eiQei,fei). 
After that date oi (Jot, foi). 

^ The forms vecem, bebere, fedem, menus, &c., for vicem, bibere, 
fidem, minus, &c., occur in Inscriptions of the times of the Empire: 
and this pronunciation of i as //', expressed by e, dates from very early 
times ; for we find in Varro ' Rustici nunc viam . . veham appellant.' 


This change of i into ot through O. Fr. ei, is also to be found 
in pirum, poire ; pilum, poil ; picem, poix ; nigrum, noir ; minus, 
moins ; sit, soil ; &itim,soi/; Yisim.,voie; iidem., foi ; \yi\y've, boire ; 
pip'r, poivre ; Lig'rim, Loire ^ For details, and for the history 
of the passage from Old French ei into oi, see above, § 61. 

IL— I. 

§ 69. i usually remains in French: as nidum, nid ; ripa, rive ; 
fvsMsm., fin ; vinum, 57z«/ ■gYYrQ.^x![n., prin (m prinie?nps) ; s\Q,si; vita, 
vie ; pica, />z"<? ; and so too in the suffixes ills, il; as Aprilis, avril ; 
icem = is, ix, as perdicem, perdrix ; radicem, rais (in raifort) ; 
icum, icam = ?', ie, as am.icum, ami; vesica, vessie ; inum = ?>/, as 
molinum, moulin ; ire = ir, as audire, ouir ; itum = i, as maritum, 
mari ; ivum = ?/] as captivum, cMiif^. 

§ 70. Before a consonant followed by ius (eus), ia, ium, this 1, 
whether long or short, usually remains: as filius, fil ; cilium, cil ; 
servitium, service ; — lineum, linge ; tibiam, tige ; simia, singe ; — 
familia famille; fili&,, fille ; linea, ligne ; vinea, vigne. In a few 
cases, however, this i passes into ei (pronounced like e, as we have 
seen in § 61): as consilium, conseil ; mirabilia, merveille ; nivea, 
neige ; tinea, teigne : insignia, enseigne : and this ei, pronounced as 
e, is met with in the latter form in vicia, vesce ; tristitia, tristesse ; 
laetitia, Hesse ; -j^i^vitiEi, par esse ^. 

The history of the passage of the Latin ~ and " into the French 
language may be shewn as follows : — 

^ Sinus has stopped at sein, and vitrum at n^erre, because these 
monosyllables instinctively keep all the strength they can. The Dictionary 
explains how it is that sine has become sans : mine, ligo, plico, formed 
the regular O. Fr. moine, loie, ploie; and these again have been reformed 
in Modern French into mene, lie, plie. The only true exceptions are 
eicer, chiche ; librum, li-vre (but the quantity of librum was uncertain); 
other words, such as tigris, tigre, &c., are of learned origin. 

^ Patrinum, parrain ; matrina, marraine, at first changed the i into 
ei (§ 70), whence O. Fr. parrein, marreine : for the change from ei to «i, 
see §§ 61, 62, 63. Glirem, loir; pisum, pois, have treated the i as if it 
were i : perhaps pois, which in regular course ought to have been pis, is so 
formed in order to escape from the confusion between pis from pectus, 
and pis from peius, and also pic from picus. Cer'voise does not come 
from cerevisia, but from cervisa. 

^ See above, § 2. This change of i into e is also to be met with in vidua, 
vidva, vedva, 've've, 'vewve. Courroie, from corrigia, has treated the i as 
if it were i, see § 68. 



In Merovingian "I ' f^., ^ before ius, ia, before ius, ia, before any oth 
times J ® <^^®^®°^>' ium ium letter it remain 

always unchangi 

/ ifds). 

in I oth century . ei {fe't) 

in nth century . oi (^foi) ' 

in nth century . 6e 

in 1 2th century . oe {foi) 

i (Jlle) 

sometimes becomes 

ei, as (^conseit), then 

e (tristesje). 

e one in 1 5th century, 

as njerre from O. Fr. | 

•voirre, vitrum. oua in i6th century. 

III. — I in Position. 

§ 71. I in Latin position is changed to e in Merovingian Latin ^ : 
thus fermum, ceppum, mettere, for firmum, cippum, mittere, are 
found in Inscriptions ; and this e, pronounced et (see § 66), has 
produced two distinct French forms, according as it has preferred 
the open e sound, or the i sound. 

§ 72. (i) The e sound. — This is the usual way in which i in 
position before all consonants, except the gutturals and nasals, is 
changed : as ilia, elle ; axilla, aisselle ; firm.uin, ferme ; siccum, sec ; 
missum, mets ; fissa, /esse ; arista, ar^ie ^ ; cippum, cep ; crista, 
cr^te; evisT^a, cre'pe^. 

^ For details and history of the development of oi, see the table which 
gives the history of e, above, § 63. 

^ i in position rarely remains unchanged; instances are ille, il ; villa, wl/e; 
mille, mil ; millia, milk ; missum, mis (but also mets) ; scriptum, ecrit. 
Such words as triste from tristis, argile from argilla, epitre from epistola, 
are learned or half-learned words. 

^ Illos, capillos, ilicem, have formed, quite regularly, the O. Fr. els, 
chevels, yelce, whence, at a later time, by softening /into u (see § 157), came 
the Modern French eux, che^eux, yeux. Vierge, from virgo, is an ex- 
ception ; but in O. Fr. the correct form, virge, was in use. 

* In en, from inde, the word has taken the sound of an, a sound 
which appears orthographically in such words as langue, dans, sangle, tanche, 
ceans, dimanche, from the Latin lingua, &c. : these words were correctly 
written as lengue, dens, &c., in Old French. 


§ 73. (ii). The ei sound, before nasals, whether they are (i) pure : 
as imprim(e)re, empreindre ; exprim(e)re, epreindre ; or (2) fortified 
by a guttural : as eing(e)re, ceindre ; exstingu(e)re, eieindre ; tin- 
g(e)re, teindre ; fmg(e)re, y^zWr^; T^in^{e)ve, peindre ; string(e)re, 
etreindre \ For the history of this ei sound, see § 61. 

§ 74. Before pure gutturals i first becomes ei, which later passes 
into oi, and sometimes even into ai : as rig(i)dura, reide, roide, raide. 
For the history of ei, oi, and ai, see §§ 61, 62, 63. But i is not in all 
cases so fully developed ; in some words it even remains unchanged : 
as periculiim, /£7V// GlsL-vicvlo,, cheville ; lenticvUa,, leniille ; craticula, 
grille ; dictum, dit ; delictum, delii. 

Before gl, ch, i drops to ei : as apic(u)la, aheille ; somnic(u)lus, 
sommeil ; sicla*, seille ; vig(i)lo, veille ; triehila, ireille ; ovic(u)la, 
O. Fr. otieille, now ouaille. (For ei = ai, see § 61.) Axic(u)lum. and 
spic(u)lum made the O. Fr. aissieil, espieil, which, by the later soften- 
ing of I to u (§ 157), have produced essieu, e'pieu. 

It is only before c, g, followed by a dental, that the i is completely 

developed : thus strictus, digitus, rigidus, frigidum, explicitum, 

become O. Fr. estreit, deil, reide, freii, expleit, now elroit, doigt, roide, 

froid, exploit'^. .This oi (following the rule given in § 63) becomes 

ai in roide, raide ; but e in implicita, empleite *, emploiie *, now emplette. 

To sum up : — 

I in French position 

becomes e in Merovingian Latin, 

in nth century is open e 
before all consonants in i ith century is ei (sonorous) before 

except nasals and ^ j 

gutturals. I 

nasals gutturals 

12th cent. «■ nasal remains as « becomes oi in 
before/ 12th century 

before dentals. 

Why is constringere, contraindre, written with at f Vincire makes 
-vaincre, though O. Fr. t^eincre. Benignus, maUgnus, keep the i, as benin, 
malin : setng and daigne come, through O. Fr. sein, daingne, deingne, from 
signum, digno. Signum remains as sin in tocsin. 

The attraction of the i with gutturals is so strong that it makes itself 
lelt, even though a consonant be between it and the gutturals : thus discus, 
meniscus, theodiscus, become dicsus, menicsus, theodicsus, whence O. Fr. 
dets, meneis, tieis, then dots (now dais), menois, tiois. 


History of O. 
I— O. 

§ 75. 6 only continues unchanged in French in a very few cases ; 
that is, before the nasals : as sono, sonne ; bonus, bon ; sonum, son ; 
homo, on : this o, which was sonorous (like the Italian o) in the 
earliest French, becomes nasal (on) from the twelfth century.^ 

§ 76. Before all other consonants 6 becomes a diphthong in 
French, in consequence of the necessity of strengthening the accented 
short vowels. In all the Romance tongues, except Portuguese, the 
Latin 6 becomes a diphthong by placing u before it, the vowel 
which comes next after it in the scale of vowels : just as e called in 
t to form t'e, so 6 attracted u, and formed the group ud, some 
traces of which are even to be found in popular Latin ^; it also 
has produced the Italian uo (novuni, It. nuovd). This uo was softened 
into ue in Spanish (novum, nuevo), and, still more, into eu in French 
(novum, neuf). But the remark made above, that the Romance 
tongues offer us in space the same phenomena as are presented 
by the French language in time, is here again shewn to be just; 
for the Latin 6 was uo in ninth-century French — the Hymn of St. 
Eulalia has buona ; in the eleventh century this uo had softened into 
ue : thus novum, proba *, were nuef, prueve in the Chanson de Roland. 
In the twelfth century the u dropped to o, the group ue became oe, 
whence noef, proeve ; this group, oe, in the thirteenth century takes the 
sound of the German d (as the rhymes of that age clearly shew). 
Now, this German '6 being expressed in French by eu, the oe group 
was transcribed into eu towards the end of the fourteenth century. It 
may be noticed that, here as elsewhere, orthography has taken two 
centuries to accommodate itself to pronunciation. Hence comes the 
modern orthography of noviim, neuf; novem, neuf; proba, preuve ; 
m.ovita*, meute ; volo, veux ; mola, meule ; Mesa, Meuse ; coquus, 
queux; dolium*, ^<?«z7/ fd\i&,, feuille ; aolea.* , seui'l ; jocum, j'eu : also 
locum, O. Fr. /eu, now written h'eu, just as Deu has become Di'eu. 

But here also there are many orthographical irregularities : although 
the pronunciation is eu, we find even now (i) the orthographical 
twelfth-century form ue in accueillir, orguetl, cueillir^ : (2) the ortho- 

* Let us add the two words, schola, ecole ; rota, O. Fr. roe, now roue. 

^ Schuchardt, ii. 329, cites buona for bona in a MS. of the seventh 

^ While the O. Fr. muete, from movita, was changed in regular course 
to meute in Modern French, the old form remained in the hunting-term 
muette, a. house in which hunting relays are kept : hence comes the name 
La Muette, a chateau in the Bois de Boulogne, mentioned in the cor- 
respondence of the eighteenth century. 



graphic form oeu, which is still more uncouth, is bovem, bceuf; 
sororem, soeur ; cor coeur, which were buef, siier, cuer in the twelfth 
century. This strange orthography was invented by the copyists, 
who were embarrassed by ue, oe, and eu ; they got rid of the 
difficulty by a compromise between oe and eu; that is, by sticking 
these two diphthongal forms together {pe-\-eu = oeu). This ceu is even 
reduced to ce, in ml. We must not be deceived by these irregularities 
of the written language ; we must never forget that the true language, 
the spoken tongue, is, on the contrary, perfectly regular in its 

§ 77. After reaching eu, the Latin 6 usually remains stationary : it 
does, however, sometimes undergo a change, and descends to u : 
thus forum was first O. Fr. /uer, then /eur, now /ur : and the O. Fr. 
meure, deu, meu, meutin, bleuet, peure'e, have dropped to mure, bu, mil, 
mutin, bluet, pure'e. Gageure is still pronounced gagure. 

To sum up : — 

Latin 6 

before all consonants 

except the gutturals 


in 6th century Merovingian uo 

in 9th century French . . uo 

in nth century French . . ue 

in 12th century French . . oe 

in 1 3th century French . , eu (0) 

written alike as 
ue, eu, ceu, oe, 

before the nasals 

in the i ith cent, on (sonorous) 
in the 12th cent, on (nasal). 

remains as eu 

drops to u in i6th cent. 

IL— O. 

§ 78. 6 in popular Latin early took a sound intermediate between 
pure and ou — a sound which transcribers expressed by u : thus 
we find honur, amur, neputem, nus, vus, &c., in the Inscriptions 
of the fifth century, and in later Merovingian diplomas. 

This new sound passed into the French language, which, in the 
eighth century, in the Glosses of Cassel, has lu/li, purcelli, iundi ; 
in the ninth century, in the Oaths of a.d. 842, we find amur, dunat, 
returnar, nun ; while side by side with these are om, contra, non, which 

f 2 



shews clearly how undecided^as the scribe as to the best way of 
expressing this new sound, rendering iFsometimes by u, sometimes 
by 0. From the ninth to the eleventh century it is usually noted by 
u by French scribes : thus we commonly find, till the twelfth century, 
duner, amur, ublier, sun, tute^ hume, lur {leur), in all French texts ^: 
after the twelfth century the French scribes seem to prefer o to express 
this sound ^, and write amor, honor, lor, oblier, tote, &c. Finally, the 
thirteenth century abandons this misleading orthography (which did 
not express the true sound, and made a confusion between o and u), 
and created the two special notations eu and ou, for the two sounds 
into which the Latin 6 sound is divided. 

§ 79. 6 passes regularly into eu (save in the cases stated below) : 
as nepotem, neveu ; horam, heure ; florem, fleur ; cotem, queux ; 
mobilis, meuble; illorum., leur; solum., seul; mores, moeurs; nodum, 
noeud; votiim, voeu ; ovum, ceuf^; seniorem, seigneur: and all 
suffixes in osum become eux : as virtutosum *, vertueux ; pedu- 
culosum *, pouilleux ; ventosum, venteux * .* suffixes in orem be- 
come eur : as dolorem., douleur ; honorem., honneur ; im.peratorem., 
empereur^. Before we end, let us say that this eu coming from 6 
(and expressed in the twelfth century by o, in the tenth and in 
Merovingian Latin by u), cannot be confounded with the eu which 
comes from 6 (expressed in the twelfth century by oe, in the eleventh 
by ue, in the ninth by uo, see § 77). 

§ 80. Sometimes eu drops to u : thus morum becomes O. Fr. 
meure, but from the sixteenth century mure, 

§ 81. There are a few cases (chiefly before dentals between two 
vowels) in which 6 prefers to become ou : as nodo, noue ; voto, zjoue ; 
doto, doue : and to these let us add sposus *, /poux ; nos, nous ; vos, 
vous ; totum, tout ; amorem, amour ; zelosum, jaloux, 

§ 82. Before the nasals, 6, after becoming u in the eleventh century, 
settles down as o in the twelfth century ; first as sonorous o (§ 75), 

^ And the editors of medieval works are wrong in concluding hence 
that in these words u was pronounced as Modern French u: it is easy 
to see, by means of rhymes of the period, that the pure u sound (like mur^ 
from Latin u in m.urum.) never rhymes with such a word as amur (from 
Latin o in amorem). 

^ On the other hand Anglo-Norman scribes retain the orthography in 
tt, a fact which for a long time kept alive the belief that this u was the 
distinctive sign of the Norman dialect; it is so, in fact, only from the 
thirteenth century. 

^ In the words mceurs, nceud, 'vceu, ceufs, the oeu for eu is an unlucky 
imitation of the ceu group, already treated in § 76. 

* A remarkable exception is to be seen in zelosum, jaloux : compare 
^lou, gabelou, for Jileur, gabeleur. 

^ Amorem, amour, forms a single and singular exception. Labour is 
simply the verbal substantive of labourer , and is therefore no exception. 


then as nasal on (§ 75) thus leonem, donum, nomen, after having 
been leun, dun, num in the eleventh century, are fixed as lion, don, 
nam in Modern French. 

§ 83. Before the gutturals 6 is ' iotacised ; ' and, just as a becomes ai, 
and e ei, so o becomes 6i, which in the eleventh century is sonorous, 
like the Italian voi, but is weakened in the twelfth century into the 
modern oi ; as vocem, votx. For the history of French oi, see § 63. 

§ 84. Before proparoxytons in eus, ea, eum, ius, ia, ium, the 6 
attracts to it the i, and then one of two results follow: either (i) 
the o remains, while it softens the subsequent consonant; either 
continuing as o, as in ciconia, cigogne^, or following the regular 
changes into eu, as folia, feuille ; solium, seuil ; or into ou, as 
de-ex-spoliare, de'pouilkr (as is expounded in §§ 78, 79) : or (2) the 
6 is * iotacised/ and becomes ui, as corium, cuir ; podium, pui ; 
m.odium., muid ; hodie, hui ; oleum, huile ; troja, iruie : and this 
sound afterwards drops to oivi\ eboreum*, ivoire ; m.onius *, moine ; 
testimonium, temoin; dormitorium, dortoir ; gloria, gloire; historia, 
histoire ^. 

To sum up : — 


In Merovingian Latin u 

in 9th century either u or c, indifferently, 


in nth century by | | | 

preference . . u but ui before propar- oi before gutturals in 

I I oxytons nth century, 

I nth cent, oi 
in 1 2 th century by | | 

preference . . 12th cent, ot 12th cent, ot 

I ' 1 

which divides in 13th which is strengthened into 

cent, into pure before nasals 

I ' 1 I 

eu ou on nasal, in Modern 

f— ;— ' 1 French. 

remains eu u in i6th cent. 

(as morum, mure') 

^ Cicogne is a learned word ; and the true popular form of it is O. Fr. 
soigne, which remains in the derivative soignole, from ciconiola {the le-ver 
of a well, in Isidore of Seville). 

"^ This oi, coming from Latin o + i, must not be confounded with oi 
which comes from e or i: (1) because oi from o + i was never ei, whilst the 
other oi was ei at the beginning of the French language. (2) oi from 
e or i is a natural outcome of the Latin sound, while oi from o + i comes 
from the addition of a Latin i to the Latin o. 


III. — O in Position. 

§ 85. O in Latin position, except in the two cases con- 
sidered below (§§ 86, 87), always continues in French: as ossum, os ; 
portum, porf ; longum, /ong ; soccum, soc ; porta, porte ; corpus, 
corps ; comu, cor ; comua, come ; montem, moni. The same is the 
case when o Latin is in French position (§ 88) : as coph(i)num, 
coffre ; pon(e)re, pondre ; coni(i)tem, comte ; rot(u)lum, role ; com- 
p(u)tum, compte ; hosp(i)teni, hSte ^ 

§ 86. In certain words this o drops to ou (see § 88) : as cortem *, 
O. Fr. cort^ cour ; tomo *, O. Fr. tome, iourne ; torta, O. Fr. torle, 
iourte ; coventus (from conventus), O. Fr. covent, convent; costare 
(from constare), O. Fr. couster, coUter ; consuere, cosuere, O. Fr. 
cousdre, coudre. 

This is not the same kind of softening that has changed o into 
ou in the following : mollis, O. Fr. mot, mou ; collis, O. Fr. col, cou ; 
follis*, O. Yx.fol,fou ; pollicem, O. Fr. poke, pouce ; resolvere, O. Fr. 
resoldre, re'soudre ; molere, O. Fr. moldre, vioudre ; vol(u)ta, O. Fr. 
volte, voute ; colaphum, O. Fr. colp, coup ; rotulo, O. Fr. rolle, route ; 
eorotulo, O. Fr. crolle, croule ; poljrpum, O- Fr. polpe, poulpe : for 
these come from the resolution of ol into ou ; for the history of which 
see § 157. 

§ 87. Before gutturals, and in proparoxyton words ending in ius, 
ia, ea, &c., o is ' iotacised,' like all other vowels in the same position 
(see §§ 70, 84), and becomes ol in the eleventh century (§ 84) ; this 
at a later time becomes oi (§ 84), then ui towards the end of the 
middle ages: thus noetem, O. Fr. nolt, null; cocsa (coxa), O. Fr. 
coisse, cuisse ; octo, O. Fr. oil, huii ; coq(ue)re, O.Fr. coire, cuire ; 
noc(e)re, O.Fr. noire, nuire ; ostium, O.Fr. oistre"^, huitre. Even in 
common Latin we find ustium for ostium, ustiarius for ostiarius^. 
For the history of French oi, see § 63. 

^ Why should dom(i)na, written domna in Merovingian texts, have 
taken the strange form dame, while dom(i)nuin became dom in regular 
course ? 

- As late as Villon we find oistre (whence Engl, oyster) rhyme with 

^ This influence has been so strong that possum produced the O. Fr. 
pots, now puis, although there is no guttural in the word : the probability 
is that the word was treated as if it was pocsum. A remarkable irre- 
gularity is to be seen in oc(u)lum, oclum in the fourth century (Appendix 
ad Probum). Oclum produced the O. Fr. ucil, then oc'il whence comes 
the transformation into (euU, U, as we have seen above, in § 76. 
Why then have we a-veugle from aboculum, and not a'vcBil'? From the 
form euil, plural euils comes the diphthongal form in ' ' 
by dropping the /, comes the plural j'^'w*-. 


§ 88. This mutual attraction between o and the gutturals is 'so 
strong, that it even affects them when they are separated by another 
consonant. In this case the o attracts the guttural, transposes it, and 
produces the <?/ sound : thus cognosco, boscum *, becoming cognocso, 
bocsum ^, produced connois, now connais ^, and hois. Similarly, when 
the letters are divided from one another by a nasal: longe, mon- 
(a)clius, canon(i)cus, become logne, moc'nus, canoc'nus, whence 
loin, moift, chanoin. It should further be noticed that in the two 
cases treated in this paragraph o stops at oi, and does not descend 
to ui. 

To sum up : — 

O in Latin and French position is 
I similarly treated. 

In Merovingian Latin . . u 

r ^ , 

before all consonants (except before gutturals and pro- 

gutturals and proparoxy- paroxytons in 

tons in ius, &c.) ius, &c. 

is strengthened to . o in nth cent. . di 

in 1 2th cent. . or 
in 1 5th cent. . . ou which 1 ' . 

descends to I 

(?) eu oi in 15th cent Kt 

remains unchanged 
if the gutturals are 
separated from it by 
a consonant. 

General resume of the history of the Latin o : — 

1. 6 remains unchanged before nasals; becomes a diphthong eu 

before all other consonants. 

2. 6 remains unchanged before nasals ; becomes oi before gutturals ; 

eu or ou before other consonants. 

3. o in position (Latin or French) becomes ui before gutturals; 

remains unchanged before other consonants. 
Thus we see that as the tendency of a is towards e, of e towards 
i, so is that of towards u. 

History of IT. 

§ 89. This vowel was pronounced like French ou by the 
Romans : they used to express the French u sound ( = German u 

^ Similarly, we find in Inscriptions of the fifth century the form crex- 
entem. ( = crecsentem.) for crescentem. 
^ For the later change of oi into ai, see § 63. 


and Greek v) by the letter y, which in imperial times took (like 
Gr. v) the sound of i pure. 

Towards the end of the Empire the classical u sound is often 
softened into il, which the copyists could not render by y, seeing 
that that letter was softened in turn from U to /. Consequently, we 
find a great confusion in the written language: u being taken to 
represent the new ii sound, it was necessary in order to express 
the old classical sound of u, to introduce a new orthographic sign, 
ou. This is apparently a diphthong, but in reality has always ex- 
pressed a simple sound ^ 

I.— U. 

§ 90. Just as e and i become confounded together in Merovingian 
Latin, and are both rendered in French by oi, so 6 and u undergo 
the same fortune in French, o becoming ou, as is also the case with u 
(except before nasals). 

The Latin u sound is represented in Merovingian Latin by o, 
a letter which certainly must have differed from pure u, since the 
Appendix ad Probum (Keil, 199. 2) has * coluber non colober.' 
Thus we find cobetus for cubitus in the Formulae Andega- 
venses; jogum for jugum in the MS. of the Theodosian Code. 
This sound, certainly intermediate between ou and eu, was usually 
represented by u, then by 0, in the hands of the French scribes, 
at the beginning of the language ; and it is only at the end of the 
twelfth century that we notice this sound dividing in two very 
different directions, and passing one way towards ou pure, as cubo, 
couve ; ^xxigyxm., joug ; ubi, ou ; lupum, hup; and on the other side 
towards eu ^, as gula, gueule ; colubra, conleuvre ; juvenis, jeune ; 
supra, O. Fr. seur, now sur. For the softening of eu into u, see 

^ We must take care not to confound ou, as found in sourd, which is 
a simple orthographic transcription of the classical Latin u, with ou in cou 
(a softened form of O. Fr. cou, originally col, from Lat. collem). In the 
former case ou is a simple sound, and has always been such ; in the latter, 
ou is the softened form of a strong diphthong, ou in the eleventh century 
(§ 157), which also is a resultant of the softening of / into u. In the 
eleventh century these two sounds, now altogether confused together, 
were completely distinct. 

'^ For this change of Merovingian 6 into eu, see § 76. 

' The same word has often undergone this double treatment, passing 
into a form with eu and another with ou: thus lupum becomes O. Fr. both 
leu and loup ; supra both seur (jur) and sor ; juvenis both jeune and jcne. 
Modern French has only adopted one of these two forms. This eu from 
u must not be confounded with the eu which really comes from 6, and 
which has been treated of in § 76. The former was always eu in the 
middle ages, but the latter was originally ue. 



§ 91. Before gutturals this parallelism of 6 and u is again met with. 
Just as 6 becomes oi (vocem, voix), so i also becomes oi (nucem, 
noix ; crucem, croix). 

§ 92. There is a parallel phenomenon in proparoxytons in ius, 
eus, ia, ea, &c. : o then becomes ui (as podium, puy ?), and li 
becomes ui also in cupreum*, cuivre. A strange exception is 
ducem, due. 

§ 93. So again before nasals : 6 and u become 6», which is 
sonorous when followed by a single nasal and a vowel, but is nasal 
in all other cases : sumus, sommes ; tuiun, ton ; suum, son. 

Classical u 

Merovingian . . . . .6 

in nth cent u 

in 1 2th cent o 

before nasals is 
dulled to 

n I ith cent, o sonorous 

n 1 2th cent, o nasal 

before gutturals and 
proparoxytons in ius, 
&c., it is 'iotacised' 


before other 

1 2th cent, ou in 12th cent. eu. 

II.— U. 

§ 94. The classical Latin u was at an early date transformed into 
a softened u, and the scribes have kept the orthographic sign which 
formerly designated ou to express this new sound. This change of 
classical u into ii is general: crudum, cru ; cupa, cuve ; culum, cul ; 
durum, dur ; scutum, ecu; gluten, glu ; jus, Jus ; luna, lune ; 
maturum, miir ; miurum, mur ; mula, mule ; m.uta, mue ^ / nudum, 
nu ; nuTbem, wz^^y purum,/z^r/ ^lixmsb, plume ; ^id^o, sue ; securum, 
stir ; susum*, sus ; usus, us; and in the suffixes (i): \iva. = ure, as 
armatura, armure ; secatura, sciure ; (2) utem = z/, as virtutem, 
vertu ; salutem, saluf^ ; (3) utum = z^, as acutura, aigu ; minutum, 
menu ; canutum, chenu. 

^ In the one word rage mue. The masculine mu from mutum remains 
in the diminutive muet. 

■^ This is a form reconstructed by the learned : the O. Fr. regular form 
was salu. 


§ 95. Before the nasals u becomes nasal: as jejimiim, jmne ; 
unum, un ; Melodunum, Melun ; Augustodunum, Autun ; Eburo- 
dunum, Embrun : and this sometimes passed into a nasal o, as 
Sedunmn, Sion ; Lugdunum, Laon, Lyon. 

§ 96. In proparoxyton words ending in -ius, -eus, &c., u or u, 
through the reflex action of the i (or e) of the suffix, are transformed 
into ui, 01 : as fugio, fuis ; Junius, juin ; pluvia, pluie ; puteus, 
puits ; qvl^YAa, coiffe ; Cwcia,, Coi're ; cuneus, com : and this iotacism 
is extended even to u when in position : angustia, angoisse ; bustia *, 
boite. Diluvium has undergone peculiar treatment : instead of falling 
under the influence of the i, and becoming oi, it has turned the i 
into a consonant, whence comes diluvjum ; and then the u, being 
before two consonants, does not follow the rule given below (§97) 
for vowels in position, but becomes il {ddluge). Fleuve from 
fluvius, and bute from buteo, are harder to explain : so also is heur 
in boiiheur, malheur ; O. Fr. eilr^ ceiir ; Proven9al agur, from Lat. 
augurium : here the i has no perceptible influence. (Can there have 
been a late Latin form augurum * ?) 

To resume the history of u : — 

Classical . . . . u 

Marovingian . . ii (which stands to classical 
I u as ^« does to o) 

before consonants before proparoxytons in 
I ius, becomes 

« I 

I in nth cent, ui, oi 

before nasals before other 

I consonants 

in nth cent, u sonorous 

in 1 2th cent, u nasal 

afterwards o nasal 

IV.— U in Position. 

§ 97. It is an ascertained fact that the being *in position' (i.e. 
followed by two or more consonants) protects vowels, and keeps them 
unchanged : thus a in position remains as a : arbor, arbre ; e is still 
e, as ferrum, fer. In order to preserve itself, u ought to keep the 
pure ou sound, and not to drop to u; and this is exactly what 
happens. U in position retains its classical purity, but under the new 
orthographic sign of ou, as gutta, goutte. 

U having, even in Merovingian times, become ii (see above § 94), 


.IS in purum, pur, the scribes of that time, wishing to shew that u 
in position kept its ou sound, were obliged to have recourse to a new 
symbol, and took for this purpose the letter o. Thus the Inscriptions 
orlEe Empire and Merovingian diplomas are full of such forms as 
fornum, mosca, dolcem, comolo, sordum, oltra, orsum, in all of 
which o stands for u. 

This Merovingian o was transcribed by the French scribes some- 
times into «, sometimes into o; for they were as undecided about 
the best sign for this new sound as the Merovingian scribes had been : 
from the thirteenth century however it settled down definitely into 
the oti sign. Thus turrim is turre in Merovingian Latin, tor in Old 
French, and now four. 

The same continuance of the Latin u in French, under the form 
of ou, is to be seen in ampulla, ampoule ; bulla, boule ; betulla, boute ; 
bucca, louche ; cub'tus, coude ; cultrum, coutre ; cursus, cours ; 
curvum, courbe ; cuppa, coupe; curtum, court; culc'ta-puncta, 
courte-pointe ; dulcem, doux ; dubito, doute ; fulgurem, foudre ; 
furnum, four ; gutta, goutte ; gluttus *, glout * ^ / diumum, jour ; 
luscum, louche; luridum, lourd ; musca, viouche ; ultra, outre; 
ursum, ours; utrem, outre; pulv'rem, poudre ; pulsum, pouls ; 
pulla, poule ; russum, roux ; sol'dum, sou ; subtus, sous ; satullum, 
soul; suf'ero, souffre ; sulphur, sou/re; surdus, sourd; turba, tourbe ; 
turbo *, trouve ; turrem, tour ; turnum *, tour ; tussem, toux. 

The Old French o has remained in fluctus, _;?(?// multum, mot; 
nuptiae, noces ; viburnum, viorne ; ulmum, orme ; ructus, rot; 
gurges, gorge. 

Hence it can be seen how very generally this rule is applied : 
there are but few exceptions to it, and such are (i) in Latin position : 
as nullum, nul ; rusticum, rustre ; fustem, fut; justum, juste ; 
purgo, purge; dieusq\xe, jusque ; (2) in French position (§66): as 
hum'lis, humble; jud'cem, juge ; pul'cem., puce; consuetud'nem, 
coutume ; amaritud'nem, amertume. The cause of these exceptions 
is not easily to be discovered ; nor is that of the two words burrus, 
O. Fr. bidre, now burre, and butyrum, O. Fr. bur re, now beurre. 

§ 98. Before a nasal the Merovingian o remains as in French : 
as columba, Low Latin colomba, colombe. This was sonorous 
at first, in the eleventh century, then nasal (§ 77) from the 
twelfth century. Similarly rotundus, rond ; undecim, onze ; unda, 
onde ; mundum, monde ; num.erus, nombre ; pumicem., ponce ; 
rumpere, rompre ; ciunulum, comble ; fMn.6.\nrL, . fond ; fundus, 
fonds; de-unde *, dont ; summa, somme ; grundis *, gronde ; vere- 
cundiam, vergogne ; Burgundia, Bourgogne. 

§ 99. Before gutturals u in position is iotacised, and becomes ui : 

^ Whence comes the derivative glouton. 



thus finictus, fruit ; buxus ( = bucsus) \ bids ; tructa, truite ; lucere, 
hiire ; conducere, conduire ; luota*, O. Fr. luiie (now lutte) : this rule, 
however, does not hold good for u before cl, in which case it becomes 
oi in very early French, and afterwards oui : as foenuculum. Low 
Latin fenuelum, O. Fr. fenoil, now fenouil ; so too inductilis (later 
form induclis*), andouille ; ranuda (for ranuncula), grenouille ; 
colucula, quenouille ; as well as the Old Fr. pouil, verroutl, genouil 
(now pou, verrou, genou, see § 157), from peduclum, veruclum, genu- 
clum. Acucula has certainly produced aiguille; but the Old Fr. 
was regularly formed, agoille and agouille. 

§ 100. When u is followed by a gutturalised nasal (i. e. by nc, ng, 
gn) it is iotacised, and becomes oi ; at first sonorous (§ 43) and 
strong, and now nasal (§ 44), in the form oin : as punctum, point ; 
-pugniun., poing ; jungere, joindre ; ungere, oindre ; -pungerey poindre. 
But unquam, onques ; ungula, ongle ; truncus, ironc ; juncus, jonct 
have kept the o without becoming iotacised. 

To sum up the history of u in position (Latin or French) : — 

U in Latin or French position, 

in Merovingian days . . o 

before gutturals 

before the other consonants 
in nth cent, u 

nth cent, oi 

nth cent, k/, oui 


before nasals 

remains as 

nth cent, o 


1 2th cent. 0/ 12th cent. «/, o«/ 12th cent. 

nasal weak nasal 

before the others 

1 2th cent. ou. 

Finally, as a general r^sum^ of the history of the passage of the 
Latin u into French : — 

Just as i has a tendency to ascend to e, u {ou) has a like tendency 
towards 0. 

1. 1 remains either as ou pure, or softened to eu (except before 

gutturals, when it becomes ui or oi, and before the nasals, 
when it remains as 0). 

2. u is softened into ii (except when iotacised into ui by the 


3. u in Latin or French position remains as ou (except when iota- 

cised into ui, oui, oi by the gutturals, or into by the nasals). 

* The X has had no influence on O. Fr. jouste from juxta, whence the 
derivatives jouster, ajouster (now jouter, ajouter). So the guttural has gone 
without leaving a trace from fl.uctus,^o^; ructus *, rot. 



§ 101. This letter, an importation from Greece, and intended to 
represent Upsilon in the numerous words borrowed by the learned 
Latin from the Greek, stands for the exact sound of the modern u. 
The Greeks expressed the Latin u sound by ov. 

Now this ii sound has been dealt with in three different ways 
by the French : either (i) it has retained the ii sound, as 
CiCvcpov, zizyj>hMm., Jujuie ; or (2) has risen to the full ou sound: 
thus ^vpa-r], TTv^lda, KpvTrrr}, rvfi^os, which were byrsa, pjrxida, crypta, 
tumba*, in Latin; then bursa, buxida, crupta, tumba, in Mero- 
vingian Latin, and were treated as if formed with an original Latin u, 
so making quite regularly the forms dourse (§ 97), M/e (§ 100), gro//e 
(§ 97), fomde (§ 97) : or (3) il has followed the descending course, 
which is towards z (just as the German Milller becomes English 
miller^ and as the Latin maxumus passed first to maxumus, then 
to raaximus), as tympanum, timbre ; m.yrtus, O. Fr. mirie (the 
modern myrte is a classical reproduction). Similarly myxa became 
micsa, and was treated in French as if written with an original i ; 
whence come the two regular changes of micsa into misca (§170), 
then misca to mesche (§ 126), lastly vieche. 


The Latin Diphthongs. 

§ 102. Just as the tendency of the classical Latin was to soften the 
primitive diphthongs of the Indo-European language \ so it is the 
tendency of the popular Latin to reduce the diphthongs to simple 
vowels, which are then treated as such by the French tongue ^. 

L— AE. 

§ 103. Ae appears about the time of the Gracchi as a degenerate 
form of the Old Latin ai (aidem, datai, then aedem, datae). Then 
in turn this diphthong, already half-gone, is reduced to the simple e 
sound, which must have taken place somewhat early, for Varro 
speaks of edus, Mesius, as a popular pronunciation for haedus, 
Maesius, and Lucilius ridicules the pronunciation Cecilius, pretor, 
instead of Caecilius, praetor. Still, except on the Graffiti, or wall- 

' Of the six old Latin diphthongs, ai, ei, oi, au, eu, ou, classical Latin 
has reduced ei to 1, and ou to u ; has changed ai to ae, and oi into oe ; 
and only au and eu have remained untouched. 

"^ Common Latin reduced ae and oe to e, au to o, and retained only 


inscriptions of Pompeii, e for ae is rather rare in Inscriptions down 
to the third century ; after that time it becomes common in monuments 
and MSS. : as preda, prefectus, presens, Grecus, for praeda, &c. 

§ 104. This ae has been treated, when in position, as a primitive 
e (see § 65), whence comes regularly praesto, pre'/. When not in 
position, the e which comes from ae is treated by the French 
language ( i ) sometimes as an e, whence in due form (§ 61) comes ei, 
then o/(§63): as balaena, balena, baleine ; praeda, preda, proie ; 
blaesus, blesus, blois ; or (2) as a e, whence, in due form 
(§56) the diphthong ie : as laeta, leta, lie ; quaerit, querit, quiert ; 
saeculum, sec'lum, siecle. But how has ae become eu, ieu, in 
hibreu (Old Fr. ibrieii), from Hebraeus ; Matthieu from Matthaeus, 
and Old Fr. cieu for caecus; grieu from Graecus ; Dieu^ Old Fr. 
Deu, from Deus .? This is a phonetic difficulty, which has as yet 
received no answer, and remains very obscure. The same is the 
case with the transformation of Judaeus into juif^ in which the d 
has become y (as in sitim, soif) : and here the change from ae to 
i cannot be explained, unless we suppose that it has taken place in 
the same way in which iniquus, concido, illido, requiro, have come 
from aequus, caedo, laedo, quaere. 

II.— OE. 

§ 105. Just as the Old Latin ai became ae in classical times, and 
then e in popular Latin, so the archaic Latin oi (foidere, Coilius) 
is softened by the time of Plautus into oe (foedere, Coelius), which 
becomes e in late imperial times. By the third century a.d. it was 
difficult to distinguish between oe and e ^ : whence ae and oe, having 
alike become e, have been similarly treated : thus we have oi, foenum, 
(§ QQ),/oin ; ei in poena (which was poine in Old French, § 63), 
peine ; also e from foemina, femme ; and ie (§ 56) in coelum, tenth 
century eel (in St. Eulalia), del. 

III.— AU. 

§ 106. Just as ai became ae, then e, so au becomes ao, then 0. 
This change is to be seen more than once in classical times ; as in 
Clodius for Claudius, oUa for aula, plostrum for plaustrum, ex- 
plode from plaudo, suffoco from fauces : it becomes common in the 
decadence of the Latin language : thus Festus says that in his days 
auricula, aurum were pronounced oricula,*orum by country people. 
In Merovingian documents the substitution of o for au is general. 

^ When once ae and oe had both become e, an inextricable confusion 
sprang up in Latin orthography between them ; and thus we find coelum, 
poena, coena, wrongly written caelum, paena, caena. 


§ 107. Au always begins by becoming o in French : as aurum, or ; 
clausus, clos ; ausare*, oser ; causa, chose^. This o usually remains 
in Modern French^, except when followed by a consonant which 
disappears : in this case o becomes ou in Modern French : as in 
laudo, O. Fr. he, loue ; compare also aut, ou ; inrauco *, enroue. 
It is clear that we may not confound this ou from O. Fr. o, the ou 
which comes from the softening of / into u, as in caulis, O. Fr. chol, 

§ 108. Before a guttural (as auca), or in a proparoxyton word 
ending in ius, ia, ea, &c., au, after passing into o, follows the rule 
which we have noticed as holding invariably in this case (§§ 83, 84), 
and is iotacised into oi: as auca, oie^ ; nausea, noise '^ ; gaudium, 
joie ; Sabaudia, Savoie : a change which even reaches to such words 
as claustrum, cloiti'e * ; adbaubare, aboyer, in which cases there is no 


The Latin Consonants. 

§ 110. The consonants may be divided into : — 

I. Explosive : (i) Labials, p, b (dull p, sonorous b). 
(ii) Dentals, t, d (dull t, sonorous d). 
(iii) Gutturals, c, g (dull c, sonorous g). 
II. Aspirate: h. 

III. Semi-vocals : j, v. 

IV. Prolonged : (i) Labial, f (ph). 
(ii) Dentals, s, x, z. 

V. Liquids : r, 1. 
VI. Nasals : m, n. 

* Learned writers have often reconstructed, and wrongly so, the Old 
French forms, with a view to bringing them back to what they conceived 
to be the original Latin form : thus the very correct Old Fr. po-vre from 
pauper, torel from taurelliim, have been rewritten as pawvre, taureaUf 
by the clerks. 

2 In one or two cases Modern French has treated this Old Fr. o as if it 
had been a primitive Latin o, and has changed it regularly (§ 79) into 
eu : thus cauda, paucum., gave the Old Fr. coe, po, softened in Modern 
French into queue, peu. The old form coe, or coue, is still to be seen in 
the derivative couard. 

^ We have seen (§ 84) how often the Latin as it becomes weaker in 
French takes two forms : thus paucum, when it lost its guttural influence, 
became peu, but in Old French, when it retained some memory of it, it 
was pot; and similarly auca loses all trace of the guttural in the O. Fr. oe, 
oue, but recovers it again in oie. 

* In Old French we have also the more regular form clostre. 


I. — Explosive Consonants. P, B. 
(i) Labials. Strong P. 

§ 110. The Latin initial p always remains unchanged ' : pauper- 
tatem, pauvreti ; pacare, payer ; palatium, palais. 

§ 111. Medial p drops to b in popular Latin, and this b in its 
turn drops to v in French : thus the classical saponem, ripa, crepare, 
saporem, become sabonem, riba, crebare, saborem in Merovingian 
days : but (as we see, § 113) b drops necessarily to v in French, 
and the forms sabonem, riba, crebare, saborem, become savon, rive, 
crever, saveur? 

P, having such a distance to pass (p to b, b to v) ^, it is easy to see 
that when medial it is not syncopated in French ; still there is one 
example of this syncope in sil, O. Fr. seii, from sa(p)utus *. 

§ 112. Final p disappears : lupum becomes O. Fr. lou, which the 
learned from the fifteenth century onwards have rewritten in the form 
loup ; while this imitative p still remains mute *. 

^ It is no objection to this rule that we have boite from puxida 
because the Romans themselves called it buxida, Placidus the grammarian 
mentions it as a popular and incorrect pronunciation of the word. — 
(Glosses of Placidus, ap. Mai. CI. Auct. vi. 570.) Compare also the 
classical Latin buxus from Gr. ttv^os. The change of initial p into b 
cannot therefore be attributed here to the French, but to the popular 

'^ In apicla*, abeille', apotheca, boutique; caepulla, ciboule; capanna, 
cabane, it seems at first that the Latin p had been arrested in its descent 
at b, without being able to drop to v : but, in fact, these words are not 
French (i. e. they have not come straight from the Latin) ; they have been 
imported (as may be seen in the Dictionary) some from Provence, others 
from Italy : and consequently they do not vitiate the rule laid down. The 
same is the case with the word acabit, which is an offensive corruption of 
accapitum *. 

•^ Such words as vaporem, 'vapeur; stupidus, stupide ; occupare, oc- 
cuper ; capitale, capkale, &c., which retain the medial p intact, are all 
of learned origin (§ 36). We must, however, except some such forms as 
eapitulum, chapitre ; epistola, epitre ; papilionem, papillon ; caponem, 
chapon ; apostolus, apotre ; capitellum *, chapiteau , capulare, chapeler, 
which are clearly more than half popular, and have yet partly remained 
in a learned form, for reasons which one cannot always readily explain. 

* As to chef hom caput, the permutation comes in another way. Caput 
became capu in common Latin, then the regular permutation (p to b, 
b to n)) gave in Merovingian Latin the form cabo ; and this is succeeded by 
the French form che've in the tenth century (et preparavit dominus 
ederam super caput Jone . . un edre sore sen che've, ' an ivy-bush over 
his head'), is a phrase found in a homily on Jonah of the tenth century. 
Che've became chef, like bovem, b(Buf; ovum, <£uf; vivum, 'vif see § 142. 
Compare aput = ab, a. 


When followed by a (in French e mute), the final p again becomes 
a medial, and passes regularly into v : as ripa, rive ; cupa, cuve ; 
lupa, louve ; rapa, rave ; sapa, seve ; caepa, cive. 

Soft B. 

§ 113. The Latin initial b remains unchanged : bucca, louche ; 
bovem, bocuf; bene, bien; bonum, bien. The Latin medial b : 
when soft it never remains in the middle of a word ^ but drops to 
the aspirated v. In some cases the Latin b, having become v, does 
not stay there, but treats that v as if it were the original letter ; it 
then undergoes the change considered below, § 141, i. e. it disappears : 
adbau(b)are * becomes aboyer ; ha(b)enteni, ay ant ; de(b)utus, die; 
ha(b)utus*^, O. Fr. eii, eu ; ro(b)iginem, rogne ; su(b)urra, saorre ; 
su(b)umbrare, sombrer ; su(b)undare, sonder ; ta(b)anum, taon ; 
tu(b)elluin (?), /z^(2«y ^i{b)^x!o■a.Si, viorne ; n.\xbem., nue ; bi(b)utus*^ 
formerly beii, now bu. 

§ 114. Final b disappears : ibi, O. Fr. first iv, then i, Modern Fr. 
y; ubi, ou ; debeo, O. Fr. doi, dots; scribo, O. Fr. escrt, icris ; 
unless followed by a, in which case it becomes v : feibaf/eve ; proba, 
preuve ; entyba, endive'^. 

(ii) Dentals. T, D. 
Soft T. 

§ 115. The Latin t had always a dental sound, except when it 
preceded the combined vowels ia, ie, io, iu, in which cases it was 
sibilant. This sound having already been considered in § 70, we 
need only now deal with the dental t. 

§ 116. Initial t always remains: tantum, iant ; tabula, table; 
totum, tout ; titionem., tison ; tutare, tuer ; testa, tete. 

^ The words which retain the b are all learned, such as probus, probe ; 
subitus, JW/^/V, &c. ; and even laborare, /«/^o«r^r; hsibitVLa, babit ; laborem, 
labeur; habitare, habiter, which, in spite of their adoption into common 
use, are of learned origin. The only exceptions to the rule of p passing 
into v, are the popular forms obedire, obe'ir ; abismum *, abtme. 

'^ In Western patois we still have the form evut, for eu, marking the 
transition from ha(b)utus * to a-vut, then e'vut, eil, eu. 

^ Similarly the imperfects in a(b)ani, &c., have formed successively 
e've^ eie, oie, ois, ais : lavabam, O. Fr. la've've, then, by dropping the second 
•y, lanjeie, lai'oie, la'vois, Iwvais. 

* The exception sebum, suif, is not due to the French : Pliny writes 
it sevum, so that the change is not from b to^^ but from v tof. 



§ 117. Medial t undergoes two successive changes: (i) it becomes 
^in Old French, (2) this ^disappears; and then the two vowels thus 
brought together are in turn contracted. Thus mutare, vitellum, 
imperatorem, aetaticum, became O. Fr. muder, vedal, emperador, 
edage. In the twelfth century this medial d begins to be regarded 
as if it had been an original Latin d (see § 120), and as such it 
disappeared^; and the words became viu-er, ve-el, emper/-ur, i-age, 
and these again, towards the close of the middle ages, were con- 
tracted into veau, empereur, dge ^. Thus one sees that the medial 
Latin t passes through three stages : ist, at the origin of the French 
language it passes from the soft to the sonorous state, becoming 
d) 2nd, this medial d is dropped; 3rd, the vowels thus brought 
together are contracted. 

We subjoin the full list of Latin words which contain the medial 
t, and have passed through these three stages ^ : — 

Abbatissa, abbadissa, abba-esse, abbesse ; aetaticum, aedaticum, 
edage, e-age, dge ; so also with armure from armatura ; boyau from 
botellus ; cahier from quatemusi ; carreau from quadratellum ; 
censter from censitarius ; chaine from catena ; coussin from culcitinus ; 
commuer from coinm.utare; crier from quiritare; delayer from dilatare; 
de'vouer from devotare ; doloire from dolatoria ; doner, from dotare ; 
duchesse from ducatissa * ; dcuyer from scutarius ; e'ternuer from 
stemutare ; feu from fatutus * ; grille from craticula ; marier from 
maritare ; m^me from metipsimus ; me'tayer from medietarius ; mtiet 
from mutettus; noel from natalis; oublier from oblitare; poele 
from patella; pouvoir from potere; prairie from prataria; pre'au 
from pratellum ; poussif from pnlsativus * ; puer from putere ; 
rouelle from rotella ; seau from sitellus ; secouer from succutere ; 
soucier from soliicitare ; terroir from territorium ; trier from tritare * ; 
ttier from tutare ; vertueux from virtutosus * ; melle from vitella ; 
vouer from votare. 

§ 118. Final t undergoes like changes with medial t. Before a 

^ Such words 2& paladin, salade, cascade, are of foreign origin. 

"^ Such a hiatus as may exist between two Latin vowels is not allowed 
in French, but is put an end to in one of two ways : i . by contraction, 
which combines the two in one; 2. by intercalation, which disjoins them, 
and separates them by an interposed consonant. We have just seen con- 
traction at work; intercalation may be seen in the following example: 
po(t)ere, O. Fr. podir, then po-oir by loss of the d; then, to avoid hiatus, 
a -z; is introduced, and it becomes ;5o-i>-o/>, whence Modern Fr. powvoir. 

^ Medial t naturally persists in all learned words : natalis, natal ; 
nativns, natif; votare, voter. Still it is found also in some popular words : 
buticula, bouteille ; catuUiare, chatouiller ; capitaneum, che'vetain ; 
quatere (?), catir ; Britannia, Bretagne ; medietatem, moitie ; pietatem, 
pttie\ pietantia, pitance; pietosum, piteux ; tota, toute: and it even 
becomes tt in beta, bette; blitum, blitte ; carota, carotte ; quietus, quitte. 


masculine ending in um t disappears, together with the termination, 
as pratum, pre; cornutum, cornu. [For further examples see under 
the suffixes -atus, § 201 ; -utus, § 201 ; Fr. tatem, § 230 \] 

Sonorous D. 

§ 119. Initial d always persists: dies, di ; decanus, doyen; donare, 
donner ; dextrarius, destrier. Jour, from djurnum ; jusque, from 
de-usque, diusque, djusque, fall under a different case ; namely, that 
in which d is followed by iu, and the i being consonnified eventually 
ejects the d, though it has been retained for centuries in the dj, dz 
forms (the form zabolus is found in Latin for diabolus) ; and the 
dg sound remains in the Italian g. 

§ 120. Medial d remained in French up to about the middle of | 
the eleventh century, and is found in French MSS. of that age ; \ 
in the latter half of that century this d is softened into a sound \ 
half sibilant, answering to the two English ih sounds ; and this, in j 
certain French MSS. written in England, has actually been indicated 
by the sign th : thus videre becomes successively vedeir (in the ■ 
Chanson de Roland, in the eleventh century) ;. veiheir (in the Vie | j 
de St.'^ran(r6n,"a twelfth century poem); then vieir in later texts d 
(whence successively ve'oir and voir'). So similarly for accahler, \\ 
cadabulum ; aimanf, adamantem ; asseoir, assedere ; bailler, bada- 
culare * ; bayer, badare ; b^nir, benedicere ; chance, cadentla * ; 
choir, cadere ; chuie, caduta * ; confier, confidare * ; confiance, con- 
fidentia; croyance, cxq^qtsAAs^', cruel, crudelis; creance, credentia ; 
cruaut^, crudelitatem ; de'nue\ denudatus ; dech/a?ice, decadentia ; 
I dimanche, diedominica ; e'cMance, excadentia * ; enfouir, infodere ; 
I envahir, invadere ; fe'al, fidelis ; jiancer, fidentiare * ; fier, fidare ; 
I fouir, fodere ; fouiller, fodiculare * ; gldieul, gladiolus ; gravir, 
j gradire * ; joyau, gaudiellum ; jouir, gaudere ; joyeux, gaudiosus ; 
I juif, judaeus ; louer, laudare ; moelle, medulla ; michant, minus- 
I cadentem * ; ;;^(9/(f/z'/, m.edietatem. ; 7;z^^«, medianus; »z^^;z, modiolus ; 
i niais, nidacem ; nouer, nodare ; noueux, nodosus ; nettoyer, nitidare ; 
j obeir, obedire ; ouir, audire ; parvis, paradisus ; pe'age, pedaticum * ; 
j pion, pedonem ; poti, peduclus * ; pr^se'ance, praesidentia ; rangon, re- 
j demptionem ; suer, sudare ; suaire, sudarium ; se'oir, sedere ; siance^ 
'■ sedentia ; irahir, tradere ; trahison, traditionem. ; traitre, traditor. 
This rule has no true exceptions : odorem, odeur ; rudis, rude ; 

^ We must not forget that the hiatus protects the consonant: see 
pascuatieum, />«rfl^f, not pactage. Similarly /<7^ from fatuus. Compare 
G. Paris, in the Soc. de linguistique, s. v. fade. 




studium, //ude \ are not in point, being learned words, whatever may 
be said. As to viduum, vide, this persistence of the d is, on the 
contrary, confirmatory of this rule. We have seen (§ 118, note i) 
that the dental t remains in like manner before the hiatus of uu, 
uo, which protects the preceding consonant : compare fatuus, /ai ; 
quatuordecim, quatorze ; batualia, baiaille. 

§ 121. Final d is softened into / in very early French, then this 
/ ceases to be pronounced, and disappears from MSS. : thus mer- 
cedem becomes successively mercii, then merci. A certain number 
of words, however, have directly lost the dental without passing 
through the / stage in any extant MS. : as fidem, foi ; crudum, cru ; 
nudum, nu ; medium, mi ; hodie, hut ; podium, put. Some of 
these words have been recast by the learned and the clerks at the 
end of the middle ages, so as to get back to the Latin forms : thus 
medium, pedem, nodum, nidum, after having become ?nu/,pie, fleu, ni, 
were altered to muid, pied, noeud, nid ; but this d is not pronounced. 

§ 122. In a few cases there is a transformation of this final d 
into / (compare the / under t in sitim, soi/; ablatum *, blei/*) : 
similarly feodum makes jfie/; modum, meuf ; Judaeum, juif ; and 
such names of places as Marbodus, Marbceuf ; Pambodus, Paim- 
boeuf, &c. 

Chronological Resume of the History of the Dentals. 

Merovingian Latin 














• d 


French before loth century . 



After A.D. 1050 .... 





From the 1 2th century 



(iii) Gutturals. C, G. 


§ 123. The Latin c was hard and pronounced like k, whether 
before e and i, or before a, o, and u : thus they said kikero, 
fekerunt, kivitatem. In French this hard sound has perished 
before e and /, and has been replaced by the sibilant sound (s) ; 
before a, 0, and u it keeps its hard sound : it is then well to 
distinguish these two cases. Before the groups ia, io, iu, Latin c 

^ The true popular form of studere is estovoir. 


however did not retain its k sound, but became a tz (juditzium, 
contzio, offitzia), whose history we will consider separately. 

§ 124. Initial c remains unchanged before o and u : ( i ) before o : 
cooperire, couvrir ; coUum, cou ; cornu, cor ; cornua, come ; corpus, 
corps : and sometimes this c becomes a ^ : coquus, queux ; cotem, 
queux. In such words as coactare *, cacher ; coagulare, cailler, in 
which the primitive o has been absorbed by the subsequent vowel, 
the rule of continuance of the c is respected, because the Old French 
certainly was coacher (the form coailler is to be found in the Oxford 
Psalter) ; and the o has been dropped at a later time. 

(2) Similarly, c remains before u: cutenna, couenne ; curtem, 
court ; eurrere, courir ; culpa, culpe. 

Before au, c remains when the au is treated as a simple o ; whence 
Cauda, coda, queue ; while causa, caulis, have changed c into ch 
{chose, chou). 

§ 125. In confiare, gonfler, the c has dropped to g. The same 
change is met with in a word whose French origin is doubtful, 
cupellettum *, gohelei. 

§ 126. Before a, initial c undergoes a very peculiar change : it 
passes through the successive aspirated sounds k'h, tk'h, kh, ch ; 
whence carrus, char. This change, of which there is not a trace 
in Merovingian Latin, was produced early in French: chief [?, found 
for caput in the Cantilene de Sainte Eulalie ; still it was long before 
it got into general use in writing : as late as the end of the eleventh 
century we find camhre and canter in French MSS., whereas it is 1 
certain that at that date the pronunciation was chamhre and chanter, j 
This change of c into ch is to be met with in : — / 

Champ, campus ; chance, cadentia * ; chaine, catena ; chef, caput ; 
chair, caro ; chevre, capra ; chien, canis ; chose, causa ; champetre, 
campestris ; champion, campionem. * ; chicoree, cichoreum ; chenal, 
canalis ; chape, cappa ; chapeau, capellum * ; chapelle, capella * ; 
cheptel, capitale ; charnel, carnalis ; charnier, carnarium ; chaire, 
cathedra ; chaloir, calere ; chalumeau, calamellus ; chaleur, calorem ; 
chamhre, camera ; chancel, cancellus ; chanceler, cancellare * ; chancir, 
canutire ; chancre, cancer ; chandelle, candela ; changer, cambiare * ; 
chanoine, canonicus ; chanson, cantionem * ; chantre, cantor ; chanter, 
cantare; chantier , Q2JcA.Qr\\icai-, chanvre, oaxmsibia; chapeIer,csi]p-alaTe; 
chapiteau, capitellum ; chapitre, capitulum ; chapon, caponem * ; 
char, carrus ; charger, carricare ; charbon, carbonem ; chardon, 
cardonem * ; charrier, carricare ; cherts, caritatem ; charme, carmen ; 
charme, carpinus* ; charnier e, cardinaria*; charpeniier, carpentarius; 
charpie, carpere * ; charrue, carruca ; chartre, career ; chdsse, capsa ; 
chasser, captiare * ; chaste, castus ; chasuble, casibula * ; chat, catus * ; 
chdtaigne, castanea ; chateau, castellum ; chignon, catenionem * ; 
chdtier, castigare ; chatouiller, catulliare * ; chdtrer, castrare ; chaud, 


calidus ; chaudi7re, caldaria * ; chauffer, calefacere * ; chaume, 
calamus ; chausse, calceus ; chauss/e, calceata * ; chauve, calvum ; 
chaux, calcem ; chemin, caminus ; cheminee, caminata * ; chemise, 
camisia ; chenal, canalis ; chefiil, canile ; chenille, canicula * ; chenu^ 
canutus ; cher, carus ; ch^re, cara ; chercher, circare ; chetif, captivus ; 
cheval, caballus ; chevaucher, caballicare; chevecier, capicerium * ; 
chevitre, capistrum ; cheveu, capillus ; cheville, clavicula ; chevre, 
oapra ; chevreuil, capreolus * ; chez, casa ; chien, canis ; chiche^ 
ciccum ; chiche, cicer ; choir, cadere ; chose, causa ; chou, caulis. 
§ 127. In a certain number of cases the initial ch goes rather 
• further, and becomes j : capella*, javelle ; caryophyllum, girofle ; 
camba, jamhe ; camitem (from cames), jante ; caveloa, geole ; cam- 
marus, O. Fr. jamble (a crayfish) ; and perhaps janger from quali- 
ficare, cal'f care ? 

§128. This ch for ca did not exist in the Picard dialect^; 
whence cartie the double forms camp, campagne, casse, which have 
entered the French language side by side with the original forms 
champ, champagne, chasse, from campus, campania, capsa. To 
the same influence may be attributed such irregular forms as cavea, 
cage, side by side with caveola, geole ; cable from capulum (sup- 
planting the O. Fr. chable) ; cdcher from calcare (supplanting the 
O. Fr. chocher, which survives in the names of certain birds, choche- 
pierre, choche-poule) ; whence cauchemar, and the diminutive caillou 
(from calcullum *, whence O. Fr. caillel, Bartsch, Pasturelles, 1 20) ; 
and also cava, cave. 
f By the side of these exceptions, due to the influence of certain dia- 
I lects of the Langue d'Oil, we must put the words due to the influence 
; of the Proven9al; such as capitellum (O. Fr. chadel), cadeau ; capsa, 
r caisse (doublet of chdsse) : or due to the influence of the Italian : 
such as caput, cap (It, capo); cadentia, cadence (It. cadenza); cal- 
care, calquer (It. calcare) ; cavalier, canaille, capitaine, calegon, &c. 

§ 129. Medial c. Before a, o, u, medial c passes into g in Mero- 
vingian Latin, which has pagare, vogare, logare, instead of pacare, 
vocare, locare, &c. This g drops to the semi- vocal j ^, which later 

^ See Historical Grammar, p. 21. 

^ In acutum, aigu ; acucla*, aiguille; secundum, second, the Latin 
c has been exceptionally stopped in its descent at g ; but we cannot put 
among such cases the words cicadula, cigale ; fica, ^gue ; vicarium., 
viguier ; flcarium, figuier ; draconem, dragon, which have been borrowed 
from the Proven9al cigala, Jiga (O. Fr. form vfdisjie and Jier, see the Oxford 
Psalter), viguier, drago (?). Ciconia, cigogyie, is a case, as the Old French 
form was soigne. As to locusta, langouste, this nasal form must come from 
a form loncusta : the simple form has regularly lost its c, and has 
become laouste (found in the Oxford Psalter). Finally cigue from cicuta 
is probably a learned word. 


is again reduced to a simple i : thus braca becomes braga, then 
braja, then braie. 

When the c is between two vowels it disappears; as amicus, ami. 
Soft c becomes s, as avicellus^ oiseau ; placere, plaisir. 

a. ^ 

§ 130. Initial Latin g, whether hard or soft, remains in French : as 
gustus, gout; gobionem, goujon; gigantem, gea7tt ; gemere, geindre ; 
gemma, gemvie ; gentem, gens {gent). It sometimes is softened 
intoy, as in g&uder e, j'oui'r ; gemellus, Jumeau ; galbin\ia,jatme. 

§ 131. Medial g also remains : as angustia, angoisse ; cingulum, 
sangle ; ungula, ongle ; largus, large. Also it drops to / .• as Ande- 
gavi, Anjou. 

But g before m, n, r, and d, disappears in French, in whatever 
part of the word it occurs, being vocalised into aj/; pigmentum, 
piment ; tragere, traire ; legere, lire; m.alignum., malin ; Mag- 
dalena, Madeleine ; frigidus (frig'dus), froid. Compare yiyvaa-Koi , 
gnosco, nosco ; gnatus, natus. 

§132. Final g remains : as longus, /i?«^/ at&gDMm., e'tang ; pugnus, 
poing ; dignus, digne. 

II. — The Aspirate. H. 

§ 133. The Latin h was not, like the French h, a mute letter, 
unpronounced and only written ^ : the Romans originally aspirated 
their h with a certain vigour (like the German h) ; for Marius 
Victorinus, the grammarian, as late as the fourth century, directs 
his countrymen thus : ' Profundo spiritu, anhelis faucibus, exploso 
ore fundetur.' 

The aspirate, being of all letters the hardest to pronounce and 
requiring the most effort, it must necessarily suffer more softening 
than any other letter, following the ' law of least action,' § 139. Just ^ 
as the Latin had abandoned almost all the aspirates of the Indo- | 
European primitive languages (aspirates which were retained in the \ 
Greek, and still more in the Sanscrit), the French has completely I 
dropped the Latin aspirated h, and, ceasing to pronounce the letter, * 
naturally also gave up writing it ^. 

^ What is called the French aspirated h is not really such; it is not 
really pronounced, but simply has the power of stopping the elision of the 
preceding vowel : as le-heros, me-hdir ; or it stands for a final consonant : 
thus Pierre est haissable is pronounced Pierre eh-aissable ; whilst, on the 
other hand, the words Pierre est homme and etonne are pronounced alike. 

^ It is unnecessary to repeat that we do not trouble ourselves about 
learned words such as hom.icida; homicide ; halitare, haliter ; habitare, 
babiter ; heros, heros, &c. 


§ 134. Initial h. Just as the archaic Latin words holus (a bean) ; 
hera (a mistress) ; her (a hedgehog), dropped to olus, era, er, in 
classical days, so the common Latin suppressed this aspirated h, 
and wrote oc, ordeus, eredes, onestus, omo, which are found in 
Inscriptions of imperial days for hoc, hordeum, heredes, honestus, 
homo. The French language, carrying on this tendency, said avot'r, 
on, or, orge, oui, encore, for habere, homo, hora, hordeum., hoc-illud, 
hanc-horam. Similarly we have ordure from O. Fr. ord, horridus ; 
and Herre, O. Fr. lerre, hedera\ The French language, invariably 
suppressing this (to them) useless letter, said also hominem, omme ; 
hodie, ui ; herba, erbe ; hereditare, e'riter ; heres, oir ; heri, ier ; 
hibemum, iver ; hora, eure, regular forms, afterwards corrupted by 
the learned, by the restoration of the mute h ; whence the modern 
forms homme, hui, her be, &c., which, therefore, do not really break 
the law laid down in § 133, as might appear at first sight. 

§135. Medial h. Just as classical Latin suppressed the aspirate 
sound in ni(h)il, co(h)ortem, mi(h)i, pre(h)endo, contracting these 
words into nil, cortem, prendo, so the French, seeking to abolish 
this medial aspirate, employed the two usual methods given above 
(§ 117, note 2) — contraction or intercalation: Jo(h)annes is con- 
tracted into Je-an, then Jean, pronounced Jan ; but in trai're from 
tra(h)ere we have another process ; the aspirate becomes a guttural, 
and tra(h)ere becomes tra-g-ere. (For tragere, see traire in the 
Dictionary^.) Tragere, regularly contracted into trag're, becomes 
traire, by changing gr to ir (§ 131). The same case is found in 
medieval Latin : vehere becomes vegere, to soften the hiatus ; and 
similarly we have grugem for gruem. 

This suppression of the aspirated h explains to us why th, ph, ch, 
which were learned importations of Latin savants for the Greek 
6, 0, X, have been treated in French as if they were /, J, c. 

III. — The Semi- Vocals. J, V. 

§ 136. Two consonants (j, v) bear this name : they had in Latin a 
sound which floated between that of a vowel and that of a consonant ; 
the Latin j approaching to i, the Latin v to ou. From this double 
tendency of these two Latin letters we get in French two very distinct 
ways of treating these semi-vocals, according as they incline towards 
the French consonantal or the French vowel state. In the first case, 
the Latin v and j take in French the form of two well-marked 

^ Ortolan comes from hortulanus *, through the Provengal. 

2 The form tragere explains how trahentem has produced trayant, 
where the y represents the usual vocalisation (§ 131) of the g of tra- 


consonants v ^ and j (which is a soft g) : thus avena ^ became avoine, 
and junicem ^, ge'nisse. In the second case, the Latin j and v, be- 
coming real vowels, are represented by i and ou : hence Troja 
becomes Troie (an i which finally disappears in such words as 
je-junum, Je-Un, then jetm) : and the v = otc at last disappears and 
leaves no trace ; as pa-vonem, pa-wonem, pa-ou-on, pa-on. This, 
however, does not hold good of initial v, which remains in French. 
We must now inquire how these changes have taken place. 


§ 137. This letter, pronounced i-i by the Latins, who said i-iuvenis, 
mai-ior, for juvenis, major *, soon underwent two distinct changes : 
I. the one transforming this Latin i-i, in order to mark it better, 
into d-i, as in ma-di-us, found in medieval Latin ^, for ma-i-us ; 
or di-acere for jacere. 2. But when once the j has got behind 
a d, how does it consonify itself? It takes a dj sound, diacere 
= djacere, a sound represented in modern Italian by gi (pronounced 
dgi), as m. giacere. This compound dgi sound loses its dental, and 
is then reduced to the soft g or / sound (as pronounced by the 
French). This, then, is the scale of sounds : — 

J ( = i-i) -♦ di-i — dj-i — gi — j (French) : i-iugum -^ di-iugum — 
dj-iugum — giugum, joug. 

Helped by these preliminary distinctions, we may study the history 
of the Latin semi-vocal j into French. 

§ 138. Initial j becomes a consonant, and is sounded as ge : jam, 
ja ; jaculare, jaillir ; Januarius, Janvier ; jactare, Jeter ; jocus, 
Jeu ; Jovis-dies, jeudi ; jejunus, jeun ; jungere, joindre ; juncus, 
jonc ; joc\xi.8iri,jongkr ; jocsiri, jouer ; jugvim, j'oug ; j-axtare, j'oufer ; 
juventia, jouvence ; jocale, joyou ; Judaeus, juif; judicare, jtiger ; 
inveneva, jhine ; Junius, Jm'n ; juYnentura, j'umenf ; jurare, Jurer ; 
jus, JUS ; Justus, jusie : a change also often expressed by soft g, 
which is the same letter as j in French : hence jacere, ge'sir ; 
junicem, g^nisse ; juniperum, gemevre. 

^ The French «!; is a labial consonant, degenerated from the Latin b, 
just as the French y, or soft g, is a degenerated form of the guttural ch. (?) 

2 Pronounced a-ou-ena at Rome. 

^ Pronounced i-iunicem at Rome. 

* Cicero, Quinctilian tells us, was accustomed to write this medial j , 
as i. ' Sciat enim Ciceroni placuisse aiio, Maiiamque, geminata i | 
scribere.' Instit. Orat. i. 4, 11. We find liulius for Julius in Inscriptions ^ 
under the Empire. Those Inscriptions and MSS. which write Hiesu, | 
Hiaspidis, Hiericho, Hieremie, Trahiani, for Jesu, Jaspidis, Jericho, j 
Jeremias, Trajani, have accurately expressed this pronunciation. Com- I 
pare with this pronunciation that of the English j/^'^r, or German Jabr. 

^ For examples, see under Mai in the Dictionary. 


§ 139. Medial j retains the Latin i sound, and disappears when 
it immediately precedes the tonic vowel : jejunium., Je-unyjhm ; when, 
on the other hand, it follows the tonic vowel, it remains as i : Troja, 
Troie ; raja, raie ; boja, O. Fr. boie^ bouie ; majus, mai ; major, 
maire ; bajiilare (?), bailler ; pejor, /^r*? / pejus, /w^. 


§ 140. Initial v always continues, except in the important case 
of V = gu, as in Vasconia, Guascogne, Gascogne ; -sriscyxva^gui ; vadum, 
gti/; veapa,, guepe ; vipera, gm'vre. Thus vajLwon, vain ; vinum, z'm/ 
vectura, voiture ; vulturius, vautour ; virtutem, vertu ; vaeca, vache. 
In a few cases v is strengthened into either/^ as vicem, fois ; or into 
^, as vervecem, brebi's ; vaccalarius, bachelier ; vervecarius, berger ; 
vettonica, be bine ; Vesontionem, Besangon ; but this rise from v 
to b is not the work of the French language ; it was done in the 
Latin. Petronius writes berbecem, Pliny bettonica: in the fifth 
century we find berbecarius; in a tenth century MS. we have 

§ 141. Medial v. We know that the Latin v was not pronounced 
like the French v, but rather like the English w (or like the French ou 
sound) ^. This sound, which was not a pure consonant like the 
French Vy nor a pure vowel like the French u, but lay between the two, 
J has properly been called semivocal. It has undergone two different 
* methods of treatment in French, according to its approximation to 
the consonantal or to the vowel condition : if the former, it has 
produced the French v, as in lavare, laver .; levare, lever ; privare, 
priver ; novellum, nouveau ; lixivia, lessive ; viventem, vivani ; 
November, novembre ; gingiva, gencive. This, however, is not 
universal : on the contrary, when the semivocal inclines towards the 
vowel sound, it disappears in French: thus pavonem (pronounced 

^ The word aider^ very irregularly formed from adjutare, may here 
be considered. Adjutare at a very early period became ajutare, as the 
Inscriptions shew us (see Dictionary, s. v. aider, where also the details 
of these changes are worked out). Ajutare soon became aj'tare, whence 
. ^ This rise from v to b, rare in the Latin also, especially before the 
fourth century, became the rule in certain patois of the Romance lan- 
guages; as the Neapolitan in the East, the Gascon in the West. In 
Gascony the pronunciation has always been bos from vos ; boide from 
volere *, benir from venire, &c. ; a rule noticed by Scaliger, who founded 
on it the neat and well-known epigram — 

'Non temere antiquas mutat Vasconia voces, 
Cui nihil est aliud vivere quam bibere.' 
It is curious that this same pun occurs, more than a thousand years 
before Scaliger, on a Roman tomb : ' Dum vixi bibi libenter ; bibite vos 
qui vivite.' — Heuzer, Or. 6674. 

SEMI-VOCAL CONSONANTS. • ; . , , , ,xc^ 

pa-ou-nem in Rome) soon became pa-onem, whence p'tuM";' s\mihfif 
avunculus (pronounced a-ou-unculus) soon was contracted to 
a-uneulus ; the Latin poets treat it as a trisyllabic word ; it is 
also to be found as aunculus in several Inscriptions. Thus, too, 
we find in Inscriptions noember for no-v-ember, juentutem for 
ju-v-entutem. This loss of the v is to be found also in classical 
Latin, as in bourn for bovum * ; audii for audivi ; redii for redivi * ; 
amarunt for amaerunt*, for amaverunt; pluere for pluvere*. 
The Appendix Probi speaks of ais for avis ; rius for rivus ^. This 
loss of v^ also takes place in French : as in pavonem, paon; pavorem, 
peur; aviolus *, aieul ; vivenda, viande; clavare, doner; avunculus, 
oncle ; ovicla, ouaille ; pluvia, pluie ; caveola, geole ; uvetta *, luetle ; 
obliviosus, oublieux. 

§ 142. Final v is always hardened into f at the end of words : 
this phenomenon, which is opposed to the law stated below § 167, is 
easily explained. Notice that most of the popular words which 
change v into f are monosyllabic : bovem, bcEuf ; brevem, href; 
cervum, cerf ; captivum, che'tif ; clavem^, clef; nativum, nmf ; 
navem, nef; nervum, nerf; novus, neu ; novum, neuf; ovum, ceuf ; 
pulsativum *, poussf ; salvum, saif ; servum, serf ; sevum, suf; 
vivum, vf; ^ejveva., grief ; augivum *, ogif*; restivum*, re'ttf ; 
vidvum, veuf Now we know that monosyllables shew a marked 
desire to strengthen themselves, either at the beginning by aspiration 
or at the end, by introducing a strong consonant as a bulwark 
against phonetic decay. Besides, without insisting on this fact, the 
true cause of the change from v to yiies in the tendency which leads 
the French language to replace soft consonants at the end of words 
by strong ones, in order to give greater support to the voice. For 
this reason the soft d and g in this position are replaced in pro- 
nunciation by the strong / and c, as in sang et eau, grand homme, 
where sa?tg is pronounced sajic, and grand, grant * ; whence it follows 
that the final v is necessarily strengthened into y'^. When v is not 

^ ' Rivus non rius, avis non ais.' — App. Probi. 

^ In Andegavi, Pictavi, clavus, pronounced by the Romans Ande- 
ga-ou-i, Picta-ou-i, cla-ou-is, &c., the Latin v (ou) joins the preceding 
a, and forms the diphthong aou; which, following the law of trans- 
formation into French (au, then o, lastly ou), has formed the three words 
Anjou, Poitou, clou. 

^ Why is the /of clef mnte (whence the orthography cle) while it remains 
sonorous in the other words ? 

* Why then does the strong s form an exception, being softened into 
a z, at the end of words, as in nous aimons, aux enfants, che'vaux admirables, 
&c., where nous, aux, che'vaux, are pronounced nou-%, au-'z, chenjau-z ? 

^ This tendency is so strong that it even transforms words of learned 
origin, which also change final v into /, as in activus, actif; passivus, 
passif; nativus, natif; relativus, relatif. 


iincrl, there- is no longer any reason for this strengthening process, 
and it remains unchanged according to § 140. This is the reason 
why the feminine of adjectives in -z/'is -we ; and why we have bovem, 
dcvuf, but bovarius, houvier ; navem, nef, but navile, navire; servum, 
serf, but servire, servir ; salvum, sauf but salvare, sauver ; nativum, 
naif but nativitatem, naivete. The same rule enables us to explain 
the relation between the primitive chef and the derivatives chevetj 
achever, and between such words as ^rf/'and brevet, relief diXid. relever. 

IV. Prolonged. 
(i) Labial. F. 

§ 143. Initial f remains : fortem, fort ; focum, feu ; fata, fe'e ; 
fabula, fable ; foras, fors, which last word became hors at an early 
date, just as O. Fr. faras (a troop of stallions) and fardes (clothes ?) 
became haras and hardes. The Latin f being only one degree 
stronger than h, we find this same exchange between the archaic 
Latin fostis, fircum, folus, and the classical hostis, hircum, (olus?). 

§ 144. Medial f invariably remains : refutiare, refuser ; defendere, 
defefidre, &c., with'the one exception of scrofella *, ^crouelle. 

§ 145. Final f remains ; tufus, iuf; but, if followed by a mute 
a, it becomes v, as genovefa, genevieve. 

§ 146. By the side of the spirant f the Latin had received from 
the Greek, and has passed on to the French, another aspirate 0, 
whose history must now be considered. 

The Greek 0, ph (wrongly pronounced by us as an/"), had a very 

/ distinct sound of its own, differing from the Latin f Quinctilian and 

i Priscian tell us that to pronounce f we must use a stronger aspiration 

I than we should with <^, and that in so doing the lower lip should not 

\ touch the upper row of teeth. The was pronounced like the 

English ph in shepherd. A p thus aspirated necessarily dropped down 

to the common p when used by persons whose ears were not fine 

enough to recognise so slight a distinction ; and thus at Rome, whilst 

the upper classes, in transferring ^ made it first ph, afterwards 

f, the common people made it a p, thus suppressing its delicate 

aspirate: as in af^vn], which has produced the double Latin form, 

the learned aphya, and the popular apua. Thus, whilst the learned 

called the dfx(popevs amphora, and the arpocpr} stropha, the people 

made them ampora and stropa, as the Appendix Probi (in the time 

of Nero) tells us. Probus blames the vulgar pronunciation 'stropha non 

stropa, amphora non ampora.' This vulgar pronunciation remains 

in a few French words : thus rropcfivpa produced the popular Latin 

purpura, whence pourpre ; KoKa^o^ has both forms, learned colaphus, 


and vulgar colapus, so frequent in Merovingian documents, Avhence 
O.Yv.colp, now coup^ : (f)a\ayyai, in classical Latin phalangae, popular 
Latin palangae, has preserved the latter form in the French palan, 
palafique. On the other hand, the ph used by the Latin literati to 
represent 4> in the words they borrowed from the Greek (as 4)i\o(ro(}ila, 
philosophia), soon, in spite of the outcries of the grammarians, was 
confounded with the Latin f. Side by side with phaselus, phlegma, 
sulphur, tophus, sylphi, phalangae, &c., we find, at an early date, 
the forms faselus, flegma, sulfur, tofus, sylfi, falangae, &c. This 
change of ph into f goes on in French in popular words ^ : as 
phantasma,y^«/^;^^^/ -phi^la, Jiole ; ■p'ha.sia.nuSy/'aiscm; elephantum, 
olifant ; graphium, greffe^. Similarly orphaninus * produced the 
O. Fr. orfenin, whence orfelin, which the learned of the middle ages 
have recast in the form orphelin, believing that they were thereby 
approaching nearer to the original Latin form. 

(ii) Dentals. S, X, Z. 

§147. Initial s, if followed by a vowel, remains: solus, seul ; 
subtus, sous; sella, selle ; ^^xv6^x^, sourd. But st becomes est; sp, 
esp ; sc, esc, the prefixed e tending to render the pronunciation more 
easy : thus we have stare, O. Fr. ester ; scribere, O. Fr. escrire ; 
sperare, esperer ; and this s is not uncommonly absorbed, its place 
being marked by the acute accent on the initial e : as escrire, e'crire ; 
statum, estat, etat. 

§ 148. Medial s remains : as cerasus, cerise ; quassare, casser. 
But sc'r drops the s, as is seen in crescere, croitre ; pascere, paitre ; 
cognoscere, connaitre. 

§149. Final s sometimes remains: ursus, ours; subtus, sous; 
minus, moins. Or it becomes z, as casa, chez ; nasus, nez ; adsatis, 
assez. Or x, as duos, deux ; tussis, toux ; otiosus, oiseux ; sponsus, 

^ Sometimes a p sprung from a is treated in French as if it were an 
original p : thus the Greek (}.^v^ov became ziziphus, with a popular form 
zizupus, which then underwent the regular change of p into b (§ 111), 
whence zizubus, whence the ill-formed y«y«^(f. 

^ It remains as ■ph in learned words: philosophia, philosophie • pha- 
langeus, phalange; phoebus, phebus ; except in some scientific terms, 
introduced somewhat early (as we have seen in § 146), which have changed 
ph into f, as (^avTaty'ia^ fantaisie ; (pauTaariKos, fantastique ; phrenesis, 

^ There are a few of these double consonants which have a like origin ; 
as cophinus, common Latin co£bius, coffre. 



§ 150. Medial x sometimes remains : as sexaginta, soixanie. Or 
it becomes ss : as examen, essairn ; laxare, laisser ; coxa, cutsse ; 
axilla, ai'sselle. 

§ 151. Final x remains : sex, six ; luxum, luxe. 

§ 152. Initial z remains : zelum, zeie ; but zelosus becomes ya^^Jtr. 

V. — Liquids. R, L. 

§ 153. Initial r remains : regnum, regne ; rupta, route ; regem, 
roi ; ripa, rive. 

§ 154. Medial r remains : soricem, souris ; carmen, charme. It also 
becomes / in some few cases : as paraveredus, palefroi. It is some- 
times dropped before j, as dorsum,, dos ; persica, O. Fr. pesche, p^che. 

§155. Final r remains usually: as audire, ouir ; carrus, char ; 
but in some cases it becomes /, as altare, autel ; cribrum, crible. 

§156. Initial 1 remains: littera, letire ; lingua, langue ; legem, 
hi. It also becomes r, a change which dates back to Merovingian 
days : lusciniola, rossig?ioL Also n, as libella, niveau. 

§ 157. Medial 1 remains : as aquila, aigle ; filius, fils ; circulus, 
cercle. There is also the change into n, as is seen in posterula* 
(O. Fr. posterle, posterne), poterne ; margula (O. Fr. marie), marne. 
Also into r, as ulmus, orne ; cartula, chartre ; capitulum, chapitre. 

It should be noticed that this 1 is often softened into u in the 
combinations ol, ul preceding a consonant: as collem, cou ; aus- 
cultare, /couter ; pulverem, poudre ; sulphur, sou/re; col'phus, 
coup. This process took place in French times. 

§158. Final 1 remains in solus, seul ; sal, sel ; supercilium, 
sourcil ; mille, mil; mel, miel. 

VI.— Nasals. M, N. 


§150. Initial m remains: mare, mer ; m.B.mxa, main ; mille, mil. 
It also becomes n, as mappa, nappe ; matta, natte. 

§ 160. Medial m remains : camera, chafnbre ; computare, compter ; 


or it becomes n, as semita, senie ; computare, confer ; simius 
(simiMB), singe ; ^vixixvnn, prin'm p7'intemps . Also in the double mn 
the m becomes n, as colunina, colonne. 

§ 161. Final m remains : dama, daim; nomen, nom ; faxaeva^/ai'm. 
Also it becomes n, as rem, rien ; meum, taxim, suum, ?7ion, ton, son. 

§ 162. Initial n remains : nomen, nom ; non, non ; nos, ' nous ; 
nasum, nez. 

§163. Medial n remains: as ruina, ruine ; mentiri, mentir ; 
mentum, menfon. Also it becomes m, as nominare, nommer ; car- 
■^vmxs,, charme ; hominem, homme. Also/.- orphaninus *, orphelin ;, Palerme ; Bononia, BologJte. Also r : ordinem, ordre ; 
diaconus, diaa'e ; Londinum., Londres. N also disappears in some 
cases before the origin of the French language, as in pagensis, 
pagesis *, pais, pays. 

§ 164. Final n remains : non, non ; sonus, son ; bonus, bon. Or 
it disappears, as nomen, ?iom. 



§ 165. We may thus sum up the results of our inquiry by statmg 
the Laws on which the change of the Latin letters into French rests ; 
and these (using the language of natural history) we may call the 
laws of least action, and of transition. 

§ 166. I. Law of Least Action \ — It is a characteristic of every 
human effort to try to exert itself with the least action, that is, with 
the smallest possible expenditure of energy. Language follows this 
law, and its successive transformations are caused by the endeavour 
to diminish this effort, and by the desire of reaching a more easy 
pronunciation. This, combined with the structure of the vocal 
apparatus, gives us the true cause of these changes of language. 

^ In his admirable Grammaire comparee du Sanskrit, du Grec, et du Latin, 
M. Baudry has shewn the influence of these two principles on the formation 
of ancient languages. I hope to shew that they may be further confirmed 
by the history of the French language. 


§ 167. This need of greater ease in pronunciation shews itself in the 
history of the French language, by the general weakening of the Latin 
letters : thus the c and g, pronounced hard by the Romans before e 
and i \ as fekerunt, kivitatem, guemellus, guibba (fecerunt, civi- 
tatem, gemellus, gibba) have become soft in French, the hard o 
passing into the f sound, the hard g into they sound, so that where 
the Latins said kedere, aguere, the French say ceder, agir. Similarly 
the Latin p is softened into v, ripa, crepare, saponem, becoming 
rive^ crever, savon : in some cases the weakening is so great that the 
Latin letter altogether disappears; as crudelis passes into crue/, 
sudare into siier, obedire into od/tr. 

§ 168. In other cases, the letters in contact being dissimilar, the 
French language assimilates them, to make the pronunciation easier ; 
thus it changes dr into rr ; adripare, arriver ; quadratum, carre ; 
similarly tr is softened into rr, as putrere, pourrir ; latronem, larron. 
Here moreover, as in most cases, the French only follows the example 
of the Latin itself, whose tendency towards assimilation was strongly 
developed ; thus the Romans said arridere for adridere, arrogantem 
for adrogantem, &c. From this regular progress of languages towards 
an easier pronunciation, we may conclude at once that languages are 
ever descending, never climbing, the scales of sounds : thus tr is 
softened into rr ; rr is never hardened into tr ; latronem may des- 
cend into larron, but parricidium never ascends in French to patri- 
cide ; either it must remain as it is, parricide, or grow softer still by 
simplifying the rr into r. 

§ 169. Another phenomenon, the correlative of this assimilation of 
letters, and also springing from the desire of ease in pronunciation, 
is the separation or differentiation of similar letters, so as to render 
their emission from the mouth easier. If a Latin word has two 
r's, in French it will be softened by changing the one r into /, as 
cribrum, crible : thus the Latin parafredus becomes palefroi, not 
pare/roi] peregrinus becomes pelerin, not pereri?t. So too, if there 
are two I's, the French changes one into r; lusciniola becomes 
rossignol, not lossignol. This process has received the name of dis~ 
similation. This balancing of letters and effort after the vocal 
equilibrium were not unknown to the Latins, who, to avoid the 
two r's, said ruralis, muralis, instead of ruraris, m.uraris : to avoid 
the two /'s, they said epularis, stellaris, instead of epulalis, stellalis^. 

^ See the word agencer in the Dictionary. 

^ In a word, the suffixes aris, alls, being alike in origin and meaning, 
the Romans preferred aris, when the word had already an 1 in it (as 
stellaris, from stella), and alis, if the word had an r in it (ruralis, 
from ruris). See Baudry, Grammaire comparee du Sanskrit, du Grec, 
et du Latin, p. loi. 


§ 170. Together with this ' dissimilation/ which seeks to avoid the 
disagreeable repetition of the same letter, we must notice another 
process, 'metathesis,' the transposition or displacement of a con- 
sonant, to facilitate pronunciation: thus, formaticum, turbare, 
paupertatem, at first became formage, iourver, pauverie, as may be 
seen in old French texts; these words afterwards underwent the 
j displacement of the r, and h&C2imQ/romage, irouver, pauvrete. 

§ 171. II. Law of Transition. — The law of least action shews 
us the cause of the transformations of language, and of the per- 
mutation of letters; that of transition will teach us the conditions 
of these changes, and their course. ' Permutation moves on step 
by step, and never more than one step at a time. A letter does 
not at a bound change its order, degree, or family; it can only 
make one of these changes at once ^' Thus, to resume the study of 
the word putrere, given above, the classical putrere did not turn at 
once into the French pourrir ; it passed in the Merovingian Latin 
into the forms putrire, pudrire, and in Old French through the 
successive ioiras podrir, porrir, whence pourrir : the tr had to pass 
the intermediate dr before it became rr. In like manner the Dic- 
tionary will present to us, so far as it is possible to write it, the 
history of every letter, and will connect the Latin with the French by 
the intermediate links of medieval Latin, and the Old French. 




§ 172. Though the laws of Phonetics rule with precision almost all 
the words in the French language, there are still a few which seem, as 
far as we know, to be refractory, and to refuse to be classified under 
established heads: just as in natural history there are some beings 
which have not yet found their proper place under the divisions of 

These exceptions to the rules of Phonetics have a double cause : or 
rather, the infraction of the rules is only apparent, and is due to in- 
fluences which we are as yet unacquainted with, and to secondary laws 

^ F- Baudry, Grammaire compare e du Sanskrit, du Grec, et du Latin, 
p. 83. 



which limit or modify the primary ones ; or these infractions of law 
are the result of corruption. Words thus corrupted cannot be used 
as arguments to throw doubt on the existence of the laws of lan- 
guage and their firm establishment : for, as M. Littrd says, * it is the 
general and positive rules which enable us to affirm that there is an 
error even where we do not know the circumstances or the conditions 
of the error ; they enable us to divide the whole into the regular and 
correct part, and the part altered and mutilated by the inevitable faults 
of time and of mankind.' 

And besides, in many cases the corruption is only apparent, not 
real, or if it does exist, it is not the French language that is to blame : 
thus ecouter (Old French escouter, escolter, originally esculter) is a very 
irregular derivation from the classical Latin auscultare, for the Latin 
au never becomes e in French, and if the word had been regularly 
formed, it would have been oscouter, not escouter, as the Latin au 
habitually becomes o (aurum, or; pausare, poser, &c.). Now here to 
all appearance is a flagrant exception, and Phonetics seem to be at 
fault. But not so: Phonetics are blameless, for we know from 
Flavins Caper that in the third century men said, not auscultare, but 
ascultare, whence, according to rule, comes the form escouter, as a 
becomes e (patrem, pere ; pratum, pre'; gratum, gr^ ; &c.). Thus 
in this case the corruption dates back to the popular Latin, and the 
French language has nothing to do with it. 

The same is the case when the French language seems to violate 
the Latin accent, in such words as encre from encaustum. / persil from 
petroselinum, borrowed by the Romans from the Greek (eyfcauoToi/, 
nerpocreXLuov). Here the French retains the original Greek accent, pre- 
served by the Latins in these borrowed words. In souris, seigle, mordre, 
foie, fin, faite, from soricem, secdle, mord^re, ficatum, finitus, 
fastigium, the accent had already been displaced in vulgar Latin, 
which said soricem, s6cale, mordere, ficatum, finitus, fastigium. 

But beside these apparent infractions of the laws of Phonetics, 
there are also real exceptions, caused by corruption or chance, — 
cases of Latin words whose passage into French is governed by no 
known laws, and which seem to us to be painful discords in the 
harmonious unity of the language. These errors are man's mark left 
on the vocabulary, the arbitrary element in the formation of the 
French tongue. If we compare with their Latin originals the words ^^r- 
mandree, cham.aedrys ; amidon, am.yluin^ ; camomille, chamaemelum; 
ancolie, aquilegia; erable, acer arbor; e'chalotie, Ascalonicum; estragon, 
draconem; regime, Ucim.Titm\ girofle, caryophyllum; marjolaine, ama- 
racana*, we shall find ourselves face to face with the worst corruptions 

^ Here the corruption is older than the French language ; amidum 
for amylum is found in a Latin document of the ninth century. 


in the language : let us note at the same time that almost all these 
words indicate medicinal plants, and have come down to us through 
herbalists and apothecaries. Nor is it astonishing that a long special 
use has deformed and corrupted such words ; for the people torture 
learned words so as to give them a sense of some kind — thus one 
may any day hear the common folk ask for de Veau d'anon for lauda- 
num, and the like. To this class also belongs boutique, from apotheca, 
one of the most striking instances of corruption. Apotheca would 
regularly have produced aboutaie, as the Latin initial a never drops out 
in French, and it is contrary to rule for the Latin c between, two 
vowels to become q in French at the end of a word ; in such a posi- 
tion the Latin c always disappears (baca, haie ; braca, braie ; ebriaca, 
ivraie) ; so that, like theca, iaie, apotheca ought to have become 
aboutaie ^. If we add to this list certain other words ^, we shall have 
the full catalogue of all forms due to chance or inexplicable disturb- 
ance : it will be seen how very small their sum total is, compared with 
the whole French language. Still, it is most important for us to be 
able to ascertain the truth. From the days of St. Augustine, who said ^ 
that the explanation of words depends on the fancy of each person who ■ I 
tries them, and who likened it to the interpreting of dreams, down to 
Voltaire, who believed that chance or corruption were the sole causes 
of the revolutions of language, human speech has ever been regarded 
as the product of the arbitrary caprice of men. But modern science 
has shewn that languages are not the work of chance, but a natural 
and organic growth, of which man is not the author, but the instru- 
ment. Philology has narrowed and limited the part played by caprice 
and corruption in the formation of languages, without utterly annihi- 
lating it. 

^ Aboutaie is not the final form. We know on one hand that the Latin p 
does not stop at b, but drops down to t : on the other hand we know that 
t between two vowels always drops out in French ; so that aboutaie would 
become avoutaie^ and finally a'vouaie, the last regular contraction of 

^ Adamantem, diamant; emendare, amender ; amygdale, amande ; 
tremere, craindre ; carbunculus, escarboucle ; scintilla, etincelle ; sarco- 
phagus, cercueil • fracticium, friche\ lampetra, lamproie ; imicomu, 
Ucorne ; umbilicus, nombril. As to the words lendemain, loriot, lierre, 
which in Old French were rightly spelt endemain, oriot, terre (see the 
Dictionary for these words), they must not be reckoned as corruptions 
of the Latin word, but of the French. 





§ 173. Before we enter into necessary details in dealing with deriva- 
tion, under tlie three heads of substantive, adjective, and verb, we must 
first forewarn our reader that every suffix ought always to be regarded 
from three points of view ; — with reference to its origin, form, and 

§ 174. I. Origin. — Suffixes maybe of Latin origin (as pfemz'^r from 
primarius), or of French origin, that is, formed on the model of 
Latin suffixes, as encrzVr from encre), but having no correspon- 
dent Latin original. 

§ 175. 2. Form. — We must carefully distinguish suffixes of learned 
formation from those of popular origin ; i. e. such derivatives as 
prinWr^, sdcuWr^, schokzW, which come from the learned, from 
such as prem?'<?r (primarius), "SjioxMer (secularis), ^colz'<?r (scholaris), 
which have been formed by the common people. 

§ 176. 3. Accentuation. — Here the Latin suffixes may be put under 
two heads : a. the accented, whose penultimate is long, as mort^lis, 
humanus, vulgaris ; and, /3. the unaccented or atonic, whose penul- 
timate is short; as dsinus, porticus, mobilis. 

§ 177. Accented Latin suffixes are retained in the French, as mortely 
humain, vulgaire. The language having got possession of these 
suffixes, -el, -ain, -aire, presently uses them to form new derivatives, 
applying them to words which had no corresponding suffixes in 
Latin: by such additions have been formed such words as vis-uel^ 
loini-ain, visionn-aire, derivatives created at first hand by the French 

§ 178. Atonic Latin suffixes, ds-inus, port-icus, jud-icem, all 
perish as they pass into French by a natural consequence of the 
law of accentuation: thus dsinus gives us dne ; port-icus, pore he ; 
j'dd-^cem^juge. After losing the atonic i these suffixes had no strength 
left in them for the production of new derivatives. What, in fact, 
does the suffix -k in gre-te (gracilis) ; humb-le (humilis) ; douib-h 
(ductilis), represent to the common ear ? Who would believe that 
these three French words are formed by means of the same suffix, 
if he had not the Latin words before him ? While the Latin -ilis 
is very fruitful, the French -le is but a sterile termination. Similarly, 
it may be seen by such examples as diab-le (diabolus) ; meub-le 
(mobilis) ; peup-le (populus), that the three Latin suffixes, -olus, -ilis, 
-lilus, are uniformly merged in the French -le ; a fact which indicates 


the indistinctness of their sound on the popular ear, owing to the 
dropping of the atonic penultimate vowel. It was not till several 
centuries after the birth of the French language that the learned, - 
not understanding the proper function of accent in the formation i 
of terminations, foolishly followed the Latin form, imposing on it / 
a false accent, displacing the true accent. Then sprang up words j 
like portique (porticus) ; mobile (mobilis) ; fragile (fragilis) ; words * 
opposed to the genius of the French language, barbarous words, 
neither Latin nor French, defying the laws of accent of both 
languages. In a word, of these two classes of suffixes, the former, 
the accented, are alone strong enough to bear any development in 
French ; the others, the atonic, have fallen dead, without producing 
a single new derivative. This is the principle which will form the 
basis of our study of suffixes. 


Derivation of Substantives. 

Latin substantives, adjectives, verbs, prepositions ^, have produced 
French substantives. 


French Substantives derived from Latin Substantives^. 

§ 179. The French language has carried over several thousands of 
Latin substantives, such as chanire, cantor; pdtre, pastor; kgon, 
lectionem, &c. ; and has also created a vast number of others from 
French substantives already existing ; such as journe'e, anne'e, soiree, 
matinee, from Jour, an, soir, matin; chevalerie from chevalier, &c* 
All these formations are studied in detail in §§ 191, sqq., under the 
heads of the suffixes -alls, -anus, -aris, -arius, -aticum, -atus, -etum, 
-eria *, -ianus, -ile, -iste, to which the reader is referred. 

^ We do not here speak of pronouns, for there is only one French word 
which has sprung from a Latin pronoun, that is, identite from idem ; and 
.even in this case, it is not from classical but scholastic Latin, which 
produced the forms identitatem and identicus ; so that even this word 
is not of popular origin. 

^ For all parts of this treatise on derivation and composition I have 
followed Matzner's admirable classification. 



French Substantives derived from Latin Adjectives. 

§ 180. Just as un mort stands for un homme mort, un mortel for un 
itre mortel, by excluding the substantive and calling the object by the 
name of its epithet, so the words matin Jour, hiver, have been formed 
from the Latin adjectives matutinum, diurnum, hibemum, sc. 
tempus: similarly cierge, roche, netge, grange, lange, longe, U, ch^ne, 
droit, hdtel, are from the adjectives cereus, rupea *, nivea, granea *, 
lanea, lumbea*, latus, quercinus*, directum, hospitalis. Several 
substantives of this class, such as sanglier, linge^ coursier, bouclier^ 
were adjectives in Old French (as may be seen under these words 
in the Dictionary), the Old French phrase running un drap linge, 
un pore sanglier, un cheval coursier, un icu bouclier ; and they became 
substantives at a comparatively late epoch in the history of the 
language. For details, see under the suffixes cited in § 179, and 
also under the three suffixes, -tas, -tudo, -ia (it-ia). 


French Substantives derived from Latin Prepositions. 

§ 181. These are very rare, whether they come direct from the 
Latin, as contre'e from contrata* (derived from contra), entr allies from 
interanea (derived from inter), or whether they have been formed 
first hand by the French, as avantage from avant, devanture from 

French Substantives derived from Latin Verbs. 

§ 182. The French language derives substantives from verbs either 
by using the root of the verb, with or without suffixes ; or by using 
the present infinitive, or the present participle, the past participle, or 
the future passive participle. 

§ 183. I. i. From the verb-root with suffix. — By joining to the verb- 
root certain terminations, each of which brings with it a special modi- 
fication of the meaning, the French language has created a multitude 
of substantives : thus from abreuv-er, e'clair-er, all-er, it has produced 
abreuv-oir, eclair-eur, all-ure. These suffixes thus used for the 
creation of substantives are about twenty in number [-alls, -anda 
(-enda), -antia, -anus, -aldus, -ardus, -aris, -arius, -aster, -aticum, 
-atus, -etum, -eria * ? -ela, -ianus, -icius, -ile, -ina, -issa, -iste,* 
-m.en (-amen, -imen, -umen), -mentum, -or (-tor, -sor), -orius, 
-tionem, -ura]. See Sect. III. Chapter I. for the detailed study of 
each of these suffixes. 


§ 184. ii. From the verb-root without suffix. — The French language 
creates new substantives by taking them from the verb, by the simple 
addition to its root of the gender-ending : thus, after the Latin verbs 
apportare, purgare, appellare, have given the verbs apporter, purger, 
appeler, the French language takes the roots of these verbs, apport, 
purge, appel, and uses them as new substantives, which had no originals 
in Latin, and are called verbal substantives. These verbs number 
about three hundred ^, and are all of the first conjugation ^. A certain 
number of these substantives are concrete : as ragout from ragoHter, 
rabat from rabattre, decor from decorer, e'gout from e'goutter, empois 
from empeser, engrais from engraisser, reverbere from riverberer, 
repaire from O. Fr. repairer ^ rechaud from re and e'chauder, depeche 
from de'p^cher, cri from crier, conserve from conserver, contour from 
contourner, traite from traiter, relief from relever, repli from replier ; 
but most of them are abstract, and indicate the action expressed 
by the verb : such are appel from appeler, apport from apporter, 
baisse from baisser, aide from aider, avance from avancer, epouvante 
from e'pouvanter, offre from offrir, peche from picher, recherche from 
rechercher, tremp from tremper, &c. ^ 

Whence has the genius of the French language learnt so 
fruitful and ingenious a process, enabling it to create so large a 
number of substantives which have no Latin parent? The answer _ 
is at hand — The FrencJ;i.and the Latin are simply successive con-^-*^^-^ 
ditions of the same language ; and there is no grammatical process ^ij 
employed in the . French which is not to be found, in germ at least, 
in the Latin ; thus the Romans in their day created (especially 
inllieir time of decadence) verbal substantives out of their infinitives : 
thus from probare, luetari, &c. came proba, lucta, which appear for 
the first time long after the verb ; proba in Ammianus Marcellinus. 
lucta in Ausonius. 

Two characteristic facts shew us with what fertility the French \ 
language has developed this process thus handed down to it from 
the Latin. On the one hand, it has been applied to words which 
are completely strangers to the Latin language, and such substantives 
as galop, debut, regard, have been formed from verbs of Germanic 

^ These derivatives have a peculiarity which is quite unique ; they are 
shorter than the words whence they come. We must carefully avoid 
confounding these substantives, which spring from verbs, with those which 
have given birth to verbs (such d&fete, lard, whence^/eter, larder). 

^ The eight or ten substantives (such as maintien from maintenir, recueil 
from recueil lir, accueil from accueillir) which belong to other conjugations 
have been formed by analogy. The other conjugations have formed no 
verbal substantives like those of the first conjugation, because they have 
at their disposal the strong participial substantives (studied in § 188). 

^ About one-third of these substantives are of the masculine gender. 


origin, such as galoper^ dibuter^ regarder ; on the other hand, the 
process is still in active operation, and daily gives birth to fresh words ; 
thus of late years have appeared casse from casser, chauffe froni 
chauffer ^y and this fact shews us the persistent nature and spontaneous 
action of the laws of language, and the certainty with which the 
popular instinct advances, quite unconsciously, in the formation of 
new words. 

§ 185. II. The Infinitive. — From the present infinitive come a 
tolerably large number of masculine substantives, such as diner, 
dejeuner, souper, goUter, vivre and vivres, manger, boire, loyer, savoir, 
pouvoir, devoir, plaisir, itre, loisir, repentir, avenir, sourire, baiser, 
souvenir, &c., all of them used as masculine substantives. 

§ 186. III. The Present Participle. — Just as the Latin language had 
created a substantive, amans (a lover), from the present participle 
of the verb amare, so the French language has created, by help 
of present participles, the substantives marchand from mercantem *, 
manant from manentem ; sergent, servientem ; se'ant, sedentem, to 
say nothing of forms which have come direct from the French 
participle, such as tranchant, vivant, servant, gouvernante, me'chant, 
from trancher, vivir, servir, gouverner ; michant, O. Fr. meschant, is 
from the old verb mescheoir, like se'ant from seoir, ichiant from 

§ 187. IV. The Past Participle. — The Latin tongue possessed the 
faculty of creating substantives out of its past participles : thus from 
peccatmn, p. p. of peccare, came the substantive peceatum, a sin ; 
from fossa, p. p. of fodere, came fossa, a ditch, &c. And the French 
language, not content with thus turning the Latin participles into sub- 
stantives (as in avoui, advocatus; ecrit, scriptum, &c.), in its turn 
expanded this grammatical process, and created from French parti- 
ciples a multitude of substantives masculine and feminine, such 
as/ait, regu, dH, re'duit, masculines, and crois/e, nichee, durie, trancMe, 
partie, issue, feminines, all of them past participles of the vtxh^faire, 
devoir, recevoir, &c. And this it does especially with feminine par- 
ticiples. The number of substantives thus obtained is considerable ; 
for the French language forms substantives with both classes of par- 
ticiples, the strong as well as the weak ^ 

^ La chauffe, a furnace ; une surface de chauffe, a fire-surface, flue-surface. 

^ A strong participle is one which is accented on the root, as dictus, 
fdctus, trdctus ; a 'weak participle is accented on the ending, as am-dtus, 
purg-dtus. Similarly, in French, dit, fait, joint, are strong; aimee, purgee, 
iveak participles. The strong participles are those which ordinary gram- 
marians class mechanically under the name of irregular participles, and 
fweak ones under the name of the regular. For further details, see 
Historical Grammar, p. 140. 


T. Formed from ze;<?(2/^ (or regular) participles; such as chevauchee, 
accouchee, &c. 

2. Formed from strong (or irregular) participles ; such as dit, 
joint, r^duit, trait, &c. We know (see Historical Grammar, p. 140) 
that Modern French has replaced most of these strong participles 
by weak ones ; still the substantives formed from the strong forms 
remain : thus the old feminine participle defense, defensa, has been 
replaced by the weak form difendue, while it remains as a sub- 

§ 188. The following is a list of these strong participles ^ no longer 
in use as such, but still remaining as substantives. 
, It will be seen that the modern form, the correspondent weak 
participle, is set side by side (within brackets) with the old strong 
participle, which has become a substantive, and the Latin word 
whence it comes : — 

Emplette, implieita {employee) ; exploit, explicitum {/ploy^) ; meute, 
movita {mue^., and its compound imeute, exmovita [emue) ; pointe, 
puncta [poindre, in the sense of to prick = pungere ; this word 
remains as a participle in the word courte-pointe, in O. Fr. coulte-pointe, 
from Latin culcita-puncta) ; course, eursa {courue) ; trait, tractum, 
and its compounds por- trait, retrait, traite, &c. ; source, sursa {surgie), 
and its compound ressource ; the verb is sourdre, siirgere; route, 
rupta {rompue), and its compounds deroute, banqueroute, i. e. banque, 
rompue ; defense, defensa {difendtie), and its congeners offense, &c. ; 
tente, t6ndita {tendue), and its compounds attente, de'tente, entente, &c. ; 
rente, r6ddita {r endue) ; pente, p6ndita * {pendue), and its compounds 
soupente, susp6ndita * isuspendue) ; poste, posita {pose'e) ; repas, re- 
pastus (repu) ; croit, cr§scituni * (crue), and its compound surer oit; 
semonce, formerly semonse, summonsa * ; entorse, intorsa * ; suite, 
s6quita* (suivie), yAiencQ poursuite ; vente, v^ndita, ■ (vendue) ; perte, 
p6rdita (perdue); quete, qua§sita (quet/e), and its compounds con- 
quete, requite, enquete ; recette, recepta (regue) ; ^dette, d6bita (dUe) ; 
reponse, responsa (ripondue) ; elite, electa (Hue) ; tonte, t6ndita * 
(tondue); mors, morsus (mordu) ; fonte, fiindita {fondue); compound 
refonte ; toise, tensa (tendue) ; ponte, pondita* (pondue) ; fente, f6ndita 
(f endue) ; faute, fallita (faillie) ; maltote, male-tollita ; boite, blbita 

^ More than one participle in this list has never been used in French 
except as a substantive; and its participial usage dates either from the 
classical or the rustic Latin, which latter often created forms of which 
no trace remains in any text, but which survive in the corresponding 
French words. Thus entorse, semonce, suite (in Italian seguita), croit 
(It. cresciuto), cannot answer to the classical forms intorta, summonita, 
secuta, eretum, but to the popular forms intorsa *, summonsa *, 
sequita*, crescitum*. 


(bue) ; secousse, succussa {secouee) ; and its congener rescousse, from 
O. Fr. escousse, which is the Latin excussa ; /m'/e, ftigita ; promesse^ 
promissa ( promise) ; e'cluse, ezclusa {exclue) ; itnpoi, impositum 
{impost); d/pot, depositum {diposi); privSt^ praepositum {propose) ; 
suppot, suppositum {suppose) ; entrepSl, interp6situni * {entrepose') ^ / 
descente, desc6ndita * {descendue) ; plaid ^ pldcitum ^. 

Thus, while Old French said itre mors, morsua ; etre route, rupta, 
for itre mordue, rompue, Modern French, while it replaced the Old 
French mors and route by mordu and rompu, created from these old 
participles new substantives (un mors de cheval, une route). In a 
few cases, very rare ones, the strong participle survives beside the 
weak one ; as in un fit tors, and un fil tordu, which has not hindered 
the formation of the substantive tort, conformably with the rule we 
have described ^ Side by side with these two forms of expression 
we have the triple form une femme absoute, une femme absolm^ and 
the substantive absoute. 


Derivation of Adjectives. 

§189. Adjectives are formed (i) by the present participle; as 
charmant, savant, de'vorant, the present participles of the verbs charmer y 
savoir, d/vorer. It often happens that a verb has disappeared in 
Modern French, while its present participle remains as an adjective ; 
thus the Old French verbs michoir, bier, galer, remain only in their 
participles michant, biant, galant, which are now used as adjectives. 

2. From the past participle : — poli, connu, fleuri, &.C., from polir, 
connaitre,fleurir, &c. 

3. From the verb-root. — This process, which we shewed, § 184, to 
be so fruitful for substantives, has not been equally so for adjectives ; 
still some traces of it occur in the adjectives gonfle from gonfler, 
dispos, which comes from disposer, not from the Latin dispositus, 

^ Propos and repos have no place in this list, as they are the substantives 
of the verbs proposer and reposer, as has been seen in § 184. 

^ We may add to this list dessert, desserte, formed by analogy from the 
verb desservir ; absoute, absoluta ; soute, soluta ; chute, caduta *, although 
these participles are not strong in Latin. 

^ I have naturally included in this list only those strong participles which 
have remained only as substantives, leaving out all those which remain in 
French as both participles and substantives; such as dit, joint, adjoint, 
reduit, conduit, conduite, produit, enduit, biscuit, ouie, clos, enclos, cowvert, 
decowverte, miscy remise, prise, surprise, defaite, crue, contrainte, empreintCy 
feinte, &c. 


which would have given d^pdt. Compare impositus, impot ; suppo- 
situs, suppot ; praepositus, privdt. 

4. By suffixes. — By this means the French language produces 
fresh adjectives ; a. from substantives, as mensonger, courageux, age, 
from mensonge, courage, dge ; or, jS. from adjectives, as jaundtre, 
lourdaud, vieillot, from jaune, lourd, vieil ; or y. from verbs, as com- 
parable, redoubtable, semblable, as comparer, redouter, sembler ; or 8. 
from prepositions, as ancien from antianus *, derivative of ante ; 
souverain from superanus*, derivative of supra. In the next chapter 
will be found a list of all these suffixes, and of the derivations which 
they have supplied to the French language. 



List of Nominal Suffixes. 

§ 190. Here follows a detailed catalogue of nominal suffixes (i. e. 
of suffixes which form substantives and adjectives), divided, as has 
been already done in § 176, into accented and atonic. In this list of 
suffixes will be found the three of Germanic origin (viz. -ard, -inc, 
and -aud), which are to be met with in the French tongue : diminutive 
and augmentative suffixes will be treated of separately. 

Accented Suffixes. 

§ 191. Alls, ale become al, eP in popular French^: chenal, canalis^,* 
journal, diumalis ; royal, regalis ; loyal, legalis ; hotel, hospitale ; 
cheptel, capitale ; noel, natalis ; me'nestrel, ministrale * ; mortel, 
mortalis ; charnel, earnalis ; voyelle, vocalis. Pluralis produced 
in the regular way the, Old French plurel, changed afterwards into 
the diphthongal />/«rz'^/, by changing e into ie. See § 56. 

The suffixes -alls, -aris have been replaced, so far as French 
derivatives are concerned, by the form -arius, and have disappeared, 
leaving no posterity behind them. 

§ 192. Antia, entia become ance in popular French *". as in enfance, 

^ For the letter-change, see % 54. 

"^ The learned form is al : cardinalis, cardinal ; hospitale, hopital. 

^ Canalis has also produced another form, chenel, which was afterwards 
softened into cheneau, just as bel became beau. 

* The learned form from antia is ance, as in arrogance, arrogantia ; 
of entia, ence^ as in innocence, innocentia. 



infantia; contenance, oontinentia *. We know that these abstract 
substantives are formed from the present participle by adding the 
suffix -ia ; thus from infantem has come infantia ; from con- 
tinentem, continentia, &c. The French language, imitating this 
process, has similarly created vengeance from vengeant, croyance from 
croyant, confiance from confiant, e'chiance from icMant, jouissance from 
jouissant. Participial substantives often come from forms which have 
disappeared from Modern French, and are, as it were, living witnesses 
to their dead ancestors : thus chance, formerly cheance, carries us back 
to che'ant, participle of ch/oir, primitive form of choir, cadere ; and 
ichiance carries us back, through dcMant, to echoir. Fiani, participle 
of fier, gives us the Old French substantive fiance, whence again 
the \trhfiancer. Engeance, finance, outrecuidance, similarly come from 
the old verbs enger (to multiply oneself) ; finer (to conclude a 
bargain, pay); outrecuider, ultra-cogitare. Cre'ance answers to the 
archaic participle criani, to be found in the compound m/cr/ant. 
DoUance, whence condoUaTue, similarly carries us through a participle 
doUant, to a verb doUier, from a Latin type dolicare * ; while nuance, 
laitance come through nuant, laitant, from the old verbs nuer, latter, 
which are derived from the words nue, laite. 

§ 193. Andus, endus. The passive future participle has provided 
us, through its nominative plural neuter, with a certain number of 
substantives. We must, however, take note that the French language, 
following its customary use^, has treated these neuter plurals as if 
they were feminine singulars, and has produced from them a number 
of feminine substantives, such as viande from vivenda; provende 
from praebenda ^ ; whence, by analogy, the French derivatives offrande 
from offrir ; jurande ^romjurer ; re'primande from reprimer, &c. 

From the combination of the suffix and with the suffix /<?r (see 
§ 198), come the derivatives in andier, such as taill-andier from 
iailler, filandiere from filer ; lavandiere from laver, &c. 

^ It is well known that by a strange error the Merovingian Latin 
mistook neuter pluralsJDu^. for feminine singulars of the-.£rst_de£lension. 
Thus'from J)6cus^as formed pecoras r "* mter'^ecoras ' says aTlhar- 
tulary of a.d. 757 (in Muratori). The same author has published a 
collection of industrial receipts of the Merovingian epoch, in which we find 
a feminine pergamina, from the neuter plural of pergamenum : ' per- 
gamina quomodo fieri debet: mitte illam in calcem., at jaceat ibi 
per dies tres.' In this way the French language has produced a certain 
number of feminine substantives ; as mer'veille, mirabilia ; bible, biblia * ; 
come, cornua ; aumailk, animalia ; tempe, tempera ; brasse, brachia ; 
arme, arma ; muraille, muralia ; 'volatile, volatilia ; feuille, folia ; saussaiey 
saliceta ; and all the suffixes in ate from eta, plural of etum. 

2 Learned forms are legende from legenda ; prebende from praebenda. 


§ 194. Anus, ana become am, en — aim, enne ^ / as chdtelain, 
castellanus * ; auhain, albanus * ; ecrivain, scribanus ; poulain, 
pullanus * ; humain, humanus ; souverain, superanus * ; vilain, 
villanus * ; lointain, longitanus * ; fontaine, fontana. 

When anus follows i it becomes en, whether the i be original, 
as in ancien, antianus; chre'tien, christianus, or whether it comes 
from the dropping of the medial consonant (see Historical Grammar, 
p. 37), as m. paien, paganus; doyen, decanus ; mqyen, medianus; 
miioyen, medietanus *; citoyen, civitadanus *. 

French derivatives formed by analogy are also very numerous; 
such are quatre, quatrain,^; dix, dizain ; six, sixain; douze,douzaine ; 
neuf, neuvaine ; haut, hautain ; proche, prochain ; Afric-ain, Napolit- 
ain, Americ-ain : the one exception under this class is paysan, pays, 
which should have been pay sain, and indeed is found so in the twelfth 
century and onwards : this one deviation may be due to dissimilation 
(§169). The form en is especially applied to professional nouns, such 
as m/canicien, chirurgien, musicien, grammairien ^. 

§ 195. Aldu§,.a,siiffix of Germariic origin. In a great many Prankish 
proper names we may notice a suHTx, wald, which denotes force, 
command, answering to the modern German Ge-walt, walten, to 
wield ; thus Chlodo-wald, Grimo-wald, Anso-wald, &c. This suffix 
was transcribed into aldus by the Gallo-Romans ^ ; and we find 
in Merovingian Latin the names Chlodo-aldus, Grimo-aldus, Anso- 
aldus, Regin-aldus, which in Carolingian times became Grim-aldus, 
Regin-aldus, by the regular change of oaldus into aldus. By the 
customary softening of al into au (§ 157), aldus became aud ; whence 
Grimaldus, Grimaud ; Reginaldus, Regnaud. 

This suffix has, i)£.en employed by the French language, but always 
in a depreciatory or a bad sense, whether as attached to words of 
QttxmSxSt on^xxi, 2J& clai-aud, crap-aud, or by analogy in French 
derivatives, as lourd-aud, nig-aud, fin-aud, ronge-aud, sal-aud. pat-aud ; 
and with a diminutive sense in levr-aui, a leveret. 

§ 196. Ardus, a suffix of Germanic origin (Gothic hardus, German 
hart, hard). This suffix, which has helped to form a great many 
proper names, such as Regin-hart, Rein-hart, Renard ; Eber-hart, 
Ehrart, Ebrard, Evrard, denotes intensity in French words ; and also 
in very many cases takes a bad sense : thus ard is found in com- 

^ For letter-changes, see § 54. 

^ Faisan, phasianus, is in the same position as paysan ; on grounds of 
dissimilation it could not become faisain. Such words as partisan, capitan, 
"volcan, artisan, courtisan, are not to be added to the list, as they have 
come in in modern times from Spain or Italy, and are not genuine French 

^ Waldus (pronounced valdus) became aldus by dropping the medial 
V (§ 141) : as Chlodo(v)aldus, Chlodoaldus, Qlodoald, 


bination (i) with substantives; as monfagne, montagnard ; hdt, bdtard ; 
canSy canard ; bt'lle, billard ; bras, brassard ; cutsse, cuissard ; couard, 
oaud-arduB * / hagard (Lat. haga) ; brancard, from O. Fr. branc^ 
masculine form of branche ; mouche, mouchard ; poing, poignard ; 
moiit, moutarde ; poule, poularde ; campagne, campagnard ; corbeil, 
corbillard ; /pine, ipinard ; putts, puisard ; or (2) with adjectives, 
as vteil, viellard ; or (3) with verbs, as pend-re, pendard ; etend-re, 
itendard ; fui-r,fuyard ; babiller, babillard ; baver, bavard ; brailler^ 
braillari ; brocher, brocart ; brouiller, brouillard ; crier, criard ; 
nasiller, nasillard ; p/ter, pilar d ; piller, pillar d ; plaquer, placard. 

§ 197. Aris becomes ier in popular French *, as sanglier, singularis ; 
icolier, scholaris. 

§ 198. Arius. This suffix, which is derived from aris, and has 
entirely supplanted it in new-formed French words, becomes ier, as 
premier, primarius. In popular French^ this form ier is reduced 
to er after ch, g^ ; as in vacher, porcher, boucher, archer, bUcher, 
clocher, cocher, gaucher, picker, plancher, rocher ; berger, danger, 
boulanger, itranger, leger, verger, oranger, viager, mensofiger. 

This suffix, ier, is the most productive of all French suffixes : ist, in 
adjectives, 2.% premier, primarius; le'ger, leviarius*, whence, by analogy, 
the French derivatives plenier from plein ; bocager from bocage ; men- 
songer from mensonge ; dernier, formerly derrenier, from O. Fr. derrain, 
dernier, Lat. deretranus *. 2nd, in substantives which vary exceed- 
ingly in sense : thus, ier designates, (i) the names of plants or trees, as 
poirier, pommier, noyer, nucarius * ; amandier, laurier, figuier, peuplier, 
grenadier, prunier,/raisier, miirier, cerisier, citronnier, oranger, eglantier, 
from O. Fr. aiglent, a thorn: (2) names of animals, as le'vrier, lepo- 
rarius, be'lier, from O. Fr. belle, limier, formerly liemier, from lien, 
originally Hem ? (3) Names of trades : poller, pot ; batelier, from O. Fr. 
batel ; chamelier, from O. Fr. chamel ; cordonnier, formerly cordouanier, 
from O. Fr. cordouan ; huissier, from O. Fr. huis ; conseiller, con- 
siliarius ; icuyer, scutarius ; berger, vervecarius. In bijou-l-ier from 
bijou; cafe-l-ier from cafe' ; clou-t-ier from clou; boyau-d-ier from 
boyau, the consonant is intercalated to avoid the hiatus. (4) The con- 
ception of a receptacle : as colombier, columbarium ; verger, viri- 

^ For letter-changes, see § 54. The learned form is aire ; as vulgaire, 
vulgaris ; populaire, popularis, by the side of which, for learned words 
of rather greater antiquity, we find again the form ier ; as regulier, regu- 
laris ; singulier, singularis. 

^ Anus has similarly supplanted the suffix alis, which is, in fact, only 
another form of aris, § 176. 

* In this list of suffixes in er we do not name those which follow j* or 
soft //, because these letters have included in them the i of ier ; such are 
ecuyer, noyer, bruyere, gruyer f, metayer, foyer, -voyer ; conseiller, cornouiller, 
ecaillere, poulailler, oreiller. 


diarium * ; foyer, focarium ; chartrier, chartularium ; grenier, gra- 
narium ; encrier from encre ; sablier from sahle. 

Hence it is plain that ier produces, in each of these cases, such 
varied changes of sense that it is not easy to reduce its effects to 
one formulary. We may read with advantage the reflections which 
this great variety of results has suggested to M. Br^al ^, in a fine 
passage full of the philosophy of language. He says : — 

'■ Thus from pomme, figue, amande, we have created pommier, figuier, 
amandier. Judging from these, we might think that -ier indicates 
the thing which produces the object named by the primitive word. 
But, on the other hand, there are words like encrier, huilier, herbier, 
colandier, in which -ier indicates not the thing which produces, but 
the thing which receives. It may be suggested that this idea of 
reception has led to that of origination, and that the two ideas 
may be thus merged in one. But then what shall we do with 
such words as prisonnier, where -ier indicates neither the producing 
agent nor the receptacle, but, on the contrary, the thing contained .? 
Again, if we have prisonnier from prison, so have we also geolier 
from geSle, which is quite the opposite thing. Nor is this all : the 
connection in sense which couples chevalier with cheval is not the same 
with that which connects bouvier with boeuf, or levrier with lievre. 
One could easily multiply examples ; but these are enough to shew 
that the mind must come to the rescue in the case of so variable 
a suffix. 

' It certainly would not be impossible to conceive a sense so abstract 
as to suit all these derivatives, especially if we imagine ourselves 
re-establishing that neuter gender which the language has lost. But 
let us consider what passes in our mind when we use these words : 
each time we supply to ourselves a relation of a concrete kind and 
of a particular species. The word voiturier means the coachman 
of a voiture, while carrossier means the maker of a carrosse ; a 
cuirassier is a soldier who wears a cuirasse, but an armurier is a man 
who makes or sells arms. The mind divines or knows by tradition 
these relations, which are not in the least expressed by the words 
themselves, and our intelligence fills up the blank. 

' It is possible that, originally, man tried to give a proper suffix 
to each relation which his mind could conceive. But this attempt 
he must fain abandon ere long, as the crowd of the relations, which 
his growing experience called up, pressed more and more on him. 
And thus, too, just as idioms grow older, these auxiliaries of thought, 
far from increasing in number, as one might have expected, shew 
a distinct tendency to decrease. The more common suffixes elbow 
out the weaker ones : the mind, content with a certain number of 

^ M. Breal, Idtes latentes du langagCy p. lo, 1. 13 — p. 12, 1. 24. 


signs, trusts more and more to its own intelligence, helped by- 

* We have, no doubt, artificial nomenclatures, in which the termina- 
tion at once tells us the position of the object designated in a scientific 
classification. Thus chemical nomenclature is a kind of spoken 
catalogue, in which every change in the composition of a body is 
indicated by a corresponding change in the form of its name. But 
we must remember that, amidst the infinity of relations in which 
things can stand to one another in the world, the language of 
chemistry chooses out a few and neglects the rest, thus arriving at 
exactitude by specialising rigorously. On the contrary, common 
speech, which ought to sufiice for the universality of our knowledge, 
very properly dispenses with scientific rigour, and, without striving 
after impossibilities, compels new ideas into the existing forms which 
have been handed down to it from ages past.' 
I" § 199. Aster. This suffix retains in French the depreciatory and 
bad sense it had in the Latin poetaster, philosophaster, and the 
diminutive sense it had in surdaster, novellaster, &c. Aster be- 
came in popular French dtre, originally aslre ; mardtre, matrasta * ; 
pardtre, patraster ; saumdtre, salmaster * ; noirdtre from noir ; grisdtre 
from gris ; hleudtre from hleu ; rougedire from rouge ; foldtre from 

§ 200. Atus (of the fourth declension). This suffix becomes / 
in popular French ^ As a substantive -atus indicates employment, 
oflfice, dignity; as in consulatus, senatus, pontificatus, legatus; 
comti^ comitatus ; duche\ ducatus ; clergi^ clerieatus. By analogy 
mar/ckaussee, sinichaussee, from marechal, s^n^chal. 

§ 201. Atus, utus, suffixes which indicate possession, form adjectives 
drawn straight from substantives (following the analogy of the present 
participle ?), but are not to be confounded with § 200. 

Thus the Latins said alatus from ala, barbatus from barba, 
comutus from comu, &c., whence (by the regular changes of atus 
into e"^, and of utus into u ^, come the adjectives ros^, rosatus ; ail/, 
alatus ; comu, comutus ; chenu, canutus ; eu, bit, vu, sH, formerly 
<?«, heil, veil, seii, from Latin habutus*, bibutus*, vidutus*, saputus*, 
as is shewn by the Italian forms avuio, veduto, &c.; whence also, 
by analogy, come numerous French derivatives, as age from dge ; 

^ The learned form is at; as senat, senatus; consulate consulatus; 
pontificate pontificatus. On this model have been constructed such de- 
generate and ill-formed words as marquisat from marquis, generalat from 

2 For letter-changes, see §§ 187, 188. 

^ For letter-changes, see §§ 187, 188. 


maniere, mam'/re ; a f aire, affaire ; orangey orangi ; bar be, barbu ; 
ventre, ventru ; tete, teiu ; point, pointu. 

The feminine suffix ata, ee in French, imitating the feminine of 
the past participle, see § 200 (care must be taken not to confuse them 
together), is joined to substantives, with a view to the creation of 
other substantives which shall express either (i) the quantity con- 
tained in the primitive, as charrette, charrettee ; assi'ette, assiette'e ; 
gorge, gorg^e ; cuiller, cuillere'e ; bouche, bouchie ; and, consequently, 
relations of times : jour, journe'e ; soir, soire'e ; matin, matine'e ; an, 
anne'e ; or (2) the object produced by the primitive, as araignee, 
araneata*, originally a cobweb spun by the aragne, aranea. 

By the side'*of this suffix, ee, which is the old popular and true 
French form of ata, there is also a form ade, imported from the 
Romance languages of the South '^ — from Provengal, in or 
about the thirteenth century^, from Spanish and Italian. Thus, 
grenade, dorade, bigarrade, croisade, ballade, come from Provengal 
grenada (Lat. granata), daurada (Lat. de-aurata*), crozada (Lat. 
cruciata *, from crucem), balada (Lat. ballata * ^). Arcade, 
balustrade, embuscade, esplanade, estrade, gambade, panade, are from 
Italian areata, balustrata, imboscata, splanata, strata, gambata, panata. 
Camarade, algarade are from Spanish camarada, algarada *. 

This foreign suffix ade has oeen so largely imported, and at a 
time when the French language had still a certain plastic force, that 
it has been adopted as a popular suffix, and is still employed to 
form a crowd of new words, such as promenade, embrassade, glissade, 
bourfade, &c. 

§ 202. Ela becomes elle in French, as in chandelle, candela; 
querelle, querela, is perhaps a learned word. This suffix has 
remained unfruitful, and has produced no new French words. 

§ 203. Elis usually becomes el : cruel, crudelis ; but becomes 
al after a guttural. This suffix has also been barren. 

§ 204. Ellus becomes first el, flien eau, as has been seen § 157 ; thus 
agnellus becomes agnel, then agneau ; vascellum, vaissel, then 

^ The Latin suffix ata became Italian dta, Spanish and Proven9al ada', 
thus diumata* is in Italian giornata, in Provencal and ^^zmsh Jornada. ^^ 

■^ The oldest example, known to us, of the suffix ade in French is noix \ 
mugade (nux muscata), in the Roman de la Rose. / 

" Auhade, bigarrade, are from the modern Provenyal auhado, albata ; ' 

* When one of these foreign words in ade falls in with a popular 
word, coming from the same Latin root, there ensues a doublet : thus the 
Latin salata becomes salee in French, salada in Spanish ; salee and salade, 
on the entry of the latter word from Spain, form a ' doublet ' ; so too with 
che'vauchee, caballicata *, and ca'valcade ; panee, panata, and panadcy and 
so on. 



vaisseau ; gemellus, Jumel, then jumeau, &c. ^ Cerveau, cerebellum \ 
chalumeau, calamellus ; nouveau, novellus ; oiseau, aucellum ; pourceau, 
porcellum. This eau becomes tau in fabliau, originally fableau and 
fablel from fisibulellum *, and in boyau from bo(t)ellum, by a letter- 
change studied in § 157 ^. 

We have seen, under § 18, how the suffix ellus, a diminutive in 
Latin, loses in French its diminutive force; in some words, such 
as vaisseau, vascellum* (properly *a little vessel'), it has even taken 
an augmentative sense. 

§ 205. Emia becomes ange, as has been shewn in § 244, and 
Historical Grammar, p. 66 : vendange, vindem.ia ; louar^e^ laudemia *; 
and, by analogy, vidange from vider ; melange from meler ; lavange 
from laver. 

§ 206. Ensis. This suffix is reduced first to esis, as is shewn §163, 
and in this form produces the French is^ in pays, originally pais, 
from pa(g)esis * ; marquis, marchesis * ; ois * in bourgeois, burgesis*. 
§ 207. Enus, ena becomes ain, oin, ein, in, ine, ene ; as venin, 
venenum ; plein, plenus ; terrain, terrenum ; seine, sagena ; avoine, 
avena ; chaine, O. Fr. chaene, ca(t)ena. 
§ 208. Eria, see under ia, § 244. 

§ 209. Ernum becomes er, as in hiver, hibemum; enfer, infer- 
num ; cahier, quaternum. Erna becomes erne : lanterne, laterna ; 
taverne, tabema; citerne, cistema. 

§ 210. Estus becomes este in Old French, ete ^ in Modern French, 
as honnete, honestus. This suffix has been barren in French. 

§ 211. Etum. Derivatives with this ending denote a district 
planted with trees. It becomes ay ^, found in such proper names as 
Chatenay, Castanetum; Rouvray, Roboretum ; Aulnay, Alnetum. 
It is chiefly through the plural eta that this suffix has developed itself 
in French, by producing (after the rule of neuter plurals. Hist. Gram. 
p. 97) feminine substantives in aie'^ : shussaie, saliceta; ormaie, ulmeta; 
aunaie, alneta. There are many French derivations formed on this 
model : roseraie from rosier ; oseraie from osier ; chdtaigneraie from 
'chdtaignier ; houssaie from houx, &c. Ronceraie has either been 
formed from a lost primitive, roncier, or by analogy ? 

§ 212. Icus becomes i^ : ami, amicus ; ennemi, inimicus; fourwA, 

* The primitive form in el remains in some few expressions: in the 
phrase 'se mettre martel en tete,' euphonic feeling has retained the old 
form instead of the more modern marteau. 

"^ The feminine form ella becomes el/e in French : as pastourelle, pas- 
torella * ; ecuelle, scutella ; 'vaisselle, vascella *. 

^ For letter-changes, see § 58. * For letter-changes, see § 62. 

* For letter-changes, see § 147. ^ For letter-changes, see § 62. 
^ For letter-changes, see § 62. * For letter-changes, see § 129. 


formicus * : ica becomes t'e : amie, arnica ; orft'e, urtica ; vessi'e, 

§ 213. Icem becomes t's ^ in perdicem, whence O. Fr. perdn's, now 
perdrix : isse in genisse, from junicem. 

§ 214. Itius, icius (a suffix attached to verbs.?) becomes is"^ ; as in 
mills, mixtitius ; plessis, plexLtius ; levis, levaticius * ; coulis, cola- 
ticius * ; pdtis, pasticium * ; and hence the French derivatives, 
diquelis, cliqueter ; hachis, hacher ; abatis, abattre ; gdchis, gdcher ; 
logis, loger ; color is, color er. 

§ 215. Ignus becomes in^ : benin, benignus ; malin, malignus. 

§ 216. ilis becomes il: chenil, Q2,-mi.Q', fusil, focnlQ ) fenil, foenile; 
gentil, gentilis ; avril, aprilis, &c. 

We must takecare not to confound ilis with ilis, which is dis- 
cussed § 250. Ilis is joined only to substantives or adverbs, as 
puerilis, puer ; gentilis, gens ; subtilis, subter ; while ilis is com- 
bined only with verbs, as agilis, agere ; facilis, facere ; utilis, uti. 

§ 217. Ista becomes isle. This learned suffix, which comes from I 
the Greek KTri]^, and was introduced by Christian writers into the Latin \ 
language (baptista, evangelista, psalmista), denotes persons by the | 
name of the science which they pursue ; as legiste, juriste, journalisie, » 
oculiste from oculus ; herborisle from O. Fr. herbor, her be; dentiste from 
dent, &c. 

§ 218. Ismus becomes isme. This suffix, which comes from the I 
Greek kt/jlos, is, like ista, purely a learned suffix : syllogisme, syllo- I 
gismus; barbarisme, barbarismus; solecisme, soloecismus; whence I 
the modern derivatives germanisme, communisme, socialisme, anglicisme, 
mahometisme. . 

§ 219. Iscus becomes ois^, in Thiois from Thiotiscus, i^r<2;zf m from I 
Franciscus; and this drops to ais in marais, O. Fr. marois, from I 
mariscus. (Compareyr^zzj from friscus *.) 

^ For letter-changes, see § 129. 

^ The learned form is ice, as mfactice, factitius; adnjentice, adventicius. 

^ For letter-changes, see § 131. 

* For letter-changes, see § 58. The suffix iscus is of Latin origin. | 
We find in Roman writers mariscus, syriscus, libyscus, scutiscum, 1 
calathiscus. The Greeks also had this diminutive suffix, ore^ai/iV/coff, j 
dficfjopicTKos, &c. But iscus was very rarely used in Latin, and the Romance \ 
languages in employing it so frequently, have been influenced by the 
Germanic suffix isk (Modern German iscb), which often caused a confusion 
between the two idioms, — a confusion which has been very fruitful in the 
production of new words. The Wallachian has iscus under the form 
esc, a fact which proves to us that the origin of it is Latin and not Ger- 
manic, as the separation of the Wallachians from the Empire took place 
as early as the second century, and therefore long before the Germanic 

i 2 


I This suffix becomes esco ii\Jtalian, as in iedesco, theotiscus. The 
Italian language uses it in a ""gresniumber of new formations ; as 
pittoresco from pittore ; grottesco from grotta ; gigantesco from gigante ; 
burlesco from burla ; arabesco from arahc ; pedantesco from pedante ; 
soldaie^ca from soldato. In the sixteenth century all these Italian 
words migrated across the mountains, and produced in France the 
forms arabesque, burlesque, grotesque, gigantesque,pe'danlesque, pittoresque, 
{ soldatesque, iudesque. The French language has employed this suffix 
! to form new words ; thus she says romanesque, chevaleresque (imitating 
\ the Italian caballeresco). 

§ 220. Inus becomes in : devin, divinus ; pelerin, peregrinus ; 
voisin, vicinus ; moultn, molinum * ; chemin, caminus ; dauphin, 
delphinus ; ichevin, scabinus ; matin, matutinum ; matin, man- 
satinum *. Ina becomes ine : poitrine, peetorina ; courtine, cortina ; 
cuisine, cocina * ; geline, gallina ; racine, radicina ; routine, rup- 

We may here cite, among French derivatives, substantives drawn 
(i) from verbs: saisine, saisir ; gisine, g^sir ; (2) from other sub- 
stantives: titin, tette ; crapaudine, crapaud ; becassine, bicasse ; bottine, 
botte ; chopine, chope ^ ; couleuvrine, couleuvre ; Eglantine from O. Fr. 
aiglant ; houssine, houx ; serpentine, serpent ; terrine, terre ; sourdine^ 

§ 221. Inc. A suffix of Germanic origin, denoting filiation, origin, 
which regularly became enc ^ in Old French, whence it is reduced to 
an in modern French (wrongly written and in some cases) : thus 
Flaeming becomes O. Fr. Flamenc, now Flamand ; chamarling be- 
comes O. Fr. chambrelene, chamberlenc, now chambellan ; Lodaring 
became Loherenc, then Loherai?!, lastly Lorraitt. This suffix has even 
been applied to words which are not of Germanic origin ; thus from 
kisser comes O. Fr. tisserenc, later tisseranc, whence tisseratid. 

§ 222. Issa becomes esse. This suffix in imperial Rome in- 
dicated the feminine : abbatissa from abbatem ; prophetissa from 
prophetam ; sacerdotissa from sacerdotem. It appears in the 
French derivatives abbes se, abbatissa; traitresse ixom. traitre; prophetesse 
ivova. prophete ; vengeresse ivomvengeur ; duchesse iv<ya\ due ; enchanteresse 
from enchanteur ; pe'cheresse from pe'cheur ; chanoinesse from chanoine. 

§ 223. Ivus becomes if^ ; ch/tif, captivus ; naif, nativus ; ratify 
restivus*. Its French derivatives are plentiful : poussif {lova pousser ; 
hdtif from hdter ; pensif from penser ; craintif from crainte. Iva 
becomes ive ; ogive, augiva* ; che'tive, captiva ; olive, oliva, &c. 

^ In these words ine acts as a diminutive suffix. 
^ For letter-changes, see § 72. 

' For letter-changes, see § 142. In bajulivus * the O. Fr. bAiliff is 
reduced in Modern French to bailli. 


§ 224. Lentus becomes lant in popular French^: sanglani, sangui- | 

§ 225. Mentum becomes ment^, 2&froment, fmmentum ; viiement, 
vestimentum ; tourment, tormentum, &c. The French language | 
uses this suffix to produce substantives from verbs, by intercalating j 
an e between the verbal root and the suffix : thus we have from \ 
hurl-er, hurl-e-ment ; from commenc-er , commenc-e-ment ; from aboy-er^ 
aboi-e-meni, &c. This e is intercalated only with verbs in er ^ ; with 
verbs in ir * i is intercalated, as sent-i-ment, sentir ; ressent-i-meniy 
ressentir ; but it should be noticed that these are learned words ; the 
popular form is certainly that with e ^. 

§ 226. Men. This suffix, which is the root of mentum, under the i 
three forms, a-men, i-men, u-men, has produced a certain number 
of French words, but has made no new creations, having been sup- 
planted in this by its derivative mentum, see § 225. 

Amen becomes atn, aim : eirain, stram^en ^ ; airain, aeramen, 
levain, levam.en ; merrain, m.aterianien ; lien for liain, from 
ligam.en; essaim, examen. 

Imen becomes in, ain '^ : sain, formerly sa'm, from sa(g)inien ; irain, 
formerly fra'm, from tra(g)im.en ; nourrain, nutrimen. 

Umen becomes un in alun, alumen^ 

§ 227. Orem, which forms abstract substantives, becomes eur^ ; as 

^ The learned form is ent : 'violent^ violentus ; somnolent, somnolentus, 

2 Why not mant 1 

^ Except a few words like •vet-e-ment from 'vetir ; recueill-e-ment from 
recueillir ; c6nsent-e-ment from consentir ; tressaill-e-ment from tressaillir. 

* It may be remarked that these verbs are not inchoative (i.e. they 
reproduce the Latin forms). As for inchoative verbs (i. e. those which 
form their imperfect in -issais, not -ais, like rugir), they form substantives 
in -ment, by inserting the inchoative particle iss : rug-iss-e-ment from rugir ; 
accompl-iss-e-ment from accomplir ; abrut-iss-e-ment from ahrutir. There 
are a few exceptions, like hdt-i-ment from bdtir ; blanch-i-ment from blan- 
chir ; assort-i-ment from assortir. 

^ Verbs of the fourth conjugation (in re) form substantives by adding 
e to the verbal root ; rend-e-ment, batUe-ment, entend-e-ment, from rendre, 
battre, entendre. Bruire, accroitre, decrottre, connaitre, which have ss in the 
imperfect, bruissais, acroissais, decroissais, connaissais, make bruissementy 
accro'issem, dectroissement, connaissement. 

^ For letter-changes, see § 54. The learned form is amen, as examen, 

"^ The learned form is ime : as crime, crimen ; regime, regimen. 

* For letter-changes, see § 161. The learned form is ume: as bitume, 
bitumen ; legume, legumen ; volume, volumen. 

^ By a change, studied § 79. There is but one exception to this rule ; 


douleur, dolorem ; doucettr, dulcorem ; couleur, colorem ; sueurj 
sudorem ; peur, pavorem. On this model the French language has 
formed new words: puanteur from puant ; pesanieur from pesant ; 
largeur from large ; grandeur from grand, &c. 

§ 228. Sorem, torem. These suffixes (not to be confounded 
with orem) which express the name of the agent, become seur and 
ieur * ; de/enseur, defensorem ; pecheur, piscatorem ; chanfeur, canto- 
rem ; pasteur, pastorem ; p/cheur, peccatorem ; sauveur, salvatorem ; 
empereur, imperatorem, &c. 

The French derivatives under this head, which are very numerous, 
follow the same rules of formation as have been studied above in 
§ 225, mentum ; i. e. non-inchoative verbs form their substantives 
in eur, as jouer, joueur, while inchoatives form them in iss-eur^ 
as nourrtr, nourrisseur ; blanchir, blanchisseur ^. 

The feminine trix, as in nutricem, nourrice, whence ledeur, ledrice ; 
bien/aiieur, bten/actrice, has been almost entirely replaced in Modern 
French by the two other feminine suffixes euse, and eresse thus 
lavatrix* from lavator, becomes laveuse ; we ha^ve p^cheur, pecca- 
torem, but packer esse is the equivalent of peccatricem. 

§ 229. Osus, which forms substantives from adjectives, becomes 
eux ^, and osa, euse : noueux, nodosus ; envieux, invidiosus ; amou- 
reux, amorosus ; Mdeux, hispidosus *. 

New forms under this head are very numerous : as chanceux 
from chance ; pierreux from pierre ; soigneux from soin ; courageux 
from courage ; heureux from O. Fr. heur ; affreux from O. Fr. affre ; 
doucereux from douceur^ ; orgueilleux from orgueiP. 

§ 230. Tatem, which in Latin produces substantives from ad- 

amour, not ameur, from amorem. Labour does not fall under this head 
of exception, as it does not come from laborem (which has duly pro- 
duced labeur), but is the verbal substantive of labourer, see § 18. 

^ For letter-changes, see § 79. 

"^ The suffix eur was softened later into eux in the words piqueux, 
piqueur ; porteux, porteurs ; faucheux, Jaucheur ; 'violonneux, 'violonneur ; and 
into ou in ^lou, Jileur ; gabelou, gabeleur ; ou for eur is met with in some 
patois (?). 

^ For letter-changes, see § 149. The learned form is ose: as morose, 
m.orosus ; 'ventSse, ventosus ; sinose, sinosus. 

* Jaloux from zelosus, and 'ventouse from ventosus ; compare Toulouse 
from Tolosa, are exceptions. Pelouse is Provengal, as also are two of the 

^ Doucereux is a softened form of douceureux. 

® Pieux and serieux have no place here, see Italian Dictionaries for 
pietose, seriose. 


'^ jectives, becomes //, as mpauvrete, paupertatem; surete, securitatem ; j 
cite\ civitatem ; sante\ sanitatem ; bonte\ bonitatem ; fierte, feritatem ; ' 
heauie, bellitatem ; cherte, caritatem ; loyaule, legalitatem ; naivete, 
nativitatem ; royaute, regalitatem. 

The i, which in the Latin connects the root with the suffix (as 
bon-i-tatem, from bonus, san-i-tatem from sanus), and which 
disappears in French from all words derived directly from the Latin 
(as bonte, sante), reappears as e in derivatives formed from French 
words at first hand with no corresponding Latin words : thus from 
gai comes gai-e-te ; from souverain, souverain-e-ie ; from sal, leger, 
ancien, net, sal-e-te', leger-e^te', ancienn-e-ti, nett-e-ie^, 

§ 231. Onem. Substantives derived by help of this suffix in Latin 
are of many kinds of meaning : thus they designate animals, as 
falco, pavo, leo, capo ; persons, as latro ; things, as carbo, pulmo, 
sapo. It becomes on in French : as faucon, falconem ; paon, pa- 
vonem ; lion, leonem ; chapon, caponem. ; larron, latronem ; charbon, 
carbonem ; poumon, pulmonem. ; savon, saponem. The French 
language uses this suffix to reinforce such Latin primitives as had 
not enough strength to stand by themselves: thus from mentum, 
talus, piscis, ren, ericius, glutus, it formed mentonem *, talonem *, 
piscionem *, renionem *, ericionem *, glutonem., whence menton, 
talon, poisson, rognon, he'risson, glouton. By analogy have come such 
words as jambe, jambon ; coche, cochon ; pied, pieton ; friper, fripon ; 
souiller, souillon ; jurer, juron ; plonger, plongeon ; boucher, bouchon ; 
manche, manchon ; pierre, perron; char, charron ; virer, aviron ; 
ceinture, ceinturon ; chaudron, formerly chauderon, from chaudiere ? 
or chaud, compare laidron ; chevron, chevre ; clair, clairon ; fleur, 
fleuron ; tendre, tendron. In the words buche, bUch-er-on ; chape, 
chap-er-on ; forge, forg-er-on ; laid, laid-er-on ; lys, li-r-on ; mouche, 
mouch-er-on ; mousse, mouss-er-on ; puce, puc-er-on ; quart, quart- 
er-on; vigne, vign-er-on^, the suffix is strengthened by an inter- 
calated er. 

The French language similarly employs on in the formation of 
dii^inutives : as aigle, aiglon ; chat, chaton ; lievre, levron ; rat, raton ; 
cruche, cruchon; sable, sablon; Marie, Marion. 

This diminutive particle is often strengthened by the insertion 
of (i) ?■// whence carpe, carp-ill-on ; barbe,barb-ill-on; cotte, cot-ill-on ; 
croix, crois-ill-on ; dur, dur-ill-on ; moine, moin-ill-on ; negre, ne'gr- 
ill-on ; poste, post-ill-on ; tdter, tat-ill-on ; ecouv-ill-on, from O. Fr. 

^ Mechancete comes not from mechant, but from O. Fr. tnechance (derived 
from mechant, Wke Jouissance from Jouissant, or puissance from puissant^. 

'^ In imitation of this suffix in eron, the le 
the Latin bibere the barbarous word biberon. 


/couve; grape, grap-ill-on^ : or (ii), iche, whence harh-ich-on, corn- 
tch-on,/ol-ich-on, from the primitives barbe, corne,/ol. 

We may add to this list substantives in ionem, such as magon, 
macionem * ; oignon, iinionem ; soupgon, suspicionem, &c. By analogy 
there have been formed from Latin substantives the following words : 
champion, campionem * from campus ; argon, arcionem * from arcus ; 
chevron, caprionem * from capra ; limagon, limacionem* from Umax ; 
compagnon, companionem * from cum-panis ; oison, aucionem * from 
auea '^ ; /cusson, scutionem * from scutiim ; troncon, truncionem * 
from truncus ; whence lampion, lampe, 

§ 232. Tionem, sionem. This suffix must not be confounded with 
§ 231 ; it is joined to the supine to form abstract substantives denoting 
the action expressed by the verb: thus from press-um, sta-t-um, 
comparat-um, m.ess-um, supines of premere, stare, comparare, 
metere, came press-io (the act of pressing) ; stat-io (the act of stand- 
ing still) ; comparat-io (the act of comparing) ; mess-io (the act 
of reaping) '. 

These suffixes become gon * infagon, factionem ; legon, lectionem ; 
poingon, punctionem. ; rangon, redemptionem. ; sugon, suctionem : 
sson in boisson, bibitionemi * ; moisson, m.essionem. ; cuisson, coctionem. ; 
e'cusson, ^cutionem; frisson, frictionem; nourrisson, nutritionem ; 
cresson, cretionem * : son, with hard s, in chanson, cantionem : son, 
with soft s, in poison, potionem ; raison, rationem ; tison, titionem ; 
trahison, traditionem ; cargaison, carricationem. * ; f oison, fusionem ; 
liaison., ligationem ; livraison, ligationem ; venaison, venationem. 

^ Take care not to confound with these derivatives in illon such words as 
'vermill-on, aiguill-on, corhill-on, guen'tll-on, tortill-on, tourill-on, echant'tll-on^ 
goupill-on, ohill-on, which come from the primitives 'vermeil, aiguille, cor- 
beille, guenille, tortille, tourelle, echantil, O. Fr., gbupily O. Fr., oisel, O. Fr. by 
simple addition of the suffix on. 

^ Oison does not come from oie, for it would have been oyon, not oison, 
Qora^diTQ joyeux from Joie. 

* A certain number of these substantives had taken a concrete significa- 
tion even in the Latin : thus potio passed from its first sense of ' ^e 
act of drinking ' to that of ' the thing drunk,' a potion, draught ; m.ansio, 
first ' the act of remaining,' became ' a place of continuance,' habitation, 
mansion ; ligatio, * the act of binding,' became a ligature, a bond. In 
imitation of the Latin, the French language also gave to many of these sub- 
stantives a concrete sense : tonsionem, cantionem, venationem, prehen- 
sionem, clausionem*, bibitionem*, sationem, originally 'the act of 
clipping,' &c., became toison, chanson, -venaison, prison, cloison, boisson, saison. 
In this case the concrete substantive is often masculine, whereas the abstract 
was feminine; as in^owow, potionem; «o«rmjo«, nutritionem ; cresson, cre- 
tionem * ; poingon, punctionem ; sugon, suctionem. Similarly ele-ve, the 
concrete result of the act of education, is masculine in its concrete sense. 

* The learned form is tion for tionem ; potion, potionem ; faction, fac- 
tionem ; and sion, sionem ; pression, pressionem ; illusion, illusionem. 


Numerous French substantives have been formed analogously, 
either from verbs in I'r, B-S guerzson from gueri'r ; garmson ivova garnir ; 
or from verbs in er, as demangeaison from demanger ; echauffaison 
from echaiiffer ; fauchaison from faucher ; flotiaison from flatter ; or 
from verbs in re, as pendaison from pendre. 

§ 233. Torius, sorius. Substantives in tor, sor (see § 33), denoting 
the name of the agent, have produced Latin adjectives in torius, 
sorius, which indicate a quality proper to the action accomplished by 
the agent; as oratorius from orator; laudatorius from laudator^. 

The neuter of these adjectives was early employed as a substantive, 
and usually denoted the place of residence of the agent, or the 
instrument that hi uses ; as praetorium from praetor ; dormitorium | 
from dormitor ; auditorium, dolatorium. These newer words, 
already frequent under the Empire, became exceedingly numerous 
at a later time, especially in ecclesiastical and scholastic Latin ; 
as purgatorium, refectorium, laboratorium, observatorium., &c. i 
This suffix becomes oir ^ ; dortoir, dorm.itorium. ; pressoir, presso- 
rium; ^<9/(9?r^, dolatoria * ; /<:rz'/(9z'r^, scriptoria *. 

There are many French derivatives, masculine and feminine; as 
parler, parloir ; arroser, arrosoir ; compter, comptoir ; trotter, trottoir ; 
tirer, iiroir ; raser, rasoir ; battre, hattoir ; abattre, abattoir ; eteindre, 
e'teignoir ; balancer, balangoire ; mdcher, mdchoire ; e'cumer, /cumoire ; 
nager, nageoire ; manger, mangeoire ^. 

§ 234. Tudinem. This suffix, which had been reduced to tuma 
in common Latin, in which we fi*d costuma for consuetu- 
dinem, becomes tume^-, as coutume, consuetudinem ; amertume, 

§ 235. Quin. This suffix, which usually gives a bad sense,^„Qf 
Gerrnapic origin, from the Old Netherland Mn^ ; as bouquin from 
boecMn rmannequin from mannekin ; brodequin from brosekin. Hence 
also casaquin from casaque^. This suffix, which is almost barren in 
French, has been more largely developed in the Picard patois, which 
uses it for new forms, like verquin, a little verre ; painequin, a bad 
little loaf (pain) ; Pierrequin, poor little Pierre, &c. 

^ On this model the bad form dinatoire has been formed from diner. 

^ For letter-changes, see § 84. 

^ Derivatives of inchoative verbs insert the particle iss, as rotissoire from 
rotir ; polissoir from polir. 

* The learned form is ude ; as aptitude, aptitudo * ; mansuetude, man- 
suetudo ; whence the modern forms platitude irom plat, &c. 

^ This suffix kin answers to the German diminutive chen. % 

^ We must not add to these words arlequin, faquin, baldaquin, pasquin^ 
for they come from the Italian; nor mesquin, which is Spanish; nor 
palanquin, sequin, Oriental words ; nor requin, whose origin is unknown. 


§ 236. Tura, sura. This sufRx denotes the result of the action 
indicated by the verb, just as tor, sor (see § 233) denotes the name of 
the agent. It becomee Jure, ure, as in ?nesure, mensura; peinture, 
pictura; niasure, mansura; roture, ruptura; chevelure, formerly 
cheveleUre, capillatura ; armure, formerly armeilre, armatura, &c. 
On this model have been formed many substantives, drawn originally 
from verbs; as aller, allure; parer, parure ; bouler, bouture ; serrer, 
serrure ; blesser, blessure ; paitre \ pdture ; then, by analogy, from 
adjectives ; as vert, verdure ; confit, confiture ; froid, froidure ; ordure 
from O. Fr. <7r^/ and from substantives: voile, voilure ; coP, en- 

§ 237. Ucus, uca become u and ue ^ : as fe'tu, fettucus * * ; laitue, 
lactuca ; verrue, verruca ; charrue, carruca ; massue, maxuca * ; 
iortue, tortuca *. 

§ 238. Undus becomes ond; as rond, formerly roond, from ro- 
(t)undus ^. 

§ 239. Unus becomes un; 2JS>jeun, formerly /<?««, from je(j)unus. 

§ 240. Umus becomes our^ ; as jour, diumus; aubour, al- 

, Atonic Suffixes. 

§ 241. *A11 these suffixes disappear in the French, and are con- 
sequently useless for the purpose of producing new derivatives ; they 
have however recovered their place from the time that men utterly 
lost sight of the genius of the language, and became ignorant of the 
rule of accent '^.' Thus people began to use such words as portique, 
fragile, rigide, instead of porche, /rile, roide, from porticus, frdgilis, 

In considering these Latin atonic suffixes we are bound strictly 

^ As we have seen, § 35, substantives formed from inchoative verbs 
intercalate the particle iss : as bouffir, bouff-iss-ure ; moisir, mois-iss-ure ; 
brunir, brun-iss-ure ; meurtrir, meurtr-iss-ure ; fietrir,fietr-iss-ure. 

^ Brauoure does not come from bra-ve, for then its form would have 
been brwvure, but is drawn directly from the Italian brwvura. 

^ The learned form is uc ; as caduc from caducus. 

* From sa(b)ucus * has come the O. Fr. seii, whence the derivative 
setiereau (compare poetereau from poete'), now contracted to sureau. 

^ The Jearned form is also ond; as 'vagabond from vagabundus. 

^ For the changes of urnus into our, see § 87. The learned form is 
urne ; as diurne, diurnus ; nocturne, nocturnus. 

■^ G. Paris, Accent latino p. 92. 


to reject every word that has been introduced into the French 
language since the period of its natural formation. 

§ 242. Eus, ius, Fr. ge, che. Strange, extraneus ; lange, laneus ; 
deluge, diluvium ; tinge, lineus ; proche, propius ; sage, sapius ; 
singe, simius ; orge, hordeum ; rouge, rubeus ; auge, alvea ; songe^ 
somniuin ; Li^ge, Leodium ; Mauheuge, Malbodium ; cierge, cereus ^. 
For the change of eus, ius into ge, che, see Historical Grammar^ 
p. 66. 

§ 243. Ea, Fr. ge, gne. Cage, cavea, grange, granea ; vigne, 
vinea; ligne, linea; teigne, tinea. For the change of ea into ge, 
see Historical Grammar, p. 66. 

§ 244. la, Fr. ge, che, ce ; or it disappears altogether. Vendange, 
vindemia ; angoisse, angustia ; cigogne, eiconia ; tige, tibia ; seche, 
sepia ; sauge, salvia ; envie, invidia ; grace, gratia ; histoire, historia ; 
Bourgogne, Burgundia ; France, Francia ; Grece, Graecia ; Bretagne, 
Britannia ^. For the change of ia into ge, see Historical Grammar ^ 
p. 65. 

§ 245. It-ia, Fr, esse. Justesse, justitia ; mollesse,-m.d)i^\\ii.&,', par esse, 
pigi^itia; tristesse, tristitia. French derivatives: ivresse, politessey 

§ 246. Icem (from ex, ix, represented in French only by ce, se, ge) : 
herse, herpicem ; puce, pulicem ; juge, judicem; pouce, pollicem; 
ponce, pumicem ; e'corce, cortieem ^. 

§ 247. Icus, a, um, Fr. che, ge. P or che, porticus ; manche, 
manica; serge, serica; dimanche, dominica; Saintonge, Santonica, 
forge (O. Yy. faurge), fabrica; per che, pertica; piege, pedica*. 

§ 248. Aticus is a suffix formed with icus, Fr. age. Voyage (O.Fr. 
viatage), viaticum ; fromage, formaticum ; volage, volaticum ; 
ombrage, umbraticum; ramage, ramaticum; message, missaticum ; 
sauvage, silvaticus ^. 

^ Learned form e, as igne, igneus. 

^ Learned form ie, as chimie, philosophie, symphonie, Australie. But 
we must not confound this termination with the proper French derivatives, 
in ie, as felonie {felon), tromperie {tromper), &c., which are popular and 
very numerous. 

^ Learned form ice : calice, ealicem. 

* Learned form ique : portique, porticus ; fabrique, fabrica ; 'viatique, 

^ Silva in Old French became sel've, sawve, which, as a common noun, 
is lost, but survives in certain names of places, as sawve-Satnt-Benoit, silva- 
S.-Benedicti. From silva came silvaticus, whence sawv-age, O. Fr. 
sel'vatge. Nothing but a complete misunderstanding or ignorance of the 
laws of the formation of the French language could have ever allowed 
people to derive sawvage from solivagus. This word could only have 
produced in French the form seulige. 

cxxiv INTR0DUCT70N. 

Hence come French derivatives : mesurage, ladourage, alliage, 
arrosage, &c. It has been said that these words come from a Low 
Latin suffix in -agium (as message from messagium), homage from 
homagium). But though messagium certainly exists, it is far from 
being the parent of the Fr. message ; on the contrary, it is nothing 
but the Fr. message latinised by the clergy, at a time when no one 
knew either the origin of the word (missaticum) or the nature of 
the suffix which formed it. 

§ 249. Idus disappears in French. Pale, pallidus ; net, nitidus ; 
chaud, calidus (Low Lat. caldus) ; tiede, tepidus ; roide^ rigidus ; 
sade, sapidus ; whence maussade^ male sapidus ^. 

§ 250. nis, Fr. le. Humble, humilis \ faille (O. Yr.floible), flebilis ; 
douille, ductilis ; meuhle, mobilis ; frele, fragilis ; grele, gracilis "-. 

§ 251. Inus disappears in French. Page, pagina ; jaune, galb- 
inus ; femme, femina ; frine, fraxinus ; dame, domina ; charme, 
carpinus ; coffre, cophinus ^. 

§ 252. Itus, Fr. te. Vente, vendita; rente, reddita; dette, debita; 
perte, perdita; qu^te, quaesita. 

§253. Olus, Fr. le. Diable, diabolus; apStre (O. Fr. apostle), 

The compound suffixes iolus, eolus, dissyllabic (io, eo) in Latin, 
were contracted into a long penultimate in the seventh century, io, eo, 
thenceforwards accented iolus, eolus, whence came the French ter- 
minations ieul, euil, iol : i\ms filleul, filiolus; chevreuil, eapreolus ; 
linceul, linteolum ; glaieul, gladiolus ; rossignol, lusciniolus ; aieul, 

§ 254. ITlus, Fr. le. Table, tabula ; fable, fabula ; amble, ambula; 
peuple, populus ; hieble, ebulum ; seille, situla ; sangle, cingulum ; 
ongle, ungula ; chapitre, capitulum ; merle, merula ; epingle, spinula ; 
ensouple, insubulura *. 

The following suffixes are formed from ulus : — 

§255. I. Aculus, Fr. ail. Gouvernail, gubemaculum ; tetiaille, 
tenaculum ; soupirail, suspiraculum. French derivatives : travail, 
fermail, e'ventail, &c. 

§ 256. 2. Eculus, Fr. il. Goupil, vulpecula. In Old French 
this word meant a fox, and survives still in the diminutive goupillon, 
a sprinkler, originally made of a fox's tail. 

^ Learned form ide: r'tgide, rigidus; safide, sapidus; ar'ide, aridus, 

2 Learned form He: mobile, m.obilis ; ductile, ductilis ; fr agile ^ 
fragilis, &c. 

^ Learned form ine : machine, machina, &c. 

* Learned form ule : cellule, cellula; calcul, calcTilus; funambule, 


§ 257. 3. Iculus, Fr. ez7. Abeille, apicula ; orieil (O. Fr. art- 
eil), articulum; sommeil, somniculus * ; soleil, soliculus*; oreille^ 
auricula ; corneilk, comicula ; ouaille, ovicula ; vermeil, verm- 
iculus ; aiguille, acicula. 

§ 268. 4. Uculus, Fr. ouil. Fenouil, feniculum ; grenouille, ran- 
ucula ; verroiL (O. Fr. verrouil, surviving in verrouiller), veruculum ; 
genou (O. Fr. genouil, surviving in agenouiller) , genuculum. 

Vowels which follow the tonic syllable disappear in French; 
consequently the learned forms of atonic suffixes, such as fragile, 
mobile, &c., from fragilis, mobilis, &c., are incorrect, seeing that 
they all retain the vowel's after the tonic syllable, and in fact displace 
the Latin accent. One may indeed lay it down as a general rule 
that, in the case of Latin atonic suffixes, all French words of learned 
origin break the law of Latin accefituation. 

Verbal Suffixes. 



§259. Aseo, Fr. «z> / eseo, Fr. ois ; isco, Fr. is. Nais, nasco'; 
pais, pasco ; parais, paresco ; crois, cresco, &c. 

§ 260. Ascere, Fr. ailre, O. Fr. aistre. Naitre, nascere; paitre^ 

§ 261. Ico, igo, Fr. ie. Lie, ligo ; chdtie, castigo ; nie, nego, &c. 

§ 262. Illo, Fr. lie. Chancele, grommele, harcele, &c. 

§ 263. Are, Fr. er. Peser, pensare ; chanter, cantare, &c. 

§ 264. Tiare, Fr. cer, ser. These are forms peculiar to the common 
Latin : tracer, tractiare ; sucer, suctiare ; chasser, captiare. 


Atonic Suffixes. 

§265. Ico, Fr. che, ge. fuge, judico; mdche, mastico; venge, 
vendico ; ronge, rumigo ; charge, carrico, &c. The learned form is 
ique : revendique, revendico ; mastique, mastico. 

^ We have seen, Historical Grammar, p. 119, that all deponent verbs 
became active in form in the Low Latin. 


§ 266. Ere, Fr. re. Sourdre, surgere ; moudre, molere ; tordre^ 
torquere ; ardre, ardere. This Old French verb, which signified 
* to burn,' remains in the participle ardent, and substantive ardeur. 

§ 267. lo disappears in French. Depouille, despolio. 

§ 268. ITlo, Fr. le. Moule, modulo; comble, cumulo; tremble, 
tremulo ; trouble, turbulo. 

Under ulo we may put : — 

§ 269. I. Aculo, Fr. atlle, as in tiraille, criaille, &c. 

§ 270. 2. Iculo, Fr. z'lle. Fouille, fodiculo ; sautille, tortille, &c. 

§ 271. 3. Uculo, Fr. ouille. Chatouille, bredouille, barbouille, &c. 

Diminutive Suffixes. 

These are sixteen in number. 

§ 272. Aceus, Fr. ace, asse. Villace, grimace {grimer), populace, 
paperasse, &c. 

§ 273. Iceus, Fr. use, iche. Coulisse {couler), pelisse {peau), caniche. 

§ 274. Oceus, Fr. oche. Epinoche, pioche. 

§ 275. Uceus, Fr. uche. Peluche, guenuche. 

§ 276. Aculus. See above, § 255. 

§ 277. Aldus. See above, § 195. 

§ 278. Alia, Fr. aille. Betail, bestialia; poitrail, pectoralia; 
merveille, mirabilia ; portail, portalia ; canaille, viuraille, bataille, 

§ 279. Ardus. See above, §§ 175, 196. 

§ 280. Aster, Fr. dtre. See above, §§ 178, 199. 

§ 281. At, et, ot. (i) At : aiglat, louvat, verrat. (2) Et, ette : 
sachet (sac), cachet {coq), mollet {niol), maisonnette, alouetie. (3) Ot, 
otte : billot {bilk), cachot (cache), brulot (brtUe), Hot (tie), &c. 

§ 282. Ellus, illus, Fr. eau, el, elle. Agneau, agnellus ; jumeau, 
gemellus ; anneau, annellus ; icuelle, scutella ; vaisseau, vascellus ; 
oiseau, avicollus. 

§ 283. Onem, ionem. See above, § 231. 

§ 284. Ulus. See above, § 254. 










Old Saxon. 






participle, parti- 

























Hist. Gram. Historical Gram- 







possessive pro- 











past participle. 



























L. or Lat. 



quod vide, see. 
















Middle High 

Schol. Lat, 

Scholastic Latin. 


compound, com- 














substantive femi- 




Merovingian or 






plural substan- 





tive feminine. 






substantive mas- 

Der. or deriv. derivative. 








substantive of 



mod. Fr. 

modem French. 

common gender. 





sm. pi. 

plural substan- 





tive masculine. 






















Old Frenth. 






Old High Ger- 







verb active. 








Germanic, Ger- 

0. Scand. 

Old Scandi- 


verb neuter. 




verb reciprocal. 

= signifies * having 

become,' as 

'e = a,' signifies 'e 

having become a.' 

When, in constructing a geological map, we xvish to distinguish the strata which lie one 
above another, and form, as it were, the history of the earth, we are wont to mark them out 
by the use of different shades or colours ; so, in distinguishing the two great layers of the 
French language, we shall mark them off from one another by employing two different kinds 
of type. Thus, the older or popular stratum, which is anterior to the Eleventh Century, and 
forms the main part and foundation of the language, will in this Dictionary be denoted by 
capital letters, as in the case q/" ABBA YE; and the newer or non-popular stratum, the work 
of the learned, which comprises all words borrowed straight from the classical languages or 
from foreign modern tongues, will be denoted by thick Roman type, as Aberration ; and 
again of these, the words borrowed directly from modern tongues will be distinguished from 
those taken from the classical languages by being printed in thick type, spaced, with f pre- 
fixed, as f Abrieot. The sections referred to, as ' § 53,' are those of the Introduction, 
to which the student is requested to turn. 


A, prep, to ; It. a and ad, from L. ad, which 
took successively in barbarous Latin the 
three meanings ( = avec, with ; =pour, for ; 
= d, to) which have descended to the Fr. a. 
Thus, ad = avec is found in the Lex SaHca 
(6th cent.) ed. Pardessus, p. I2i: 'Si quis 
unum vasum ad apis furaverit, sohdos 
XV. culpabilis iudicetur.' In a less popu- 
larly worded copy of the same law we find 
' Si quis unum vas cum apibus,' etc., 
proving that ad was used as =cum. Hence 
comes the use of a, = avec in such phrases 
as chandelier a, tranche, fusil a aiguille. 

This prep, plays an important part in the 
inflexion of the language, and in the forma- 
tion of words. In inflexion, ad with the 
accus. takes the place of the Latin dative. 
This tendency, found in germ in classical 
Latinity (as in ' quod apparet ad agri- 
colas,' Terence ; ' hunc ad carnificem 
dabo,' Plautus ; ' pauperem ad ditem 
dari,' Terence), and found also in several 
other languages (as in modern Greek, which 
uses the accus. with €ts = ad for the lost 
dative, and as in the English use of to), is 
developed very strongly in Merovingian 
Latin, and forms the dative in all the 
Romance languages. Thus, for example, in a 
Diploma of a.d. 693, Briquigny, ii. 431, we 
have ' Sed veniens ad eo placito ; * and 
in a Donation of a.d. 713, id. ii. 437, ' Ergo 
donavi ad monasterium ;' in a Donation 
of A.D, 671, id. ii. 154, ' Idcirco dono ad 
sacrosanctum monasterium ;' in Markulf. 
A-PP. 58, ' Mihi contigit quod ego . . . 
caballum ad hominem aliquem in furto 
subdixi;' in the Formulae Andegav. 28, 
' Nam terra ad illo homine nunquam fossa- 

Ad becomes a by dropping d, a process 
which had already taken place before con- 
sonants in Merovingian Latin ; thus, in the 
8th cent, we find in Markulf. Formul. i. 
37i ' a quo placito veniens ; * a passage 

found in another part of Markulfus (Ap- 
pendix 38) in the form ' ad quod pi. 
veniens.' A Donation of a.d. 739 has 
' In portionem quam a liberto nostro 
dedimus,' Brequigny, ii. 370. — Der. au, 
aux, q.v. 

ABAISSER, va. to abase. Sp. abaxar. It. ab- 
bassare, from L. adbassare, compd. of ad 
and bassare, der. from bassus, see bas. 
Adbassare, by db = bb (§ 168) and 
bb = b, becomes abassare : ' Molendina, 
quae sunt infra fossam civitatis, abassen- 
tur medietate unius brachii rationis ' (Char- 
ter of a.d. 1 192, Muratori, Ant. It. v. 87). 
Abassare becomes abaisser by are = er 
(§ 263), a = ai (§ 54), and by continuance 
of b, ss, and initial a. — Der. abaissement 
(§ 225), rabaisser (Hist. Gram. p. 179). 

ABANDON, sm. abandonment, giving up, un- 
constraint. In 13th cent, in the form 
a bandon in Marie de France, i. 488, which 
shows that the word is formed by a com- 
paratively modern junction of the prep, a 
with O. Fr. subst. bandon, = permission, 
liberty, authorisation, a word found as late 
as the 1 6th cent, in R. Estienne's Diet. 
Fr.-Latin (a.d. 1549): Bandon, indul- 
gentia, licentia. Permettre et donner 
bandon a aulcun, indulge re. Mettre sa 
forest a bandon was a feudal law phrase in 
the 13th cent. = m^//re sa foret a permis- 
sion, i. e. to open it freely to any one 
for pasture or to cut wood in ; hence the 
later sense of giving up one's rights for a 
time, letting go, leaving, abandoning. For 
this change of sense see § 12. The words 
d bandon were joined as early as the 13th 
cent. ; the form abandon appearing in Beau- 
manoir, 43, 13. 

The O. Fr. bandon, like all terms of 
feudal custom, is of Germ, origin, derived 
from feudal L. bandum, an order, decree : 
' Tunc nos demum secundum canouicam 
auctoritatem ferula excommunicationis et 


band! nostri constrinximus praelibatum 
Ermengandum comitcm,' says an Excom- 
munication of Gregory V, a.d. 998 (Concil. 
Rom., Baluze, i. 6). Bandum represents 
Dan. hand, an order, decree. — Der. aban- 

Abaque, sm. an abacus; from L. abacus. 

ABASOURDIR, va. to stun, deafen; an ill- 
formed and corrupt form (§ 172), of a type 
abassourdir, compd. of ab and assourdir. 
See sourd. 

ABATARDIR, va. to abase, corrupt ; see 
bdlard. — Der. afta/arrfissement (§ 225). 

ABATIS, sm. a demolition, felling (of trees). 
In the 1 2 th cent, abateis in the Chanson 
d'Antioche 6, 9,^, from L. abbatere* (see 
abattre) through a deriv. abbaticius*. 
For abbat = a6a/ see abattre, for -icium 
= -eis = -is see under § 214. 

ABAT-JOUR, sm. a trunk-light, reflector, 
lampshade. See abattre and jour. 

ABATTRE, va. to beat down, knock down ; 
from L. abbattere, found in 6th cent, 
in the Germanic Laws : * Si quis hominem 
de furca abbattere presumpserit ' (Lex. 

, Sal. Nov. 273). Abbattere is compd. of 
ab and battere (see batlre). Abbattere 
by bb = b and tt = t (§ 168), becomes 
abatere, contrd. (§ 51) to abat're, whence 
O. Fr. abatre (in nth cent., in the Chanson 
de Roland, 267), wrongly afterwards written 
abbattre by the Latinists of the Renais- 
sance (1604, in Nicot-s Diet.), in order to 
make the word look more like its Latin 
parent. In the 17th cent, the older and 
correct orthography was resumed in the 
words abatage and abatis ; but abattre un- 
fortunately kept the tt. — Der. abati% (q. v.), 
abatage (§ 242). 

ABBAYE, sf. an abbey ; from L. abbatia 
(in St. Jerome). Abbatia, by bb =b, and 
t = d (§ 117), early became abadia: 'Ilia 
abadia de Rubiaco una medietas rema- 
neat,' says a will of a.d. 961 (Vaissette, 
ii. p. 108). Aba(d)iani becomes abe'ie 
(nth cent., Lois de Guillaume le Con- 
querant, l) by dropping d (§ 1 17), by 
a. = e (§ 54), and persistence of initial a 
and i (§ 69), and by final am = « (§ 54). 
Abeie is written in 13th cent, abate; in 
1 6th cent, abbaye. 
ABBjfi, sm. an abbot, head of a religious house ; 
from L. abbatem, a word introduced in the 
last ages of the Roman Empire by Christian 
writers, who had borrowed it from Syriac 
abba, a father. For change of sense see 
§ 5 2. Abbatem becomes abe (nth cent., 

Chanson de Roland, 209) by bb =b (§ 168), 
atein = J (§ 230), and continuance of initial 
a. For later change of ah6 to abbe sec 

ABBESSE, sf. an abbess. It. abbadessa, 
from L. abbatissa, a deriv. in -issa 
(§ 222) from abbatem, see abbd; found 
in an epitaph, a.d. 569 (Muratori, A. 429, 
3) : ' Hie requiescit in somno paucis lustiiiu 
abbatissa.' Abba(t)issa, by dropping t 
(§ 117), and bybb = b (§ 168), a = e (§ 54), 
issa = esse (§ 222), and continuance of 
initial a, becomes O. Fr. abeesse (13th cent., 
Roman de la Rose, 8800), whence, later, 
abesse (§ 1 1 7), For the change from abesse 
to abbesse see abattre. 

Abcfes, sm. an abcess ; from L. abcessus. 

Abdication, sf. abdication; from L. abdi- 

Abdiquer, va. to abdicate; from L. ab- 

Abdomen, sm. the abdomen, stomach ; from 
L. abdomen. 

Ab6c6daire, sm. a spelling-book ; from L. 
abecedarium. For arium = aire see 
§ 197, note I. 

t Abe ill e, sf. a bee; a word introd. towards 
the 15th cent. ; found in 1460 in a letter of 
remission quoted by Ducange; from Prov. 
abelha, which from L. apicvQa, Plin. N. H. 
2, 21, 21: properly a little bee (for enlarge- 
ment of meaning see § 13). Jnst as we 
early find abis for apis (' de furtis abium.,' 
Lex Salica, ed. Pardessus, p. 163), so api- 
cula in Merov. Lat, becomes abicula, 
whence Prov. abelha, just as auricula, 
ovicula, corbicula, became Prov. au- 
relha, ovelha, corhelha. That abeille is not 
a true Fr. word derived directly from Lat. 
is shown by the fact that in Fr. the Lat. p 
never stops at h, but always descends to v 
(§ III), while in Prov. it always stops at 
h ; consequently if apicula, abicula, had 
directly produced a Fr. word, it would have 
taken the form aveille, by p = v (§ in), 
icxil& = eille (§ 257), and by the continu- 
ance of initial a. This true Fr. form 
is not imaginary ; it is to be found in the 
Diet, of R. Estienne (1549): Aveille, 
mousch a miel, mot duquel on use en Tou- 
raine et en Anjou. This form, which thus, 
even in 1549, was restricted to one or two 
western provinces, entirely disappeared 
when apiculture was localised in and re- 
stricted to Languedoc and Provence, and 
was replaced, as was to be expected, by a 
form brought from the district in which the 


, production of honey and care of bees was 
chiefly attended to. 

i Aberration, s/". aberration; properly of stars, 

I tl^e figurative meaning being later ; from 
L. aberrationem. 

i ABfiTIR, va. to brutalise. See bete and Hist. 
Gram. p. 177. 

i Abhorrer, va. to abhor, detest ; from L. 

' ABIME, sm. an abyss. Sp. abismo, from 
L. abyssimus *, a deriv. of abyssus, 
with superlative termination -issimus, 
found suffixed to other Lat. subst., as ocul- 
-issimus, domin-issimus, marking the 
highest degree of intensity ; thus abys- 
simus signifies the deepest depth. Abys- 
simum, contr. to abyss'mum. (§ 51), 
becomes abisme (12th cent., St. Bernard's 
Sermons, p. 167) by persistence of a and m, 
and by y = £ (§ loi), ss = s (§ 168), and 
tun = e. For the very unusual continuance 
of b see § 113. For abisme = abime see 
§ 148. — Der. abimer, to hurl into an abyss, 
thence to ruin, damage, thence to spoil (as 
in un ckapeau abime), by a reduction of 
meaning, see § 13; found also in gene and 
ennui, q. v. This sense is later than the 
17th cent., for the Diet, of the Acad., 1694, 
recognises only the etymological meaning. 
Abject, adj. abject; from L. abjectus. — 

DtT. abjection (L. abjectionem). 
Abjurer, va. to abjure, renounce ; from L. 
abjurare. — Der. abjurztion (L. abjur- 
Ablatif, sm. the ablative case ; from L. 

ablativum. For final v=/ see § 142. 
Ablation, sf. ablation (Med.); from L. 

ABLE, sm. a bleak (Ichth.) ; from L. albula, 
properly a little white fish, from the adj. al- 
bulus (in Catullus, 29 19), which is probably 
the fish called alburnus by Ausonius (an- 
other derivative of albus); 'Et albiirnos 
praedam puer ilibus hamis' (Mosella, 126). 
The albula got its name from its whiteness, 
just as the rotiget is so called from being 
partly red. Albula is found in the Lat.-Gr. 
glossaries, Albula, iKTapa, which is a kind 
of little fish. In the Schola Salernita, d. 
Moreau, p. 80, we find ' Lucius, et perca 
et saxaulis, albula, tinea.' Albula, 
losing 1 by dissimilation (§ 169), becomes 
abula, found in a MS. account of a.d. 
1239, quoted by Ducange (s. v.) : 'Decano 
Turon. ille qui capit abulas, de dono 
ad unum batellum emendum xl. solid. 
Tur.' Ab(u)lam (§51) contr. to ab'lam 

becomes able by aTO. = e, and continuance of 
bl, and of initial a. — Der. aWette (§ 281). 

ABLETTE, sf. a bleak. See able. 

Ablution, sf. ablution, washing; from L. 

Abnegation, sf abnegation, renunciation, 
sacrifice (of self ) ; from L. abnegationem. 

ABOI, verbal sm. barking, baying. Aboi, 
which expresses the bark of a dog (aboie- 
ment is the present word), remains in the 
Fr. language in the phrase etre aux abois. 
The stag is said to be aux abois when he is 
hard pressed by the dogs, and close followed 
by their cry. This hunting-term has taken 
a figurative sense, and etre aux abois now 
means ' to be hard pressed,' ' at one's wits' 
end,' ' at bay.' 

ABOIEMENT, sm. barking. See aboyer. 

Abolir, «/a. to abolish; from L. abolere. 
For e = i see § 59. — Der. aSo/issement 
(§ 225, note 4). 

Abolition, sf. abolition; from L. abo- 

Abominable, adj. abominable; from L. 
abominabilis. Forabilis = aWesee§250. 

Abomination sf. abomination ; from L. 

Abondamment, adv. abundantly; from 
abondant, q. v. 

Abondance, sf abundance ; from L. abun- 
dantia. For u = o see § 98; for antia 
= ance § 244. 

Abondant, adj. abundant; from L. abun- 
dantem. For u = o see § 98. 

Abonder, va. to abound; from L. abun- 
dare. — Der. sur abonder. 

ABONNER, va. to subscribe, pay a subscrip- 
tion ; see bon. — Der. abonnement (§ 225), 
abonne (§ 201). 

ABORDER, va. to reach shore, to draw nigh 
to shore ; see bord. — Der. abord, abordzge, 
abordMe (§ 250). 

Aborigene, smf an aboriginal, primitive in- 
habitant; from L. aborigines. 

ABORNER, va. to border on, touch limits of. 
See borne. 

ABOUCHER, va. to bring together, bring 
about an interview (s'aboucher avec quel- 
qu'un is lit. to place one mouth to mouth 
with another). See bouche. 

ABOUTIR, va. to arrive at, end in ; see bout. 

ABOYER, va. to bark, bay ; from L. abbau- 
bare*, compd. of ad (Hist. Gram. p. 177) 
and baubare *. For change from deponent 
to active, see Hist. Gram. p. 1 1 9 ; for db = bb 
§ 1 68. Abbau(b)are, by bb = 6 ( § 1 68), 
loss of second b (§ 113), continuance of 

A brEger —a bstinence. 

initial a, and by au = o (§ 107), are = er 
(§ 54)» became in nth cent, aboer. The law 
of balance between the tonic and atonic 
vowels, spoken of § 48 etc, here plays an 
important part. In I2th cent, il abaie, Le 
Livre des Rois, 129; in 13th cent, aboer, 
Villehardouin, 109; in 14th cent, abayer, 
Oresme, Eth. 205. — Der. aboytuv (§ 227), 
aboiement (§ 225). For y = t see § 101. 

ABR^GER, va. to abridge, shorten ; from L. 
abbreviare, found in Vegetius, Prol. 3, 
De Re Mil. : ' Quae me per diversos auc- 
tores .... abbreviare iussisti.' Abbre- 
viare becomes abbrevjare by consoni- 
fication of i (Hist. Gram. p. 65), whence 
abreger by bb = 6 (§ 168), vj=j (§ 141), 
continuance of initial a, br, e, and j=g, 
axe = er. — Der. abrege (§ 201), abregcur, 
of which the learned doublet (§ 22) is 

ABREUVER, va. to give to drink, water. 
It. abbeverare, from L. adbiberare*, a 
compd. of ad and biberare, a deriv. of 
bibere ; see breuvage. Adbib(e)rare, 
dropping § (§ 52), and assimilating db to 
bb (§ 168), becomes abbib'rare, whence 
abevrer (13th cent., Floire et Blancheflor, 
195), by bb =6 (§ 168), i = e (§ 72), 
br = vr (§ 113), are = fir (§ 263), and by 
continuance of initial a. Abevrer is in 
l6th cent, abrever (Hist, Gram. p. 77) by 
transposition, whence finally abreuver. — 
Der. abreuvo'iT (§ 183). 

Abr^viation, sf. abbreviation; from L. 
abbreviationem. See abreger. 

ABRI, sm. a shelter ; introd. in 1 2th cent. 
(Livre des Rois, 251) from Prov. abric, 
Sp. abrigo. Origin unknown. 

t Abricot, sm. an apricot (1549, R--Esti- 
enne's Diet.) ; introd. from Port, albricoque 
(§ 26). — Der. abricotier (§ 193). 

ABRITER, va. to shelter (a modern word, 
appearing first in 1740, Diet, de I'Academie, 
as a special horticult. term : Abrite, terme 
de jardinage — ' un espalier bien abrite ') ; 
from abri, by euphonic intercalation of t. 
There was, up to the 1 8th cent, another 
form, abrier, formed direct from abri, 
which has been supplanted by abriter: Etifin 
le bon Dieu nous abrie, St. Arnaud, Podsies, 
iii. 92 (17th cent.), and in 1728, Richelet's 
Diet., has Abrier, mettre a I' abri; ne se 
dit qu'en riant. 

Abrogation, sf. abrogation; from L. abro- 

Abroger, va. to abrogate, annul ; from L. 
abrogare. Der. atro^ation. 

Abrupt, adj. abrupt ; from L. abrup- 

Abrutir, va. to brutalise ; see brute. — Der. 
a6r?//issement (§ 225). 

Abscisse, sf. an abscissa (Math.) ; from L. 

Absence, sf. absence; from L. absentia. 
For &ntia. = ence see § 244. 

Absent, adj. absent; from L. absentem. 
Der. absenter (§ 183). 

Abside, s/l a vault ; (Archit.); from L. apsi- 

Absinthe, s/". wormwood ; from L. absin- 

Absolu, adj. absolute ; from L. absolutus. 
For utus = tt see § 201. — Der. a6so/wment 
(§ 225). 

Absolution, sf. absolution; from L. abso- 

Absorber, va. to absorb; from L. absor- 
ber e. — Der. absolvtion (§ 232, note 4). 

Absorption, sf. absorption; from L. ab- 

ABSOUDRE, va. to absolve, acquit. It. 
assolvere, from L. absolvere. Absol- 
v(e)re, contr. regularly (§ 51) to ab- 
solv're, drops the v (§ 141), whence 
absol're, whence O. Fr. assoldre (nth 
cent.. Chanson de Roland, 25) by assimi- 
lating bs to ss (§ 168), by changing Ir to 
Idr (Hist. Gram. p. 73), and by continuance 
of a and o. Assoldre in 12th cent, becomes 
assoudre (§ 157); in 13th cent, is recon- 
structed into absoudre by the clerks and 
lawyers who wished to bring it back to the 
Lat. form. But the popular pronunciation 
continued in spite of this classical restora- 
tion of the b, and we know from Palsgrave 
(Eclairc. p. 23) that in 1530 it was still 
proncd. assoudre. — Der. absoute, strong 
partic. subst. (§ 188), from L. absoluta. 
For contr. of abs51(u)ta to absol'ta see 
§ 51. 

ABSTENIR(S') vpr. to abstain. Sp. abstenir, 
from L. abstenere, a common Lat. form 
of abstinere. Abstenere becomes aste- 
nir (nth cent., Chanson de Roland, 203) 
by bs = ss = s (§ 168), by ere = z> (§ 60), 
and by continuance of a, t, e, n. In the 
14th cent, astenir was reconstructed into 
abstenir (§56, note 4) by the clerks and 
lawyers. See absoudre. 

Abstention, sf. abstention, withholding; 
from L. abstentionem. 

Abstinence, sf abstinence; from L. ab- 
stinentiam. For eutia = ence see 

I § 244- 


Abstraction, sf. abstraction ; from L. ab- 

Abstraire, va. to abstract, separate ; from 
L. abstrahere. For trahere = /ra/re see 
§ 135 ; and see traire. 

Abstrait, adj. abstract; from L. abstrac- 
tus. For ct = 2Vsee § 129. 

Absurde, adj. absurd; from L. absurdus. 
— Der, absurdite (§ 230). 

Absurdity sf. absurdity; from L. absurdi- 

Abus, sm. an abuse ; from L. abusus. — 
Der. abuser (§ 183). 

Ablisif, adj. abusive; from L. abusivus. 
For iviis = 27see § 223. 

ACABIT, sm. a quality of anything (good 
or bad). This word originally signified 
purchase, and afterwards became limited 
to the thing purchased, then to the state 
or condition of that thing, lastly to the 
qualities of any object whatever. (In the 
1 8th cent, it was used only of fruits; the 
Diet, of the Academy, 1740, has Acabit, ne 
se dit guere que des fruits : ' Des poires d'un 
hon acabit.') Acabit is a learned word, a 
corrupt form of the feudal L. accapitum, 
which in Custom Law signifies a right of 
entry (' deinde dono burgos . . . acca- 
pita . . .' in a Will of 11 50, Martene, 
Anecd. i. 410), and is itself only a bar- 
barous compound of the L. caput in the 
sense of rent, etc. For cc = c see § 168, 
for p = & § III. 

Acacia, sf. an acacia ; a Lat. word intro- 
duced by botanists. Among the Romans 
it signified the white-flowering locust-tree. 
More fortunate than many botanical names 
(such as mimosa, salvia, etc.) which are 
still used only by the learned, acacia has 
taken root in the language, where it holds 
its ground with as much right as the Lat. 
words quietus, omnibus, etc. 

Acad6niie, sf an academy, learned society; 
from L. academia (the garden near 
Athens in which Plato taught, thence ex- 
tended to signify any meeting of philoso- 
phers or learned persons). — Der. acat/^'mique, 
Acaddmique, adj. academic ; from L. 
academicus. — Der. academicxtn, from L. 
academicus through a form academic- 
ianus (§ 194). 
*t" Acajou, sm. mahogany; an American 
word, introduced with the wood into Europe 
in the 18th cent. (§ 32). 
Acanthe, sf the acanthus; from L. acan- 

ACARIATRE, adj. crabbed, cross-grained. 
The Lat. cara, a face, then a head (see 
chere), produced a verb adcariare*, acca- 
rare, whence O. Fr. acarier, whence the 
deriv. acanastre (§ 199), found in R. Esti- 
enne's Diet., a. d. 1549, i" sense of in- 
sanus, mente captus, then acariatre 
(§ 199). From its sense of foolish, mad, 
in 1604, Nicot's Diet., it has come to 
its modern sense, Diet, of the Academy, 

ACCABLER, va. to overwhelm. The Gr. 
Kara^oK-f], in sense of an overthrow, passing 
from the abstract to the concrete sense of a 
machine wherewith to overthrow (a fre- 
quent change of sense, see § 12, and cp. Fr. 
poin^on, from L. punctionem), produced 
late Lat. cadabulum, a balista. This 
word came in from the Byzantine Greeks, 
through the Crusaders, as did several other 
terms of medieval military art : ' Tribus 
lapidibus magna petraria, quae cadabula 
vocabatur, emissis,' sa3's (12 19) William the 
Breton, De Gestis Philippi Augusti, A, 1202. 
Cad6b(u)la, dropping u regularly (§ 51), 
became O. Fr. cadable (iith cent. Chan- 
son de Roland, strophe viii.) : Cordres a 
prise e les murs peceiez, Od ses cadables 
les turs en abatied (and his catapults 
beat down the towers thereof). Next 
ca[d)able, by dropping medial d (§ 120), 
becomes caable, found in another passage 
of the same poem, strophe xvi. : Od vos 
caables avez fruiset ses murs (and your 
catapults have broken its walls). From 
this proper sense of a machine of war to 
crush one's foe by throwing great stones 
to overthrow him, caable comes to have 
the more general sense of the act of 
overthrowing (§ 12). An old Custom- 
book of Normandy cited by Ducange (s.v.) 
has ' De prostratione ad terram, quod 
cadabiiluin dicitur, xxiii. solidos,' ren- 
dered in the Fr. version (12th cent.) by 
De ahatre a terre, que Von apele caable. 
Caable, later contr. to cable, gave the 
deriv. accabler, signifying to be crushed 
under some heavy mass : Accabler, estre 
accable de quelque chose qui chet sur nous, 
ou estre esc ache ; obrui (1549), R. Estienne's 
Diet. In 1604 Nicot's Diet, also gives this 
term in the active sense : Accabler, c'est 
affouler aulcun de coups pesans, Vatterrer 
a force de pesanteur, et de charger sur 
lui ; opprimere aliquem, obruere. 
Finally, the word loses all but its figura- 
tive sense, and is found in its modern 


signification alone in i68i, Richelet's Diet. 
— Der. accablement (§ 225). 
Accaparer, va. to buy up, to monopolise ; 
a word first found in 1762 in the Diet, de 
I'Academie, having eome in through the 
comineree of Genoa and Leghorn with 
Marseilles, from It. caparrare, to stop mer- 
chandise. Accaparer, which ought to have 
been caparrer, has got an initial a from 
the It. accapare, to choose, take, whose 
meaning is so similar to that of caparrare, 
that it naturally produced a confusion be- 
tween the two words. Very many modern 
Fr. words of trade and commerce are of 
It. origin (as banque, bilan, agio, etc., 
see § 25). — Der. accaparemexit (§ 225), ac- 
capartxxr (§ 227). 

Acc6der, va. to consent, accede (to) ; from 
L. accedere. 

Accel6rer, va. to accelerate, hasten ; from 
L. accelerare. — Der. acceVe'ration. 

Accent, sm. accent; from L. accentus. — 
Der. accentViQT, accew/uation. 

Accentuer, va. to accent ; from L. accen- 
tuare*, deriv. from accentus, see Ducange 
s. V. — Der. accen/wation, a learned form 
(§ 232, note 4), from L. accentuatioaem, 
Ducange, 92. 

Acceptation, sf. acceptance ; from L. ae- 
ceptationem*. See accepter. 

Accepter, va. to accept, receive ; from L. 
aceeptare. — Der. accepiion, accepution 
(§ 232, note 4), accepuhle. 

Acception, sf. acceptance ; from L. accep- 

Accds, sm. access, approach, entry ; from L. 
accessus. — Der. accessoire (§ 233). 

Accessible, adj. accessible ; from L. acces- 

Accession, sf. consent, adhesion, accession ; 
from L. accessionem. 

+ Accessit, sm. ' accessit,' honourable 
mention ; a Lat. word, introduced into scho- 
lastic language. Its meaning is that one ' ap- 
proached near' the prize without getting it. 

Accessoire, adj. accessory; from L. ac- 
cessorius, in Ducange. 

Accident, sm. an accident; from L. acci- 
dentem. — Der. accidenttX. 

Accidentel, adj. accidental; from L. acci- 
dentalis* found in Ducange. For alls = 
el see § 191. 

Acclamation, sf acclamation ; from L. 

Acclamer, va. to proclaim; from L. ac- 
c lam a re. — Der. acc/amation. 

Acclimater. See climat. 

ACCOINTANCE, sf. intimacy, close con- 
nection ; deriv. of accointer, q. v. 

ACCOINTER (S'), vpr. to become intimate 
(with one). It. accontare, from L. ad- 
cognitare *, a compd. of ad and cogni- 
tare *, deriv. of cogtiitus. Cognitare * 
is not classical, though cognitamentum 
occurs in Forcellini. Adcognitare is 
not uncommon in Carolingian texts : 
* Quarum exemplar Domination! vestrae 
transmitto, ut . . . ad aliquem diem ju- 
beatis venire fideles vestros dieentes quia 
eis adcognitare vultis . . . .' Hinc- 
mar, Opusc. De coereendis mil. rap. (a.d. 
848). Dc = cc by assimilation (§ 168) pro- 
duced accognitare, as in a Capitulary of 
Charles the Bald, a.d. 856, § 11, * Et 
habet . . . fideles suos convocatos ut . . . 
nostram, qui fideles illius sumus devo- 
tionem accognitet.' Accogn(i)tare, 
contr. regularly (§ 51) to accogn'tare, 
becomes acointer by cc = c (§ 168), g = « 
(§ 131), are = er (§§ 49, 263), and by con- 
tinuance of o, nt, and initial a. Acointer 
inserted a diphthong regularly (§ 56) acoin- 
tier : for its return to the form accointer 
in the 15th cent, see § 56, note 4. — Der. 
accom/ance (§ 192). 

i'Accolade, sf an embrace, kiss. See 

ACCOLER, va. to embrace ; der. from col 
(see cou). For the transcription back to 
accoler from acoler in the 15th cent, see 
§ 56, note 4. — Der. acco/lee, partic. subst. 
(§ 187). This word, which rightly means 
an embrace, kiss, and especially that given 
to a new-made knight, was transformed in 
the 1 6th cent, into accolade, in imitation 
(§ 25) of It. accollata : for the Fr. sufRx in 
ade see § 201. As late as the beginning 
of the 17th cent, accolade still solely signi- 
fied the embrace of a knight. Nicot (1604) 
says, AccoLLADE, se fait en jetant les bras 
autour du col. Accollee, embrassement, 
comme Le faisant chevalier, il lui donna 

Accom m oder , va. to suit, arrange, dress; 
from L. accommodare. — Der. accom- 
modement (§ 225). 

ACCOMPAGNER, va. to accompany; der. 
from O. Fr. compaing. For details see 

ACCOMPLIR, va. to accomplish; from L. ac- 
complere *, compd. of ad and complere. 
For dc = cc by assimilation see § 168. Ac- 
complere becomes acomplir (12th cent., 
Raoul de Cambrai, 193) by cc = c (§ i68), 


ere = zV (§ 59), and continuance of a, o, m, 
and pi. For the return in 1 6th cent, from 
acomplir to accomplir see § 56, note 4. — 
Der. accomplisstmQnt (§ 225). 

ACCORDER, va. to reconcile, to agree. Sp. 
acordar, It. accordare, from L. accordare, 
der. (like concordare) from L. cor, 
cordis ; — ' quasi ad unum cor, sive ad 
eamdem voluntatem adducere' is R. Esti- 
enne's explanation (1549). We find in 
a treaty between Henry of Castile and 
Charles V. (Martini, Anecd. i. 1501) 'Cum 
parte adversa pactum seu pacem facere, 
tractare ; accordare . . .' Accordare 
becomes acorder (nth cent., C. de Roland, 
285) by cc = c (§ l68), and continuance of 
initial a, o, and rd. For acorder = accorder 
in the 15th cent., see § 56, note 4. — Der. 
accord (§ 184). 

t Accort, adj. compliant, supple; from It. 
accorto. In 1560 Pasquier says, in his 
Recherches sur la France, viii. 3, Nous 
averts deptiis 30 oil 40 ans emprunte plu- 
sieurs mots d'llalie, comtne ' cofitrasie' pour 
' contention,' ' concert ' pour ' conference,' 
* accort ' pour ' avise.' 

ACCOSTER, va. to accost. Sp. acostar. It. 
accostare, from L. accostare, deriv. of ad 
(Hist. Gram. p. 177) and costa, and so 
properly signifying to set oneself side by 
side : ' Fuit et stetit ita contractus .... 
quod . . . unum crus vel genu cum alio non 
potebat accostare . . . .' Mirac. S. Zitae, 
in the Acta SS. iii. Apr. 523. Accostare 
becomes acoster (12th cent., Livre des Rois, 
363) by cc = c (§ 168), axe^er (§ 263), 
and continuance of initial a, o, and st. 
For 15th cent, accoster for acoster see § 56, 
note 4. For unusual continuance of s see 


ACCOTER, va. to prop up, support. Origin 
unknown (§ 35). — Der. accotoir (§ 183). 

ACCOUCHER, va. n. to deliver (as a mid- 
wife), to be delivered (of a child). This 
word, der. from couche (q. v.), was written 
acoucher in the 13th cent., and acouchier in 
the 14th. For er = ier see § 56. 

The history of this word is an example 
of those restrictions of meaning mentioned 
in the Introduction (§ 12). In the 12th 
cent, accoucher meant, according to its ety- 
mology, to lie down in bed. Mathieu de 
Montmorency, says Villehardouin, accoucha 
malade (lay down ill), et taut fut agreve 
gn'il mouriit. Joinville, when ill, uses the 
following expression, Et pour les dites 
maladies j'accouchai au lit malade^ en la 

mi-careme. Accoucher was soon restricted 
to the sense of lying down, because of 
illness, and then, later still, to ' He in ' for 

From the 13th cent, onwards we see ac- 
coucher used in this modern sense, though not 
exclusively so : La contesse Marie accoucha 
d'une fille. Villehardouin, 180. On the 
other hand the word kept its sense of simply 
lying down in bed till the 17th cent., as 
we see in Nicot's Diet. 1604 : // s'est 
accouche malade, ex morbo decumbit. 
— Der. accouches. (§ 201), accouchement 
(§ 225), accouchtwx (§ 227). 

ACCOUDER (S'), vpr. to lean on one's elbow. 
Sp. acodar, from L. accubitare, der. from 
cubitus : ' Cum causa convivii fuisset 
accubitatus,' says S. Branle (640) in 
his life of S. Aemilianus. Accub(i)tare, 
contr. regularly (§ 51) to accub'tare, be- 
comes acouter (12th cent., Raoul de Cam- 
brai, 51) by cc = c (§ 168), u = om (§ 90), 
bt = / (§ 168), are = cr (§ 263), and by 
continuance of initial a. Acouter in the 
1 6th cent, was altered into accoubder by 
the Latinists of the Renaissance. For 
c = cc, and t = hd, see § 56, note 4. For 
loss of b, see § 120. 

ACCOUPLER, va. to join, couple (dogs, etc.); 
der. from cople, O. Fr. form of cottple, 
q. V. For o = ou see § 86 ; for c = cc § 56, 
note 4. — Der. accouplement. 

ACCOURCIR, va. to shorten; der. from 
court, q. V. For c = cc see § 56, note 4. — 
Der. raccourcir. 

ACCOURIR, vn. to run up, come up hastily. 
Sp. acorrer. It. accorrere, from L. accur- 
rere. For the successive changes of 
c\xxvev& — curir = corir = courir, see courir. 
For c = cc see § 56, note 4. 

ACCOUTRER, va. to dress up, accoutre. 
Prov. acotrar : origin unknown (§ 35). 
For acoustrer = accoutrer see §§ 56, note 4, 
and 158. — Der. accoutrement (§ 225). 

ACCOUTUMER, va. to accustom; der. 
from coustume, O. Fr. form of coutume, 
q. V. For Q = cc see § 56, note 4; for loss 
of s § 158. — Der. accoutumznce (§ 192). 

Accrdditer, va. to accredit; der. from 
credit, q. v. 

ACCROCHER, va. to hook up, tear with a 
hook ; der. from croc, q. v. For c = cc in 
the 1 6th cent, see § 56, note 4. — Der. 
accroc (§ 184), xaccrocher. 

ACCROIRE, va. to believe ; from L. accre- 
dere, by regular contr. of accred(e)re to 
accred're, whence acreire (12th cent., 



St. Thomas le Martyr). For oo = c see 
§ i68, e = « § 6i, dr = r § i68. For 
ei = oi see § 6i. for o — cc, § 56 note 4. 

ACCROISSEMENT, sm. growth, increase. 
It. accrescimento, from L. aocrescimen- 
tmn. (13th cent, acroissement, H. de 
Valenc. x. 10.) For o = cc see § 56, 
note 4. 

ACCROITRE, va. to increase, enlarge. Sp. 
acrecer. It. accrescere, from L. aoorescere. 
For crescere = croistre, croitre, see croitre. 
For o = cc, see § 56, note 4. 

ACCROUPIR, vn. to cower down, squat; 
der. from crope, O. Fr. form of croupe, 
q. V. Etre accroupi is properly to sit on 
one's tail. (13th cent, acropir, R. de 
Renard, 5852 ; 14th cent, acroupir, Du 
Guesclin, 16413.) For o=^ou see § 81, 
for o = ctf § 56, note 4. 

ACCUEILLIR, va. to welcome. It. acco- 
gliere, from L. adcollegere, compd. of 
ad and coUegere, a common Lat. form 
of colligere: ' Et hospites tres vel am- 
plius collegere debet,' in the Lex Salica, 
6th cent. ed. Pardessus, p. 26 ; hence by as- 
similation of do = cc (§ 168), accollegere, 
found in the sense of associating, making to 
partake, in medieval Lat. : ' Dominus etiam 
Rex aooollegit abbatem et Ecclesiam in 
omnibus quae in villa habebat,' Charter of 
Louis VII. A.D. 1 1 50, in Thomass. Coutu- 
mier de Bourges, p. 396. For collegere 
= coillir (i2th cent.) = cueilltr (13th cent.) 
see cueilltr. For o = cc see § 56, note 4. — 
Der. accueil (§ 1 84). 

ACCULER, va. to drive into a corner, bring 
to a stand ; deriv. of cul, q. v. 

AccuniTller, va. to accumulate ; from L. 
accumulare. — Der. accumuhtion. 

Accusateur, sm, an accuser; from L. ac- 

Accusatif, sm. the accusative case ; from 
L. accusativum. 

Accusation, sf. an accusation ; from L. 

Accuser, va. to accuse; from L. accusare. 
— Der. accusation, -ateur, -atif. 

Acerbe, adj. bitter ; from L. acerbus. — 
Der. acerbitL 

AC^RER, va. to temper, steel. From acier, 

Acetate, sm. acetate; from L. acetum 
with termination ate. 

Ac6teux, adj. acetous ; from L. acetosus*, 
deriv. of acetum. For osus = ^wa; see § 229. 

Ac6tique, adj. acetic; from L. aceticus*, 
deriv. of acetum. 

ACHALANDER, va. to attract customers. 
From chaland, q. v. 

ACHARNER, va. to flesh, to excite, set 
against. It is an example of that numerous 
class of hunting terms spoken of in the 
Introduction, § 13, which have passed 
from their special and technical sense to 
a general use. Acharner was originally a 
term of falconry, meaning to put flesh 
on the lure, to excite the bird. From 
this proper sense of giving the falcon a 
taste of flesh, to teach him to tear other 
birds to pieces, comes the figurative sense 
of exciting, irritating animals, then men, 
against one another. At the beginning of 
the 1 7th cent, the word still had both 
senses: 1604, Nicot's Diet, has Acharner, 
c'est mettre de la chair dessus : le contraire 
descharner, pour oster la chair de dessus 
le leurre. On prend aussi acharner />Ottr 
ireusement addenter et deschirer aucun soil 
en son corps, sa chevance ou son honneur, 
ce qui est par metaphore. Acharner is from 
L. adcarnare*, like decamare, found in 
Vegetius. Acamare is found, without any 
instance cited, in Ducange. Adcarnare 
assimilates dc = cc (§ 168), whence accar- 
nare, whence (§ 168) by cc = c, acarnare, 
whence acharner by c = ci (§ 1 26), are = er 
(§ 263), and continuance of initial a, rn, 
and medial a. For the phonetic relation 
of acharner to chair see § 54. — Der. 
acharnevnent (§ 225). 

ACHAT, sm. a purchase. The medieval L. 
accaptare ( = acheter, under which word 
the history of letter -changes is studied) 
early produced a verbal subst. (§ 184) 
accaptum = achat : ' Et sciendum quod 
.... dedistis michi, priori S. Nazarii, v. 
solidos pro acapto,' from a Charter of 
1 1 18, Cartul. S. Victoris de Massilia, ii. 573. 
Accaptum becomes achat by cc = c = ch 
(§§ 168, 126), pt = / (Hist. Gram. p. 76), 
loss of um, and continuance of the accented 
a, and of the atonic a. 

ACHE, sf. water-parsley; from L. apium, 
by consonification pi = pj, whence ache, by 
continuance of a, and reduction of pj —j 
(Hist, Gram. p. 76), and uin = «. 

ACHEMINER, va. to forward, advance ; from 
chemin, q.v. — Der. acheminement (§ 225). 

ACHETER, va. to buy. O. Sp. acaptar, from 
L. adcaptare* compd. of class. Lat. cap- 
tare. That Fr. acheter, though derived 
from the same root with accipere, should 
bear a different sense, will not seem astonish- 
ing, when we find in Festus that the early 


Romans said emere for accipere : ' Nam 
emere anliqni dicebant pro accipere.' Ad- 
captare becomes accaptare by assimi- 
lation of dc = cc (§ i68). ' Et est ipse 
alodes in comitatu Lutevense quem pater 
meus et ego accaptavimus,' Charter of 
A.D. looo, and Vaissette, ii. p. 157. In a 
Donation of 1060, Cartul. S. Victoris de 
Massillia, 1. 414, we read, ' Accaptavit 
vineas de Embreugo, quas plantavit Guido 

K. . . accaptavit terram subter ecclesiam S. 
- ' " Crucis.' Accaptare becomes flca/er (lith 
cent.) by cc = c (§ 168), pt = ^ (Hist. Gram, 
p. 76), are = er (§ 263), and by continuance 
of initial a and medial a. Acater is suc- 
cessively softened to achater (§ 126), l2th 
cent., Livre des Rois, 119, then acheter 
(§ 54), 13th cent., Berte aux Grans Pics, 
115. In the 1 6th cent, the Latinists and 
pedants of the Renaissance wished to bring 
the word back to its Latin original, and 
wrote it achapter, as we see in Amyot 
and even in Rabelais. But the popular in- 
stinct rebelled, and did not let this word, 
like absoj/dre (q. v.), relapse into its Latin- 
ised form ; and from the beginning of the 
17th cent, the learned had to abandon their 
innovation and conform to the popular 
pronunciation by writing the word as of 
old, acheter. — Der. achat (q. v.), achetem 
ACHEVER, va. to finish. The Lat. caput, 
towards the end of the Empire, and in 
Merov. times, took the sense of an end, 
whence the phrase ad caput venire, in the 
sense of to come to an end : ' Filum filabo 
de quo Justinus Imperator, nee Augusta, ad 
caput venire non possint,' says Narses 
in the Ancient Chronology quoted by 
Gregory of Tours. We also, in like man- 
ner, find ad caput venire for ' to finish,' 
in Fredegaire's Epit. ch. 65 (Monod). 
Venire ad caput naturally produced the 
Fr. phrase venir a chef= venir a bout. (For 
caput = cAe/" see chef.) Aucun d'eux ne 
put venir a chef de son dessein, Lafontaine, 
Contes ; Quand le due d'AnJou vit qn'il ri'eti 
viendroit point a chef, Froissart, ii. 2, 20; 
whence the sense of chef =a.n end. term, 
conclusion. Sur cette route, ati chief de 
chaque journee, tl y a de beaux palais. 
Montaigne, iv. 26; and in the 13th 
cent. Joinville, ch. 235, says, Au chef de 
ix jours, les corps de nos gens que ils avoient 
tue. vindrent au dessus de I'eau. From this 
chief, O. Fr. form of chef (q. v.), in sense of 
term, end, comes the Fr. compd. achever = 

venir a chef, to end, finish. For compd. of 
ad see Hist. Gram. p. 177. For/=t/ see 
§ 145. — Der. achevemeni (§ 225). 

ACHOPPER, vn. to stumble; compd. of ad 
(Hist. Gram. p. 177) and coper, O. Fr. form 
of chopper, q. v. for origin of coper (13th 
cent.) = choper (14th cent.) = chopper. — Der. 
achoppemtnt (§ 225). 

Achromatique, adj. achromatic. See chro- 

Acide, adj. acid; from L. acidus. 

Aciditd, sf. acidity; from L. aciditatem. 

Acidule, arf/ subacid ; from L. acidulus*, 
deriv. of acidus. 

ACIER, sm. steel. Sp. acero. It. acciajo, 
from L. acierium.*, found in loth cent, in 
Graeco-Lat. glossaries, der. from acies, 
a sword-edge. Acierium becomes acer 
(nth cent., Ch. de Roland, 771) by §rium 
= er (§ 198), ci = c, and continuance of a. 
For acer = acier see § 198. — Der. acerer, 
acierer. For the diflferent forms acerer and 
acierer see § 56, note 4. 

Acolyte,sm. an acolyte; fromL. acolythus, 
from Gr. aKoXovdos. 

Aconit, sm. aconite ; from L. aconitum. 

ACOQUINER, va. to captivate, illure. See 

Acoustique, sf. acoustics ; from Gr. olkovo- 
TiKos, from aKovo). 

ACQUERIR, va. to acquire; from L. ac- 
quaerere, popular Lat. form of acqm- 
rere. For quaerere = gwe'r/r see § 104 and 
Hist. Gram. p. 140. For aquerir (12th 
cent.) = acqidrir see § 56, note 4. — Der. 
acquereuT (§ 227). 

ACQUfiT, sm. an acquisition (in legal lan- 
guage), property acquired ; from L, ac- 
quaesitum, common Lat. form of acqui- 
situm (see above acquerir from acquae- 
rere not acquirere). For the transition 
from a past part, to a subst. see § 187. 
Acquaesitum becomes acquet by qua6- 
8itMia = quest = quet: for details see quete 
and querir. For aquest = acquest see § 56, 
note 4. 

Acquiescir, vn. to acquiesce, consent ; from 
L. acquiescere. 

Acquisition, sf. an acquisition ; from L. 

ACQUITTER, va. to acquit, clear, discharge; 
from L. adquietare, compd. of ad (Hist. 
Gram. p. 177) and quietare, see quitter. 
Adquietare, making dq = cq by assimila- 
tion (§ 168), becomes acquietare, a form 
found in both senses of acquitter in medieval 
writers. * Et qui terram adquietatam. 



habet comitatus testimonio ..." is to be 
found in the Laws of Edward the Confessor, 
cap. 35 J and 13th cent, in Matthew Paris, 
Chron. a.d. 1267, ' Petitum est, ut clerus 
aoquietaret novem millia marcarum;' 
and ib. Vita Henr. iii. 5 ; * Debita dicti 
abbatis . . . mercatoribus benigne acquie- 
tabat.' For the successive changes of 
qtiietare = gutter = quitter see quitter. For 
cq = 7 see § 168, for the French reverse 
process q = eg § 56, note 4. — Der. acquit 
(§ 187), acquittement (§ 225). 

ACRE, sm. an acre ; from L. acrum * : 
* Ego Starchrius do S. Florentino octo acra 
de terra,' Chartul. de S. Florentino, a.d. 
1050 (quoted by Ducange, s. v.). Acrum 
is of Germ, origin (§ 27), and answers to 
Goth, akr, Engl, acre. Germ, acker. 

Acre, adj. sharp, acrid; from L. acris. — 
Der. acrete (§ 230). The doublet of this 
word (§ 22, note 3) is aigre, q. v. 

Acrimonie, sf. pungency, acrimony; from 
L. acrimonia. 

Acrobate, sm. an acrobat ; from Gr. da/jo- 
ficLTTjs (one who walks on tiptoe). 

Acrostiche, sm. an acrostic; from Gr. 
cLKpoarixov (the beginning of a line). 

Acte, sm. an act, action ; from L. actus. 

Acteur, sm. an actor; from L. actorem. — 
Der. actr'ict, from L. actrix. 

Actif, adj. active; from L. activus. — Der. 
activite, from L. activitatem. 

Action, s/l an action; from L. actionem. 
— Der. actionner, aclionmire. 

Actrice, sf. an actress; from L. actricem. 

Actuel, adj. real, actual; from L. actualis. 
— Der. actuaUte. 

Adage, sm. an adage, saying ; from L. 

Adapter, va. to adapt ; from L. a dap- 

Addition, sf. addition; from L. addi- 
tion em. — Der. additionnd, additionev. 

Adepte, sm. an adept; from L, adeptus 
(one who has obtained knowledge of a 

Adh6rent, sm. an adherent; from L. ad- 
haerentem. See adherer. 

Adherer, vn. to adhere; from L. adhae- 
rere. — Der. adherence. 

Adhdsion, sf. adhesion; from L. adhae- 

Adieu, adv. adieu, farewell ; compd. of d and 
Dieu, q. v. Sp. adios is a similar compd. 
of a and Dios, and It. addio of ad and 
Dio. All these forms are the products of an 
elliptical e:?cpression, such as soyez a Dieu, or 

je vous recommande a Dieu. The fact that 
the Prov. keeps the whole phrase in its 
d Dieu siatz confirms this view of the origin 
of the word. 

Adipeux, adj. fat, adipose; from L. adi- 
posus. For OB\XB = eux see § 229. 

Adjacent, adj. adjacent; from L. adja- 

Adjectif, sm. an adjective; from L. ad- 

ADJOINDRE, va. to assign as a colleague; 
from L. adjungere. For j\ing6re =join- 
dre seejoindre. For adj = aj see § 120. For 
the return aj = adj see § 56, note 4. — Der. 
adjoint (§ 187). 

Adjonction, sf addition; from L. adjunc- 

t Adjudant, sm. an adjutant; from Sp. 
ayudante, an aide-de-camp, a word recon- 
structed under the influence of Lat. adju- 
tantem*, the original of the Sp. word. 
The doublet of this word (§ 22, note 3) is 
aidant, q. v. 

ADJUGER, va. to adjudge, grant (as a con- 
tract, etc.), knock down (at an auction) ; 
from L. adjudicare, by dj=j (§ 120), 
whence ajugier : see juger. For the return 
2=dj see § 56, note 4. 

Adjurer, va. to adjure; from L. ad- 
jurare(§ 263). 

ADMETTRE, va. to admit. It. ammittere, 
from L. admittere. This word was first 
reduced to amittere in Merov. Lat. ; we 
find amissarius for admissarius in the 
Salic Law, xl. § 5 ; whence O. Fr. amettre, 
by mittere = mettre : see mettre. In 16th 
cent, the d was reinserted by the Latinists 
(§ 56, note 4). 

Administrateur, sm. an administrator; 
from L. administratorem. 

Administratif, adj. administrative; from 
L. administrativus. For ivus = i/ see 
§ 223. 

Administration, sf. administration ; from 
L. administrationem. 

Administrer, va. to administer; from 
L. administrare. 

ADMIRABLE, adj. admirable, wonderful; 
from L. admirabilem, by dm = m (§ 168), 
abilem = able (§ 51), whence amirable. 
For reinsertion of of by the Latinists see § 56, 
note 4 Der. admirablement (§ 225). 

Admirateur, sm. an admirer; from L. 

Admiratif, adj. pertaining to admiration ; 
from L. admirativus. For ivus = if 
see § 223. 



Admiration, sf. admiration; from L. ad- 

Admirer, va. to admire; from L. admi- 
rari. — Der. ac?m/rable, -ateur, -atif, -ation. 

Admonestation, sf. See admonester. 

Admonester, va. to admonish. L, ad- 
moner^ produced, through its p. p. ad- 
monitum, a frequentative admonitare 
(admonitor is in the Cod. Theod. Leg. 7, 
De Execut. 88). Admonitare is later 
corrupted to admonistare *, then ad- 
mo nestare *, whence Fr. admonester, 
which is a term of jurisprudence = to repri- 
mand judicially, whence the later and more 
general sense of to admonish (§ 13). 

Adolescence, sf. youth; from L. ado- 

Adolescent, smf a youth, stripling, young 
girl; from L. adolescentem. 

ADONNER, vn. to veer aft ; reflex. S'ADON- 
NER, to give oneself up to. See don, and 
Hist. Gram. p. 177. 

Adopter, verb, to adopt, to choose; from 
L. adoptare. — Der. adoption, adopti^. 

Adoptif, adj. adoptive ; from L. adopt- 
ivus. For ivns = if see § 223. 

Adoption, sf. adoption; from L. adop- 

Adorable, adj. adorable; from L. adora- 
bilis. For sihilis — able see § 51. 

Adorateur, sm. an adorer; from. L. ador- 

Adoration, sf. adoration; from L. ador- 

Adorer, va. to adore; from L. adorare. 

ADOSSER, va. to lean the back against. 
See dos, and Hist. Gram. p. 177. 

ADOUBER, va. to dub, in the phrase adouher 
chevalier, to strike the knight with the flat 
of the sword as he is being armed ; also to 
hammer, strike, in the sea phrase adouberle 
coq d'uti vaisseau, i. e. to repair it. Sp. 
adobar, It. addobbare. Aduber (i ith cent., 
Ch. de Roland, 54) is a compd. of a and 
of a form duber*, of Germ, origin, as are 
many terms of feudal use and of seafaring 
(§ 27). A. S. dubban, to strike, beat, ham- 
mer, whence the two senses of the Fr. verb. 
For aduber = adober (12th cent.) see § 93, 
for adober = adouber § 93. — Der. xadouber 
(Hist. Gram. p. 179). 
ADRAGANT, sin. gum tragacanth, corruption 

of Gr. TpaycLKavOa. 
ADRESSE, verbal sf. (i) address, direction; 

(2) dexterity; from adresser. See aboi. 
ADRRSSER, va. to address, send. See dresser. 
ADROIT, adj. adroit, dexterous. See droit. 

Aduler, va. to flatter ; from L. adulari. — 
Der. aduhtion (§ 232, note 4), adid&teuT 
(§ 227). 

Adulte, adj. full grown ; from L. adul- 

Adultdre, sm. an adulterer; from L. adul- 
ter. Adultere is a doublet of O. Fr. avoutre, 
q. V. — Der. adulterm. 

Advenir, vn. to happen, fall out, befall; 
from L. advenire. It is a doublet of 
avenir, q. v. 

Adventice, adj. adventitious ; from L. 

Adverbe, sm. an adverb ; from L. adverb- 
ium. — Der. adverbi:a.\. 

Adverse, adj. adverse, opposite ; from L. 
adversus. It is a doublet of averse, q. v. 
— Der. advers2i\x& (doublet of O. Fr. aver- 
sier), adversite (§ 230). 

A6rer, va. (i) to ventilate, (2) Chem. to 
aerate; from L. a e rare, from aer (air), 
whence the learned compds. aerien, aeri- 
forme, etc. 

A6rolitlie, sm. an aerolite ; from Gr. a-{]p and 

A6ronaute, sm. an aeronaut; from Gr. 
a-qp and vavr-qs. 

A6rostat, sm. an air balloon ; from Gr. d-fip 
and (TTaTos. 

Affability, sf affability, graciousness ; from 
L. affabilitatem. 

AFFABLE, adj. aifable, courteous; from. L. 
affabilis (easy of access for speech). Note 
that the Lat. suffix -^bilis, accented on 
the a, is contr. into -able. This is quite 
regular, according to the law of the Lat. 
accent, which rules that all words of this 
class lose their short penult, as they pass 
into Fr. See able. (We do not speak of 
learned words ending in -abile, as habilis, 
habile; the reasons for their exclusion are 
given in the Introduction, § 22). The Fr. 
uses the sufBx -able to form numerous adjs., 
specially from verbs ; thus from attaquer, 
durer, manger, etc., it forms attaquable, dur- 
able, mangeable, etc. Herein it only carries 
out a very marked tendency of the last ages 
of the Empire, in which we find the Romans 
making out of verbs like affirmare, ven- 
tilare, etc., the adjs. affirmabilis, ventil- 
abilis, etc., which are found in Virgilius 
the grammarian. 

AFFADIR, va. to make insipid, to cloy. See 
fade. — Der. q^Jissement (§ 225). 

AFFAIBLIR, va. to weaken. See faible. — 
Der. aj^a/6/issement (§ 225). 

AFFAIRE, sf. business, occupation. In O. Fr. 



more properly written a/aire, a compd. of 
a And /aire. Der. affaire. 

AFFAISSJIR, va. to sink, weigh down. See 
faix. — Der. affaissemcnt (§ 725). 

AFFAMER, va. to starve. See/a/m. 

Affecter, va. to aftect; from L. affectare. 
Affecter is a doublet of affaiter. — Der. af- 
/<?c/ation (§232, note 4). 

Afifection, s/ affection; from L. affec- 
tion em — Der. ajffectuenx, from L. affec- 

Afferent, adj. contributory; from L. affer- 

AFFERMER, va. (i) to lease, let; (2) to 
hire. Seeferme. 

AFFERMIR, va. to strengthen, confirm ; see 
ferme. Affermir is a doublet of affermer. 
— Der. a^ermissement. 

AFFETE, adj. affected, AFFETERIE, ^f. 
affectation ; der. from O. Fr. affeter, 
which from L, affectare. The Lat. ct, 
in affectare is here reduced to / in affeter 
(§168). In a certain number of words, 
like oint from unctum, saint from sanc- 
tum, the Lat. c is dropped, but influences 
the preceding vowel by adding an i. The 
change of ct into t is found in common 
Lat., in which maleditus was used for 
ma led ictus : it can also be traced in 
class. Lat. as in sitis, artus, fultus, for 
sictis, arctus, fulctus. 

AFFICHE, verbal sf. of afficher, a placard, 
posting-bill. See ahoi. 

AFFICHER, va. to stick (bills). Seejicher. 

+ Affid6, sm. and adj. (i) a trustworthy 
agent, (2) trusty; from 1 6th cent. It. aff- 
dato. Affide is a doublet of O. Fr. affie. 

AflBler, va. to sharpen, whet. See^l. 

AFFILIER, va. to affiliate, adopt ; from L. 
adflliare. This word is of early use in 
Lat. ; it occurs in Gains, ' De adoptivis 
hoc est adfiliatis.' To be affiliated into 
a corporation, properly means to be re- 
ceived as one of the sons of that corpora- 
ation. For df=/'see § 168.— Der. affilia- 
tion (§ 232, note 4). 

AFFINER, va. to refine. See Jin. — Der. 
xnffner, -eur, -erie. 

Afmiit6, sf. affinity, connexion, alliance; 
from L. affinitatem. 

Affirmer, va. to affirm; from L. affirm- 
are. — Der. o^rwation, -atif. 

AFFLEURER, va. to level. Seejleur. 

Affliger, f a. to afflict; from L. affligere. 
Affliger is a doublet of O. Fr. afflire. — 
Der. afflicXion. 

AfQ.uer, vn. to flow, fall into ; from L. 

affluere. — Der. affluent (§ 186), -ence 
(§ 192). 

AFFOLER, va. to make one dote on. See 
fou. — Der. laffoler (Hist. Gram, p. 179). 

AFFOUAGE, sm. the right of cutting wood 
for fuel in a forest. The Lat. focus {set feu) 
produced the verb focare*, whence the 
compd. affocare*, whence, with the sufi^ix 
-aticum came the deriv. affocaticum* (,Ht. 
the right of lighting the fire to warm oneself). 
To get from the Lat. to the Fr., affocati- 
cum has gone through three changes : — 

1. The suffix -aticum (affocaticum) 
becomes -age {affouage) (§ 248). For the 
rule see age. 

2. The medial c of affo(c)aticum dis- 
appears in affou-age, as in allocare, al- 
louer (§ 129), as is usually the case with 
those words whose medial consonant pre- 
cedes the accented vowel. 

3. The Lat. o becomes o;< : affocaticum 
becomes affouage. The Lat. o becomes 
Fr. ou when accented, if short, as in rota, 
roue, see Hist. Gram. pp. 53, 54; if long 
by nature, as in fer5cem, farotiche, see 
§ 81 ; if long by position, as in copula, 
cop'la, couple, etc., see § 86. The atonic 
Lat. o becomes Fr. on, when short, as in 
apotheca, boutique, etc., see Hist. Gram, 
p. 54; when long by nature, as in advo- 
tare*, avouer, etc., see § 81 ; when long by 
position, as in constare, costare, couter, 
etc., see § 84. 

AFFRANCHIR, va. to free; -ISSEMENT, 
sm. enfranchisement. See franc. 

AFFREUX, adj. frightful, horrible; from a 
subst. affre, fright, used as late as the 1 7th 
cent, by Bossuet ; in the i8th cent, by 
S. Simon, in the phrase Les affres de la 
mort. Affreux comes from affre, as dartreux 
from dartre. 

Affre, $f. fright, terror, in O. Fr. afre, 
comes from O. H. G. eiver, contr. to eiv'r, 
whence afre (§ 20); as liber has produced 
livre. g 1 a b e r , glabre. 

AFFRETER, va. to freight (a ship). See 

AFFRIANDER, va. to make dainty, entice. 

+ Affront, sm. an aflfront, insult, shame; 
brought in in the 1 6th cent, from It. 
affronio (§ 25). 

AFFUBLER, va. to wrap up, muffle ; from 
Low L. aflblare, contr. from aflB.bulare 
(found in a 12th cent, treaty, 'Pallium 
quo in curia afllbulatus erit'), compd. 
of class. Lat. fibulare. This word is 

A FF ur — A GENCER. 


a singular example of the changes in meaning 
which we have noticed (§ 12). The signi- 
fication of fibulare, to clasp, was enlarged 
to that of ' to dress ' in afflbulare ; and in 
the Fr. affubler, which at first meant simply 
to dress, it took (in the 16th cent.) the 
sense of dressing absurdly, muffling up. 

For the dropping of the short atonic u 
immediately before the tonic syllable in 
afflb(u)lare = affubler see § 51. For the 
change of i into u cp. bibebat, buvait, 
etc., and see Hist. Gram. p. 51. 

AFFLJT, sm. gun-carriage, gun-rest, ambush. 

AFFUTER, va. to mount a guri, set, sharpen 
(tools). See /it/. 

AFIN, conj. to the end (that). See/w. 

fAga, sm. an agha (military officer), a 
Turkish word (§ 30). 

AGASSE, sf. a magpie; from O. H. G. agal- 
stra (§ 20). 

AGACER, va. to set on edge. It. agazzare, 
from O. H. G. hazjan, to harry, whence 
regularly hacer. This verb, compd. with 
d, becomes ahacer, which, through the 
aspirate sound, became transformed into 
agacer (§ 20). 

t Agape, sf. a love-feast ; from Gr. ayairq 
(§ 21, note i). 

Agaric, s^n. a mushroom, fungus; from L. 

AGATE, sf. agate; from L. achates. For 
the change of ch into g see adjuger and 

. § 127- 

AGE, sm. age. The circumflex accent shows 
that a letter has been suppressed : and so we 
find in the 1 6th cent, the word written aage ; 
in the 12th cent, eage ; in the nth cent, (in 
the Chanson de Roland) edage, from common 
Lat. aetaticum*, deriv. form of aetatem. 
For the fall of the Lat. medial t, ae(t)aticum 
— edage, eage, aage, age, see § 117. The 
change of the Lat. suffix -aticiun into -age 
(aet-aticiiin, ed-age) requires some notice. 
This suffix, not uncommon in class. Lat., 
as silv-aticus (Varro), aqu-aticum 
(Pliny), fan-aticus (Juvenal), umbr- 
aticus, vol-aticus (Cicero), vi-aticum 
(Plautus), apost-aticum (TertuUian), be- 
came very common in popular Lat. towards 
the last days of the Empire, and the early 
Merovingian era : the Theodosian code has 
agr-aticum for agrarium, August-ati- 
cum from Augustus. Lat. documents of 
the 6th and 7th cent, are full of such forms 
as riv-aticum, port-aticum, ret-aticum, 
daemon-aticum, avi-aticum, etc. ; even 
allelui-aticum from alleluia, is met with 

in a 6th cent, document. From these numer- 
ous derivatives in -aticum have come the 
corresponding Fr. words in -age (§ 248). 

One can see how this permutation took 
place, and how, e.g., volaticus (used by 
Cicero in sense of light, inconstant) became 
volage eight centuries later: volaticus 
being accented on the antepenult, the 
short penultimate i disappears (see §51); 
volat'cus then becomes volat'ge (c changed 
into g, see § 127), and lastly volage. 

This successive change of the suffix 
-aticum into -at'cum, -atge, -age, is to be 
found also in arrivaticum *, arrivage; 
biberaticum, breuvage, etc.; see § 248. 
On this model many Fr. words have been 
formed, as mouill-age, from mouiller, 
cousin-age from cousin, etc. 

The Provenfal, which changes -aticum 
into -atge (as in very O. Fr,), and writes 
carnatge, messatge, ramatge, for carnage, 
es&age, ramage, confirms this rule of per- 

Towards the end of the nth cent., when 
the Lat. accent was lost, and the Fr. 
language already formed, Lat. forms in 
-aticum. disappeared from Lat. documents, 
and the termination -agium, copied from 
the Fr. termination, alone is to be found. 
Thus, while we find up to the nth cent, 
the low Lat. forms, such as arrivaticum, 
arrivage; hominaticum, Aomma^e; mis- 
saticum, message; formaticum, /roma^g, 
the I3th-cent. Lat. will not have them, 
but says arrivagium, hominagium, 
messagium, fromagium, etc., which 
are only Fr. words wrapped up in a Latin 
termination by the clerks at a time when 
no one knew the origin of these words, 
or of their formative suffix. This distinc- 
tion between the late Lat. which gave 
birth to the Fr. language, and the Low 
Lat. remodelled on Fr. forms, is most im- 
portant for the historical study of the Fr. 
language, and the student ought to have it 
always in his mind. 
AGENCER, va. to arrange, dispose gracefully ; 
from Low L. agentiare *, deriv. of gen- 
tus *. See geni. 

In passing from -tia to -cc, this word has 
undergone two successive changes : — 

I. It is unnecessary here to remind the 
reader that the Lat. c was always pro- 
nounced k before all vowels: fecerunt, 
vicem, civitate, were proncd. feker- 
unt, vikem, klvitate, save before an i 
followed by a vowel (c-ia, c-ie, c-io, c-iu). 



in which case the o was proncd. tz (as is 
proved by Merovingian Formulas, where 
we find unzias/or uncias). 

The groups t-ia, t-ie, t-io, t-iu, were 
proncd., not like ti in amitie, but like // 
in pricaution ; as is proved by Prankish 
charters, which change ti into ci, si, ssi, 
writing eciam, solacio, precium, per- 
dicio, racionem, concrecasione, nep- 
sia, altercasione, for etiam, solatio, 
pretium, perditio, rationem, congre- 
gatione, neptia, altercatione ; show- 
ing also that in pronunciation tia and cia 
were the same thing. 

2. When the c is followed by one of 
the groups, ia, ie, io, iu, and forms the 
combinations cia, cie, cio, ciu — ci is 
usually changed into a soft s, ss, p, and 
the Lat. i is dropped; as in macioni, ma- 
fon; provinciuli, proven fal ; suspicio- 
nem, soupgon ; crescionem*, cresson, etc. 
Thenceforward ti, which (when followed 
by an a, o, or u) is identical with ci (as 
is shown above), must, like ci, drop the 
i and become p, hard s, ss: denuntiare 
becomes denoncer ; cant ion em, chan- 
son; scutionem*, ecMssow. A like change 
takes place with -tea, which becomes -tia 
(ea, eo, eu, becoming ia, io, iu, as may 
be seen under abreger ; cp. also the forms 
Dius, for Deus, mius for meus, in very 
ancient Lat. inscriptions) : then such words 
as platea, matea, linteolus, becoming 
platia, matia, lintiolus, are rendered 
according to rule into place, masse, linceul. 

The following are the cases of change of 
tia, tio, tiu, into g, ss, s hard : — 

1. c soft in antianus, ancien; caden- 
tia, chance, etc. 

2. ss, as in captiare, chasser, etc. 

3. s hard, as in cantionem, chanson, 
etc. See Hist. Gram. p. 61. 

The change of ti into soft s, as in acu- 
tiare, aiguiser, is uncommon. See Hist. 
Gram. p. 192. 

AGENOUILLER, (S), vpr. to kneel ; from L. 
adgeniculari, as in Tertullian, ' Presby- 
teris advolvi et caris Dei adgeniculari.' 

Aggloin6rer, va. to agglomerate, collect ; 
from L. agglomerare. — Der. agglomer- 

Agglutiner, va, to glue together, unite; 
from L. agglutinare. — Der. agglutin- 

Aggraver, va. to aggravate, make worse ; 
-ation, sf. aggravation, increase. See 
grave. I 

Agile, adj. agile; from L. agilis. — Der. 

flj^/7ite (§ 230). 

+ Agio, sm. rate of exchange ; an It. word 
introd. towards the end of the 17th cent., 
from aggio (§ 25).— Der. agioXtx (§ 263), 
-age (§ 248), -eur (§ 227). 

AGIR, va. to act, do; from L. agere. 
For 6 = 1 see § 59. — Der. o^ent, from 
agentem ; but f agenda, a Lat. word 
imported bodily into Fr., is not to be 
reckoned as a deriv. 

Agiter, va. to agitate, stir; from L. agi- 
tare. Der. a^i/ation, -ateur. 

Aguat, sm. an agnate, collateral relation on 
the father's side; from L. agnatus. 

AGNEAU, sm. a lamb ; from O. F. agnel, 
and this from L. agnellus. 1 preceded by 
a vowel (al, el, il, ol, ul) remains un- 
changed in Fr. in the early period of the 
language (mollis, mol; malva, malve; 
porcellus, pour eel) ; then was softened 
into « (mou, mauve, pourceau) towards the 
middle of the 12th cent. See § 157. 

1. Lat. al became au, eau; as in alba, 
aube, etc. 

2. Lat. el became au, eau, as in el'- 
mosyna*, aumone, etc.; ieu in melius, 
mieux ; similarly with dim. suffixes in 
-ellus, in O. Fr. el ; then softened for 
the most part into -eau, -au, as agnellus, 
agneau, etc. 

3. Lat. il became eu in capillus, cheveu, 
etc.; -eau in sigillum, O. Fr. seel, sceau ; 
o, ou, in basil'ca, basoche, and fil'caria, 

/ougere, which was written more correctly 
feugere in O. Fr. 

4. Lat. ol became OM in colis ( = caulis), 
chou, etc.; eu in mol'narius, meunier, etc.; 
071 in voltulare*, vautrer. 

5. Lat. Til became ou in bulicare, 
bouger, etc.; au in vulturius, vauiour; 
o in remorque (O. Fr. remolque) from re- 

Agonie, sf. agony, struggle against death; 

from Gr. dycuvia. — Der. a^owiser. 
AGRAFE, sf. a hook, clasp ; 0. Fr. agrnpe. 

Low L. agrappa, compd. of ad and Low L. 

grappa, a word found in documents of the 

7th cent. Grappa again comes from 

O. H. G. krap/o (§ 20). — Der. agra/er. 
Agraire, arf/. agrarian ; from L. agrarius. 

Agraire is a doublet of O. Fr. agrier. 
AGGRANDIR, va. to enlarge ; -ISSEMENT, 

sm. increase, aggrandisement. See grand. 
AGREABLE, adj. agreeable ; der. from 

agreer, like gueable from gueer. — Der. 

desagreable (Hist. Gram. p. 1 78). 



AGREER, va. to receive favourably, accept 
{\\t. = prendre a gre). See gre. — Der. 
agrement, desa^re'ment. 
Agr^ger, va. to admit, incorporate (into a 
public body); from L. aggregare — Der. 
agrege (of which agregat is a doublet), 
AGREMENT, sm. consent, approbation. See 

AGRES, sm. pi. rigging, tackling. See greer. 
Agresseur, sm. an aggressor ; from L. 

aggressor em. — Der. agression, -if. 
Agreste, adj. rustic; from L. agrestis. 
Agricole, adj. agricultural ; ftom L. agri- 
cola. The Lat. subst. has become a Fr. 
Agriculteur, sm. a farmer, agriculturist; 
from L. agricultorem. — Der. agricultwre. 
Agronome, sm. an agriculturist ; from 
Gr. aypovofios (which from aypos and 
vo/xos) (§ 21). 
AGUERRIR, va. to accustom to war. See 

AGUETS, sm. pi. a word used only in the 
pi. in mod. Fr. (etre aiix aguets, to be on 
the look out, to be lying in wait) ; but in 
O. Fr. it had a sing. also. It is used as late 
as Malherbe, Quand /'aguet d'un pirate 
arreta leur voyage. Aguet is the verbal 
sm. (§ 184) of the old verb aguetter, compd, 
of guetter, q. v. 
AHEURTER (S'), vpr. to be bent on, ob- 
stinate. See heurter. 
AHURIR, va. to amaze. The word hure, 
originally meaning hair standing on end, 
produced ahuri (la gent barbue et ahuri, 
' a folk bearded and of up-standing locks,' 
is a phrase of the 13th cent.). Ahuri 
later received the sense of ' standing on end 
from fright,' then ' terrified ' ; lastly, the 
modern sense, which is nothing but a di- 
minution of the old signification (§ 13). 
AIDER, va. to aid, help; from L. adjutare 
(Varro and Terence), later ajutare, which 
must be written aiutare, as the Latins 
pronounced j between two vowels as i. 
For this cause raja, boja, major, baju- 
lare, have become in Fr. raie, bouee 
(O. Fr. boie), maire, bailler, as they were 
proncd. raia, boia, ma'ior, baiulare. 
To pass from aiutare to aider we find 
two philological changes: (1) the fall of 
the u, aiutare becoming a'itare (§ 52); 
(2) the change of t into d, aitaxe = a'idar, 
then aider (§ 117). 

I. Fall of the u. We have seen (§ 52) 
that every vowel immediately preceding the 

tonic vowel (like the i of sanitatem), dis- 
appears in Fr. if short (san-!l!-tatem = 
satite), remains if long (caem-e-terium = 
cim-e-tiere). This continuance of a long 
atonic vowel has only a few exceptions : 
the atonic vowel which directly precedes 
the tonic syllable disappears, when long, in 
mirabilia, merveille, etc. § 52. There are 
about twenty of these exceptions to the rule 
of the continuance of the long atonic vowel, 
which are to be explained by two facts : 

(1) that in many of these words the con- 
traction is quite modern, and the long atonic 
vowel remained inO.Fr.; — courtier, serment, 
soup^on, larcin, were in O. Fr., more regu- 
larly, couretier, serement, soupe^on, larecen : 

(2) that in the common Lat. many of these 
words had already lost this long atonic 
vowel, and the Fr. simply reproduced this 
irregularity, and could do nothing else ; 
thus in the 7th cent, we find cosinus for 
consobrinus, costuma for consuetu- 
dinem, matinum for matutinum, el- 
mosna for eleemosyna, vercundia for 

2. The softening of the t into d. Aiu- 
tare having become aitare changes into 
aidare. This softening had already taken 
place in common Lat., in which it was very 
frequent, especially when the t lay between 
two vowels : iradam is found for i rat am 
in an inscription of a. D. 142; limides, 
sidus, terridoriam, mercadum, stradu, 
for limites, litus, territorium, mer- 
catum, strata, in 5th cent, documents, 
and in the Salic Law ; thus again. Classical 
Lat. said quadraginta, quadratus, from 
quatuor, which, regularly, should have 
been quatraginta, quatratus. Por the 
full history of the Lat. t see aigu and 
§§ 117, 118. 

Der. aide, verbal subst. of aider, aidant^ 
which is a doublet of adjudant, q. v. 
AIEUL, sm. a grandfather ; from L. aviolus. 
By the side of the class, form avus, the 
popular Lat. had a form avius, which is 
to be found in certain 5th-cent. documents. 
(Such double forms as avius and avus are 
not rare in Lat.; witness luscinius and 
luscinus, etc.) From this form avius the 
Romans made the derivative aviolus, by 
adding the dim. suffix -olus (cp. gladi- 
olus, filiolus, lusciniolus, etc.). Avi- 
olus, properly ' a little grandfather,' soon 
supplanted avius, in accordance with the 
Roman tendency to use diminutives. See 



In the passage from aviolus to aieul 
(O. Fr. aiol, Prov. aviol, forms which help 
to explain that transition), there were two 
philological changes : — 

1. The medial V was dropped: a(v)iolu8, 
aieul, AS pa(v)onem, paon ', pa(v)orem, 
peur, etc. (§ 141). This dropping of v 
between two vowels is not rare in Lat. ; 
the Class. Lat. said bourn for bo(v)um, 
audii for audi(v)i, redii for redi(v)i ; 
and this tendency became yet more marked 
in popular Lat., where we find rius for 
ri(v)us, ais for a(v)is, also noember 
for no(v)ember in Inscriptions; and in 
the 7th cent, paonem for pa(v)onem in 
the Glosses of Cassel. 

2. Avioltis thus reduced to aiolus, 
produced in O. Fr. aiol, which became aieul 
by softening the o into eu (see accueillir). 
On this change of the suffix -olxis into 
•eul two remarks are needed : (i) suffixes in 
-iolus (and with these may be classed 
those in -eolus, for they were early changed 
into -iolus, as is shown by the hiscriptions, 
which give us capriolus for capreolus, 
and the Glosses of Cassel, which have 
linciolo for linceolo, etc.) were, about 
the 7th cent., subjected to a change which 
turned the two short syllables i-6 into a 
single long syllable io ; so that these words 
were no longer accented -iolus, but -iolus : 
(2) these suffixes in Fr. became -eul, -euil, or 
-ol ; as in aviolus, aieul ; capreolus, chev- 
reuil ; lusciniolus, rossignol (§ 253). 

AIGLE, sm. an eagle ; from L. aquila. Re- 
gularly contracted into aq'la (see rule in 
§ 52), the Lat. aquila has undergone two 
changes in its transit into Fr. : (i) the 
accented a becomes at, and (2) the q be- 
came g. 

1. The Lat. accented a became Fr. at, 
when short, as in ft mo, aime ; when long 
by nature, as in clarus, clair ; when long 
by position, as in acrum, aigre (§ 54). 
The atonic Lat. a becomes at in Fr. when 
it is short, as in S,cutus, aigu; when long 
by nature, as in alatus, aile ; when long by 
position, as in (zsceUum, faisceau, etc. 

2. q becomes g, aq'la, aigle (§ 129); 
or rather ql becomes gl, and has thus 
undergone the same change as has be- 
fallen the corresponding cl, which has 
become gl in ecclesia, eglise (§ 129). 
Thus many French persons still pronounce 
the words reine claude as reine glaude, 

AIGLON, sm. a little eagle, eaglet ; dim. of 

aigle, q.v.; formed by the addition of the suf- 
fix -on, as in anon, chaion, ourson, raton, 
from ane, chat, ours, rat. This suffix -on is 
derived from the Lat. suffix -onem, which 
was used for the same purpose; from sabu- 
lum, sahle, sand, the Romans formed 
sabulonem, sablon. Aiglon is a doublet 
of aquilon, q. v. 

AIGRE, adj. acid, sour ; firom L. acrem. 
For a = a/ see § 54; for c=^ § 129. 
Aigre is a doublet of acre, q.v. — Der. 
aigrem, aigrelet, aignr, aigrement. 

AIGREFIN, sm. sl sharper, swindler. Origin 

AIGRETTE, sf. an egret, a kind of heron, 
whose head is tufted with feathers, which 
have come to take the same name. Ma- 
nage, in the 17th cent., said, II y a 
certaines plumes en deux costez des oelles 
sur le dos de V aigrette, qui sont deliees et 
blanches et qui sont vendues bien cheres es 
basefaus de Turquie. 

The O. H. G. biegro (a heron) (§ 27) be- 
came Fr. aigre, of which aigrette is the dim., 
meaning a little heron. (For dim. suffix 
in -ette see § 281.) This O. H. G. beigro 
became in Low L. aigronem, in the loth 
cent, aironem, whence O. Fr. hairon ; 
15th cent, heron. The reduction of gr 
into r may be found in peregrinus, 
pelerin (§131). 

AIGU, adj. sharp, pointed ; from L. acutus. 
For B. = ai see § 54, for c = ^ § 129. 
As to the reduction of the termination -utus 
into M (§ 201), or (to narrow the subject still 
more) the dropping of the Lat. dental t, this 
did not take place in the passage from 
Lat. to Fr. ; t is at first changed into d in 
Merovingian Lat. (see under aider'), and 
this d remained in the earliest O. Fr. monu- 
ments, down to the end of the llth cent.; 
thus spatha, natum, honorata, became 
spada, nadum, honorada, whence come 
the O. Fr. forms espede, ned, bonorede, which 
after the beginning of the 12th cent, 
dropped the d and became espee, ne, honoree. 
Acutus must have passed through the 
form aigud before reaching aigu, as vir- 
tutem, cornutum, canutum, became ver- 
tud, comud, chenud, and then vertu, cornu, 
chenu. — Der. The only word derived from 
aigu is the verb aiguiser, from L. acuti- 
are *. We have just seen how acutus 
became aigu: for the change of the ter- 
mination -tiare into -ser (or of Lat. -ti 
into soft s) see Hist. Gram. p. 192, and 



AIGUE, sf. water ; from L. aqua. For the 
change of a into ai see § 54, and of q 
into g see § 129, note 2. The word aigue, 
lost in mod. Fr., remains in some names of 
places, as Aigues-Mortes, Chaudes-Aigues ; 
and in a certain number of derived words, as 
aigniere, a water-vessel, ewer ; aiguade, a 
water supply (for ships at sea); aigue- 
marine, lit. eau-marine, sea-water, the 
aqua-marina or beryl. 

AIGUE^MARTNE, sf. aqua-marine. See aigue. 

AIGUIERE, sf. a jug, ewer. See aigue. 

AIGUILLE, sf. a needle; from L. acucla*. 
The Lat. acicula, dim. of acus, which, 
hke so many diminutives, has taken the 
place of its primitive (see § 18), had two 
forms, acicTila which is to be found in 
the Theodosian Code, ' oportet eam usque 
ad aciculam capitis in domo mariti,' and 
acucxila, which was soon contracted into 
acucla (for the law, see able). For a, = ai 
see § 54; for o = g, § 129; and for -ucla 
= -uille, § 257. — Der. aiguillee, aiguillette, 

AIGUILLEE, sf a needlefull. See aiguille. 

AIGUILLETTE, sf a little needle ; dim. of 

AIGUILLON, sm. a goad. See aiguille. — 
Der. aiguilloner . 

AIGUISER, va. to sharpen. See aigu. 

AIL, sm. garlic; from L. allium, by 11 = /, 
and the attraction of the Lat. i, as in mol- 
liare*, mouiller ; meliorum, tneilleur, 
etc., see § 70. 

AILE, sf a wing ; from L. ala. For a = ai 
see § 54. — Der. aile. 

AILERON, sm. a pinion ; formed from aile, 
like bucheron from buche, chaperon from 
chape, forgeron from forge, moucheron 
from viouche, mousseron from mousse, pu- 
ceroji from puce, etc. 

AILLEURS, adv. elsewhere ; from L. alior- 
sum. For '\i = ill see § 70; and for o = eu, 
§ 79- — Der. d'ailleurs. 

AIMABLE, adj. amiable ; from L. amabilis. 
The suffix -abilis was regularly contracted 
into -ablis in common Lat. -abilis is 
accented on the antepenult, and we have 
shown that every short penultimate vowel 
disappears in Fr. (see § 51). 

-dbilis, in form of -ablis, produced the 
suffix -able (§ 250), which is very common 
in Fr. 

AIMANT, sm. a loadstone, magnet ; from L. 
adamantem. Aimant, in O. Fr. atmant, 
Prov. adiman, has lost the medial Lat. d 
(see § 120); ad(a)mantem has become 

aimant, by changing a into ? (§ 54, note 3), 
a change found in a few words : cerasus, 
cerise; cariophyllum, g'zrq^e; avellana, 
aveline ; jacitum, g-i/e ; bombitare, 6o«- 
dir ;, relentir. 

This change belongs to the Lat. period, 
in which men said equally avellina or 
avellana, and formed in-sipidus from 
sapidus, ini-micus from amicus, in- 
stituo from statuo, dif-ficilis from fa- 
cilis, ac-cipere from capere, e-ripio 
from rapio, etc. 

AIMER, va. to love ; from. L. amare. For 
a, = ai, see § 54. 

AINE, sf. the groin ; corruption of O. Fr. 
aigne, which from Lat. inguinem. In- 
guinem has produced aigne, as sanguin- 
em, saigne. Inguinem, contracted into 
ing'nem (after the law given § 51), has 
become aigne, by i = ai (see § 74), and 
by ng = gn, as may be seen in jun- 
gentem, joignant; tingentem, teignant; 
sanguinem, saigne. 

AINE, sm. and adj. elder, eldest. O. Fr. 
ainsne, before the 13th cent, ainsne, compd. 
of ains and ne. Instead ofprimogenitus, 
the common Lat. usually said ante natus. 
In the 7th cent. Isidore of Seville translates 
antenatus by privignus, and primo- 
genitus by ante natus. He opposes 
antenatus to postnatus, the latter stand- 
ing for the younger, the former for the 
eldest, son. 

Ante having become ains in Fr. (by 
a = ai, § 54), and natus having be- 
come ne (q. v.), ante natus became first 
ains-ne, as post-natus became puis-ne 
(whence puine). Just as the common Lat. 
said ante-natus and post-natus, for older 
and younger sons, so O. Fr. opposed ains-ne 
to puis-ne or moins-ne. The same dis- 
tinction is met with in the Coutumes de 
Beaumanoir, where the rights of the ains-ne 
are legally distinguished from those of the 

The form ains-ne was changed in the 
14th cent, into ais-ne by dropping the «, 
a process met with in the Lat. ; for while 
the texts of early Lat. read formonsus, 
quadragensimus, quotiens, Class. Lat. 
wrote formosus, quadragesimus, quo- 
ties; and thus, in turn, the Class, forms, 
censor, mensis, impensa, inscitia, 
mensa, Viennensis, were reduced to 
cesor, mesis, impesa, iscitia, mesa, 
Viennesis, in common Lat., as Varro, 
Festus, and Flavius Caper tell us. The 



Merovingian Lat. carried on this tendency : 
in Chartularies of the 7th cent, we read 
masus for mansus, remasisse for re- 
man si sse, etc. The following is the full 
list of cases in which this reduction takes 
place: — mansionem, maison; mensura, 
mesure; sponsus, dpoux; constzre, co-uier; 
insula, i/ff; ministerium,ni<f//cr; mensis, 
mois; monasterium, moutier; pensum, 
poids; pTtnsus *, pris; tensz, toise; ton- 
sionem, toison; trans, tres; pagensis, 
pays; prensionem*, prison; mansura, 
masure ; pensare, peser ; mensurare, 
mesurer ; turonensis, tournois; grae- 
censis*, gregeois; pensile*, poele. 

But language incessantly undergoes modi- 
fication : Lat. and Fr, are only succes- 
sive conditions of one language, and this 
reduction of ns into s took place not only 
in the transition from Lat. to O. Fr., but 
also in the passage from O. Fr. to mod. 
Fr. ; ains-ne became ais-ne in the 14th 
cent., and aisne passed into nine in the 1 7th 
cent. — Der. amesse. 

AINSI, adv. so, thus, in this manner ; O. Fr. 
ensi, further back insi; from L. in-sic. 
See si. (Cp. Hist. Gram. p. 158.) 

AIR, sm. air ; from L. aer. It is easy to 
see how air came to bear the sense of 
natural disposition, by comparing it with 
the Lat. spiritus, which means both 
breath, wind, passion, and disposition (§ 15). 
The musical signification of the word was 
adopted in the 1 7th cent, from the It. aria, 
which is also derived from Lat. aer : from 
it Fr. air has taken the It. sense, but has 
retained its Fr. form. 

AIRAIN, sm. brass ; from L, aeramen. The 
suffix -amen became -ain {airain) as 
in levamen, levain, etc. (§ 226). Just 
as the suffix -amen became -ain, -aim, 
-en, in Fr., so the corresponding suffixes 
-imen, -tuneii, had become -in, -ain, -or, 
-un, in Fr. (see § 226). 

AIRE, sf. an eyry; indirectly from the 
Germ, aren, to make one's rest, which 
in turn comes from Germ, aar, an eagle 
(§ 20). 

AIRE, sf. a barn-floor, threshing-floor ; from 
L. area. Area first became aria by the 
regular change of ea into ia (see under 
abreger and agencer) ; aria became aire 
by transposition of i (see under anier). 
Aire is a doublet of are. 

AIRELLE, sf. the whortle-berry. Origin un- 
known (§ 35). 

AIS, sm. a. plank, board ; from L. assis. For 

8S = s, see passus, pas; crassus, gras; 
pressus, /res; bassus, bas ; lassus, las. 
For the transposition of i, see Hist. Gram. 

P- 77- 

AISE, sf. satisfaction, joy, content. Origin 
unknown. — Der. ais6 (§ 201), a/5^nient 
(§ 225), atsance (§ 192), malo/se, mala?s^, 
malaisement. (For the prefix see mal, and 
Hist. Gram. p. 180.) 

AISSELLE, sf. the armpit ; from L. axilla. 
For a = ai see § 54. For x = ss, cp. 
exagium, essai; examen, essaim; etc. 
(§ 150). This change had also taken 
place in Lat. : x, which is in fact cs, soon 
was assimilated into ss. In Lat. we find 
the forms lassus, assis, cossim, side by 
side with laxus, axis, coxim ; the In- 
scriptions give us conflississet, essor- 
cista, for conflixisset, exorcista, — and 
we have in MSS. frassinus, tossicum, 
for fraxinus, toxicum. 

For i = e see § 72. Aisselle is a doublet 
of axille, q. v. 

AJONC, sm. sea-rush (?). Origin unknown 
(§35). Seejonc. 

AJOURNER, va. to adjourn; from L. ad- 
journare, in Charlemagne's Capitularies 
' qui non erant adiurnati.' See jour. — 
Der. adjournement. 

AJ OUTER, va. to add, join; O. Fr, ajouster, 
Prov. ajostar, from L. adjxixtare*. The 
etymological meaning, which is *to put side 
by side,' is to be found in the llth cent. ; 
thus in the Chanson de Roland one of the 
peers bids the French s'ajouler en bataille 
(place themselves in rank, side by side). 

Adjuxtare, which becomes ajuxtare 
(for dj=j cp. djurnum*, jour; hord- 
jum*, orge; assedjare*, assieger; and 
§§ 120, 137), produced ajouster by u = 07^ 
(§ 97)> 3nd by x = s (to be met with in 
Lat. inscriptions, in which we find sistus for 
sextus, obstrinserit for obstrinxerit). 
This change of x into s occurs in Fr. in axis, 
ais; buxus, buis; dextrarius*, destrier; 
and in the eight O. Fr. words sextarius, 
sestier; buxda*, boiste; tax'tare*, taster; 
ix2LXxn\is, fresne; juxtare *, _;oMS/er ; de- 
exducere*, desduire ; deexviare*, des- 
vier; exclusa, escluse, which in mod. Fr. 
have lost the s and are setier, boite, later, 
frene, jouter, deduire, devier, ecluse, just 
as ajouster has become ajouter. (For the 
dropping of s, see § 147.) Ajouter is a 
doublet of ajuster, q. v. — Der. ajut&ge for 
ajouUge (§ 248). 

AJUSTER, va. to adjust. Ste juste. Ajuster 



is a doublet oiajouter, q. v. — Der. ajustage, 

t Alambic, sm. an alembic, a still. This 
word was introduced in the 12th cent, from 
the alchemist's Lat. alambiquus, bor- 
rowed, together with the instrument itself, 
from Ar. al-anbiq, a distilling vessel (§ 30). 
— Der. alambiqneT. 

ALANGUIR, va. to enfeeble. See languir. 

+ Alarine, sf. alarm, a military term in- 
troduced in the 1 6th cent. (§ 25) from Ital. 
alVarme, a word of similar sense, but literally 
a cry 'to arms,' the call of sentinels surprised 
by the enemy. In the 1 7th cent, alarme 
was still written allarme, in accordance with 
its etymology. — Der. alarmer, alarmiste 

(§ 217). 

ALBATRE, sm. alabaster ; from Lat. ala- 
bastrum, written albastrum in some 
Lat. MSS. For this dropping of a see 
§ 52, and accointer ; for the fall of the 
s see abime. 

+ Albinos, sm. an albino, a word intro- 
duced in the 17th cent, from Sp. albino 
(§ 26). 

+ Album, sm. an album, scrap-book ; from 
L. album. Album is a doublet of aube, 

Albumine, sf. albumen; from L. albu- 
men. Albumine is a doublet of aubun. 

+ Alcade, sm. an alcade; from Sp. alcade 
(§ 26). 

+ Alcali, sm. alkali, a word introduced into 
Fr. through the alchemist's Lat. from the 
Ar. alcali, salts of soda (§ 30). — Der. 

tAlchimie, sf. alchemy, a word intro- 
duced into Fr. through alchemist's Lat. from 
Ar. al-chymia (§ 30). — Der. alchimiste. 

+ Alcool, sm. alcohol, formerly alcohol, 
an alchemist's word, taken from Ar. alqohl 
(§ 30). 

tAlcdve, sf an alcove, recess, a word 
introduced in the 1 6th cent, from the It. 
alcovo (§ 25). 

Alcyon, sm. the kingfisher ; from L. al- 

Al6atoire, adj. uncertain, depending on 
chance; from L. aleatorius. 

ALENE, sf an awl. O. F. alesne, from O. H. 
G. alasna, a transposition of alansa (§ 20). 

ALENTIR, va. to slacken, formed from lent. 
This word, used by Corneille and Moliere, 
survives in mod. Fr. in the compd. ra- 

ALENTOUR, adv. around, round about ; O. 
Fr. a I'entour. See entour. 

t Alerte, interj. sf and adj. (i) take care! 
(2) an alarm ; (3) alert, vigilant. O. Fr. 
allerte, in Montaigne and Rabelais a I'erte, 
originally a military term, borrowed from 
It. in the i6th cent. (§25) from the cry 
alVerte (take care !). The It. phrase stare 
all' erta means ' to stand on the alert. ' 
ALEVIN, sm. fry of fish; from L. alleva- 
men. For the termination amen = in, 
see § 226. 

Alexandria, adj. Alexandrine (verse). 
Origin unknown (§ 35). 

+ Alezan, adj. sorrel (horse); introduced in 
the 17th cent, from Sp. alazan (§ 26). 

tAlgarade, sf a sudden outburst of 
temper; introduced in the 17th cent, from 
Sp. algarada (§ 26). 

+ Algdbre, sf algebra; from medieval 
scientific Lat. algebra, which from Ar. 
aldjabroun (§ 30). 

+ Alguazil, sm. an alguazil (officer); 
from Sp. alguazil. 

Algue, sf sea- weed; from L. alga. 

+ Alibi, sm. an alibi; from L. alibi. 

ALIBORON, sm. a wiseacre, ass. Origin un- 
known (§ 35). 

f Alidade, sf reckoning; from medieval 
scientific Lat. alidada, which from Ar. 
alidad (§30). 

Ali6ner, va. to alienate, transfer property ; 
from L. alienare. — Der. a/ze«ation, alien- 
able (§ 250). The sense of derangement is 
to be found in the Lat. word also. 

ALIGNER, va. to square, draw out by line. 
See ligne. — Der. alignement. 

Aliment, sm. aliment, nourishment; from 
L. alimentum. — Der. alimenter, -ation 
(§ 232, note 4). 

t Aline a, adv. (sf) a paragraph ; formerly 
d linea, from the Lat. a linea, used in dic- 
tation to show that the writer must break 
off and begin a new line. 

Aliquante, adj. (Math.) some ; from L. 

Aliquote, adj. (Math.) aliquot ; from L. ali- 

ALITER, va. to lay in bed. See lit. 

ALIZE (also written alise), sf. the lote-tree 
berry ; of Germ, origin, from O. H. G. 
eliza (§ 20). — Der. alisier (§ 198). 

ALLAITER, va. to suckle; from L. allac- 
tare. For ct = it see § 129 and Hist. 
Gram. p. 50. — Der. allaitement. 

ALLECHER, va. to allure, attract ; from L. 

allectare. The very unusual change of 

ct into ch is to be found also in flectere, 

flechir; tc fleeter c,rejlechir; impactare, 

C 2 



empecher ; coactare*, cacher. — Der. al- 

ALLEGER, va. to lighten, ease; from L. 
alleviare. Alleviare became allevjare 
by i=j (see Hist. Gram. p. 65); allevjare 
became aUejare, and then alleger, by 
yj=^, as in nivea, nivja, neige, etc. 
(Hist. Gram. p. 81). This change of the 
V also takes place (l) before the other 
gutturals {vc, vg), as in nav'gare nager; 
(3) before the dentals (vt, vd), as in civ'ta- 
tem, cite; (3) before the liquids, as in 
juv'nis, jeune. — Der. allegeznce. 

A116gorie, sf. an allegory; from L. alle- 
goria. — Der. allegoriqae. 

ALLEGRE, adj. brisk, nimble, lively. O. Fr. 
alegre, from L. alacris. For a = e see § 54 ; 
for CT=gr see § 129. — Der. a//e^r^ment, 

+ Allegro, adv. and sm. allegro; from It. 
allegro (§ 25). 

All^guer, va. to quote, allege ; from L. 
allegare Der. allegziidn. 

Allelllia, sm. hallelujah, introduced by St. 
Jerome in 4th cent, into ecclesiastical Lat. 
Heb. hallelujah (§ .^o). 

ALLER, va. to go. This word has borrowed 
its tenses from three different Lat. verbs : — 
(l) The I, 2, 3 sing. pres. indie, from Lat. 
vadere ; vado, je vais ; vadis, tu vas ; 
vadit, il va. (O. Fr. il vat). (2) The fut. 
and condit.firaiyfirais, from the Lat. ire, 
by the usual formation of the fut. (See Hist. 
Gram. p. 149.) (3) The remaining tenses, 
allais, allai, allasse, aille, allant^ alle, are 
related to the infin. aller, which was in O. Fr. 
aler, and aner, and comes from Merovingian 
Lat. anare, a soft form of adnare, which 
properly signifies ' to come by water ' (as in 
Cicero), but soon was much widened in 
sense ; thus, in Papias adnare is used for 
• to come by land.' The same remark may 
be made as to the corresponding word 
enare (to swim, in Cicero), which even in 
Class. Lat. signifies ' to come ' (no matter 
how) : ' Daedalus .... gelidas enavit 
ad Arctos,' Virg. Aen. 6. 16 (i.e. by fly- 
ing), or ' Enavimus has valles,' Silius 
Ital. (i. e. by land). It is singular that .the 
same transition from water to land occurs 
in the word adripare, at first meaning ' to 
touch the shore,' afterwards ' to reach one's 
aim,' whence Fr. arriver. See also § 13. 

To pass from adnare, anare, to Fr. 
allevt through the intermediate forms aner 
and aler, there has been an important 
change of n into /. This change of a nasal 

into a liquid is not rare in Fr., as in 
orphaninus *, orphelin; Ruscinonem, 
Roussillon, § 1 63; and even in falol and 
juillet, which stand for fanot, juinet. For 
are = er see § 263. — Der. a//^e, participial 
subst. (§ 187). 

ALLEU, sm. allodial ownership. O. Fr. alou, 
aloud, Sp. alodio. It. allodia ; from Mero- 
vingian Lat. allodium, a word of Germ, 
origin, in common with all feudal terms. 
Allodium is from O. H. G. alod (§ 20), 
full ownership, the franc-alleu (hereditary 
property, free from all duties to a higher 
lord) being opposed to benefice, which was 
originally a life-ownership, dependent on 
the will of the lord of the fief. 

ALLIER, va. to mix, unite, ally; from L. 
alligare. The Lat. g disappears from 
alli(g)are : this phenomenon, found in the 
last ages of Latinity (niellatas is found 
for nigellatas in a Merovingian docu- 
ment), is common in Fr. (i) when the 
g preceded the accented vowel, as in 
au(g)ustus, aout', gigantem, geant, etc.; 
(2) when the g followed the accented 
vowel, as in exa(g)ium, essaim; re(g)em, 
roi. — Der. alliance (§ 192), allie (§ 201), 
alliage (§ 248), me&allier, mesaZ/zance 
(Hist. Gram. p. 180), lallier (Hist. Gram, 
p. 179), ralliement. 

t Alligator, sm. an alligator ; intro- 
duced by English travellers (§ 28, note l). 

Allocation, sf. an allocation, allowance; 
from L. allocationem*, from allocare. 

Allocution, sf. an allocution ; from L. 

ALLONGER, va. to lengthen. See long. — 
Der. allonge. 

Allopathie, sf. (Med.) allopathy ; from Gr. 
aWos and vdOos, a medical system. See 
homceopaihie. — Der. allopathe, 

ALLOUER, va. to allow (a stipend) ; from L. 
allocare *. For letter-changes see louer : 
for ad = a/ see Hist. Gram. p. 177, and for 
assimilation of d to /, § 168. See also 

ALLUMER, va. to kindle; from L. ad- 
luminare*, compd. of luminare. Ad- 
luminare is alluminare in several 7th- 
cent. documents, by dl = ll, a frequent 
Lat. assimilation, as in allucere or adlu- 
cere, alludere or adludere, alluere or 
adluere, allocutio or adlocutio, alli- 
gare or adligare, allevare or adlevare, 
etc. This assimilation also went on in Fr. 
by change of dl into / or //, as in mod'lus, 
moule (§ 168). Allum(i)nare first be- 



came allum'nare by the regular dropping 
of the short vowel (§ 52). Allum'nare 
again became allumer, by ran = m, as in 
sem'nare, semer ; dom'na, dame, mn 
also often becomes mm, as fem'na, femme 
(Hist. Gram. p. 72). It. alluminare, Prov. 
alhimenar, alhanar, will mark the transition 
from L. alluminare to Fr. allumer. — Der. 
allumeuT (§ 227), allumette (§ 281). 

ALLURE, sf. gait, way of going (or dealing) ; 
from aller; like coiffwe, soidllure, brochure, 
etc., from coiffer, souiller, brocher (§ 183). 

Allusion, sf. an allusion; from L. allu- 

Alluvion, sf. alluvium*; from L. alluvi- 

Almanach, sm. an almanac; Low Lat. 
almanachus, from Gr. a\ixiva)(a,, used in 
3rd cent, by Eusebius for an almanac 

(§ 21). 
Alo§S, sm. the aloe. O. Fr. aloe, from L. 

ALOI. sm. a standard, quality (of coin) ; compd. 
of a and loi, which in O. Fr. signified the 
standard of coin, as still in Sp. For the 
etymology of loi see that word. 
ALORS, adv. then. See lors. 
ALOSE, sf. a shad ; from L. alausa, which 
was written also alosa. For au = o see 
§ 107. 
ALOUETTE, sf a lark, dim. of O. Fr. alone, 
just as herbette is derived from herbe, cuvette 
from cuve. (For the suffix -ette, see ablette.) 
Here, as often, the primitive form is gone, 
and the derivative, though dim. in form, has 
the sense of the original word (see § 18). 

Aloue is from L. alauda (as used by 
Pliny for the sky-lark), a word borrowed by 
the Romans from Gaul, and introduced into 
Lat. by Caesar. (The true Lat. names for 
the lark are galerita, corydalus.) 

To get from alauda to aloue, the Lat. 
drops the medial d after the accented vowel ; 
as is found in the following cases: (l) 
when the subsequent vowel remains, as in 
invi(d)ia, envie; (2) when the subsequent 
vowel is dropped, as in cru(d)us, cru, 
§ 120. 

The diphthong au is also changed into 
ou : this diphthong was pronounced by the 
Latins, not like Fr. 0, but a-ou ; thus for 
aurum, taurus, the Romans said a-ou- 
rum, ta-ourus, not orum, torus. This o 
pronunciation was looked on as quite faulty 
by the educated Romans, and grammarians 
speak of it as common to peasants, and a 
thing to be avoided, Festus tells us that 

the Roman country-folks said orum for 
aurum, oriculas for auriculas, etc. The 
Fr. language, sprung from popular not from 
Class. Lat., has kept the rustic pronuncia- 
tion, as in aurum, or; ausare*, oser 
(§ 107); and in certain secondary forma- 
tions, as parole, paraula, secondary form 
of parabola ; forger, faurcare, of fabri- 
care; tole, taula, of tabula; somme, 
sauma, of salma. 

In all these words the au became, and 
has continued to be ; in a certain num- 
ber of words this was in O. Fr., and in 
mod. Fr. has become ou (see also § 107). 
The following is the complete list of 
these changes: — laudo, Zo/^e; laudemia*, 
louange ; aut, ou; audire, ouir; gau- 
dere, jouir ; claus (for clavus), clou; 
Cauda, couard ; inraucare *, enrouer; 
colis (=caulis), chou; austarda (for 
avistarda), outarde ; gauta *, joue. 

ALOURDIR, va. to make heavy. See lourd. 

ALOYAU, sm. a sirloin. Origin unknown 

(§ 35). 
t Alpaga, sm. alpaca; a kind of wool 

got from the alpaga, a kind of llama in 

South America. 
Alphabet, S7«. the alphabet ; from L. 

alphabeta. — Der. alphabetique. 
Altercation, sf an altercation, dispute ; 

from. L. altercationem. 
Alt^rer, va. (i) to alter, (2) to be thirsty; 

from scholastic Lat. alterare, deriv. of 

alter ; as in Germ,, dnder?i comes from 

ajider. Why or how alterer passed from 

the sense of ' to change,' to that of ' to be 

thirsty,' is a thing that has no explanation, 

— Der. a//eration, -able, 
Alteme, adj. alternate ; from L. alternus. 

— Der. alterner, -ation, -atif, -ative, -ative- 

+ Altesse, sf highness ; introduced in the 

1 6th cent, from It. altezza (§ 25), Altesse 

is a doublet of hautesse, q. v. 
+ Altier, adj. haughty; introduced in the 

l6th cent, from It. altiere (§ 25). 
Altitude, sf height; from L. altitude. 
+ Alto, sm. alto ; from It. alto (§ 25). 
Alumine, sf alumina; from L. alumine. 

— Der. aluminium. 
ALUN, sm. alum ; from. L, alumen. For 

-umen = -M« see § 226. 
Alv6ole, sf alveole, a little channel ; from 

L. alveolus, 
AMADOUER, va. to coax, cajole; a compd, 

of madouer *, a word of Germ, origin, from 

Old Scand, mata, Dan. 7nade, to bait, allure 



(§ 20). — Der. amadou. Although there is 
no relation, as to meaning, between ama- 
douer and amadou, it is nevertheless certain 
that the latter is derived from the former. 
In It., adescare comes from esca, which 
means both bait and touchwood, as is also 
the case with Lat. esca. These relations 
show that the same metaphor which con- 
nects amadouer with amadou exists in 
several languages ; and this comparison of 
metaphors makes clear what is the origin of 
the word, though we may not be able to 
explain it. See also § 15. 

AMAIGRIR, va. to emaciate. See maigrir. 
— Der. amat^ssement. 

AMALGAME, sm. an amalgam. Origin un- 
known (§ 35). — Der. amalgamer. 

AMANDE, sf. an almond. O. Fr. amende, 
corruption of L. amygdalTim. Amyg- 
dSlum, contracted into amydlum, ac- 
cording to the rule of the Lat. accent 
(§ 51), first reduced the Lat. gd into d, 
as in Magdalena, Madeleine (§ 131). 
Amyd'lum afterwards underwent the in- 
sertion of n, and became amyndlum, 
just as, in Class. Lat., lanterna was used 
for laterna, thensaurus for thesaurus, 
rendere for reddere (in the Salic Law), 
Inculisma at early times for Iculisma. 
This may be seen in the App. ad Probum, 
•Amygdala non amiddola,' and in the Cap, 
de Villis, ' Volumus quod habeat pomarios 
avellanarios amandalarios.' Amynd'- 
lum or amindlTim produced the O. Fr. 
amende, by in = en, as in infantem, enfant; 
in en (§ 72). Amende finally became 
a/nande in Fr. by en = an, as we see in 
lingua, langue, singularis, sanglier, etc., 
which words were written in O. Fr. with 
more etymological propriety lengue, sen- 
glier, etc. 

The reader will have noticed that the 
laws of phonetics have enabled us to ex- 
plain every letter of this word, except the 
Lat. 1, which disappears: it is in the 
anomalous dropping of this 1 that the 
corruption of the word amande consists 
(as we have seen in § 172, note 2). 
We have seen (§ 168) that Lat. dl is 
always assimilated in Fr. into II or I; so 
that amind'lum ought to have produced, 
not amande, but amanlle, amanle ; just as 
hrandler has become branler. Amande 
is a doublet of amygdale, q. v. — Der. 
amandiex (§ 198). 

Amant, sw. a lover; from L. amantem. 
Amant is a doublet oi aimant. 

Amaranthe, sf. amaranth ; from L. amar- 

AMARRER, va, to moor ; D^MARRER, va. 
to unmoor, cast off; compds. of prim. 
marrer*, which comes from Neth. marren 
(§ 20). — Der. amarre, amamge. 

AMASSER, va. to amass. See masse. — Der. 
amas (verbal subst., § 1 84), ramasser (Hist. 
Gram. p. 179), xamas, ramassis. 

Amateur, sm. an amateur; from L. ama- 

Amaurose, sf. (Med.) amaurosis ; from Gr. 

Amazone, sf. an amazon; from L. ama- 

Ambages, sf. pi. ambages, circumlocution, 
prevarication; from L, ambages. 

t Am.baBSade, sf. an embassy; in the 
15th cent, ambaxade, a word not found in 
Fr. before the 14th cent., and which is 
shown to be foreign by its ending -ade 
(unknown in Fr., which has -ee for -ade. 
See § 201). It comes from Sp. ambaxada, 
a word related to the low L. aiubaxiata. 
This word is .derived from ambaxiare, 
ambactiare, formed from ambactia, a 
very common term in the Salic Law, 
meaning Merov. Lat. a mission, embassy. 
Ambactia comes from am.bactus (a ser- 
vant who is sent with a message). 

For the enlargement of meaning see 
§ 13. — Der. ambassadeur, -drice (§ 228). 

AMBE, (l) adj. both, (2) sm. a pair ; from 
L. ambo. In the middle ages the phrases 
ambes mains, ambes parts, etc., were used 
for deux mains, les deux parts. The word 
survives as a gambling term; thus fai gagne 
un ambe a la loterie, i. e. 'I have drawn 
two figures,' ' a pair of chances.' 

Ambiant, adj. ambient, surrounding ; from 
L. ambientem. 

Ambigu, (i) adj. ambiguous, (2) sm. a 
medley; from L. ambiguus. — Der. am- 

Ajnbitieux, adj. ambitious; from L. am- 

Ambition, sf. ambition ; from L. ambit io- 
nem. — Der. ambitionner. 

AMBLER, va. to amble ; from L. ambtilare. 
For the contraction of signification see § 13. 
For the dropping of the u see § 52. — 
Der. amble (verbal subst., § 1 84). 

+ Ambre, sm. amber; introduced in the 
time of the Crusades, from Ar. anb'r (§ 30). 
— Der. ambrer. 

Ambroisie, sf. ambrosia; from L. am- 



Ambulant, ao?/. strolling; from L. ambu- 
lant em. — Der. amb2ehnce. 
A ME, s/. the soul ; from L. anima. Aniraa 
being accented on the first syllable loses the 
atonic i (see § 51), and is contracted into 
an'ma, whence O. Fr. anme. In Joinville 
the word takes the form amme, by assimi- 
lating nm into mm (§ 168), a regular step, 
known even in Lat. (as in immemor for 
inmemor, immigrare for inmigrare, 
immaturus for inmaturus, etc.) In the 
15th cent, amme became am£, by the re- 
duction of the 7nm into m, a process marked 
by the addition of the circumflex on the a 
in^mod. Fr. 
AME, adj. well-beloved ; from L. amatus. 
For -atus = -e see § 201. Ame is 2. 
doublet of aime. 
Am^liorer, va. to ameliorate, improve ; 
from L. ameliorare. — Der. ameliora- 
+ Amen, sm. amen ; introduced from Heb. 
into Church Lat. of the early ritual (§ 30). 
AMENAGER, va. to parcel out, dispose of. 

See menager. — Der. amenagement. 
AMENDER, va. to amend, better ; from L. 
emendare. (For the unusual change of 
e into a see Hist. Gram. p. 48.) 

Accented e becomes a in per, par; 
lemus, rame; \a.certa., lezard. 

Atonic Lat. e becomes a in fSrocem, 
farouche; emendare, amender ; perga- 
menum, parchemin. In common Lat. we 
find lucarna for lucerna; marcadus for 
mercatus in Merov. Chartularies. — Der. 
amende (verbal subst., § 184), amendement, 
AMENER, va. to bring, conduct. See mener. 

— Der. ra7nener. 
Am.enit§, ff. amenity, pleasantness ; from 

L. amoenitatem. 
AMER, adj. bitter ; from L. amarus. For 

a = e see § 54. — Der. amerem&nt. 
AMERTUME, sf. bitterness ; from L. amari- 
tudinem. Amaritiidinein first lost its 
atonic i (§ 52): then, just as amarus be- 
came amer, amar'tudinem changed its 
second a into e (§ 54). In the suffix 
-tidinem the atonic 1 disappears, according 
to the law of Lat. accent (§ 51), and it 
becomes -ud'nera, which becomes Fr. 
-time: so consiietiidinem, coutume; in- 
cudinem, enclume (§ 234). This change 
doubtless took place before the beginning 
of the Fr. language, as we find in 6th-cent. 
documents the forms constuma, costuma, 
for cons'tudinem, consuetudinem. 

Am^thyste, sf. the amethyst ; from L. 

AMEUBLEMENT, sm. furniture. See meu- 

AMEUBLIR, va. to furnish. See meuhle. 

AMEUTER, va. to break dogs to hunt in 
pack, to get them together ; a hunting- 
term which has passed into common speech 
(see § 13). Amenter is 'to set the dogs 
en meute,' to collect them. For etymology 
of ameuter, see meute. 

AMI, S7n. a friend ; from L. amicus. The 
medial c after the accented vowel dis- 
appears, carrying with it the vowel that 
follows it, as in inimicus, ennemi; focus, 
feu (§ 212). When the medial c after the 
accented vowel is followed by an a, that 
vowel remains in Ff., as in ami(c)a, amie 
(§ 212). 

AMIABLE, adj. friendly, amicable ; from L. 
am.icabilis. For the loss of the Lat. c 
see § 129 ; for -aibUis = -able see § 250. 

Amiante, sm. amianthus; from L. amian- 

Amical, adj. friendly; from L. amicalis. 
— Der. amzca/ement. 

Amict, sm. an amice ; from L. amictus. 

Amidon, sm. starch ; corruption of L. amy- 
lum (§ 172). In the 9th cent, this word 
is found in the form amydum. — Der. 
am,idonneT, -ier. 

AMINCIR, va. to make thin. See mince. — 
Der. aminchsement. 

fAmiral, sm. an admiral; introduced 
soon after the Crusades, from Ar. It 
answers to the low Lat. amiralius, which 
also is from Ar. (§ 30). — Der. amirah^, 
which is amiraute in mod. Fr. For \ = u, 
see §^89, note I, and § 157- 

AMITIE, sf. friendship ; in O. Fr. amistie, 
which is formed through amiste from 
amista (for a = e = ie, cp. gravis, griff; 
pietatem, pilie ; inimicitatem, inimitie, 
§ 54): an earlier form is amistet, which 
answers to It. amista, Sp. amistad, Cata- 
lan amistat, and comes, as do these three 
words, from L. amicitatem., a common 
Lat. form of amicitia. (Amicitas was 
formed from amicus, like mendicitas 
from mendicus, antiquitas from anti- 
quus, etc.) 

In passing from amicitatem to amitie, 
or rather to O. Fr. amiste, we find three 
philological changes: (i) the i just before the 
accented vowel, amic(i)tatem, disappears 
(for the law, see § 52); (2) in the thus 
contracted Lat. word amic'tatem, final 



-atein = -^ (see § 330), and o = s, as we 
have seen it in the soft Lat. c under 
agencer: it is not so common in the case 
of the low Lat. o (§ 129). 

Lat. hard c becomes s in Fr., or more 
usually the guttural becomes a sibilant, as 
may be seen in the following : — 

I. o = s, as cingulum, san^/tf. 

a. c = ss,as in junicem, gSmisse. 

3. c = «, as crucem, croix. 

4. c = z, as lacerta, lizard. 

Amistid finally became amitiS by sup- 
pression of the s. (See Hist. Gram. p. 81.) 

ArnTnoniaque, sf. ammonia. O. Fr. am- 
moniac, from L. ammoniacus (sal) (§ 180). 
— Der. ammoniaca}. 

Anmistie, sf. an amnesty ; from Gr. dji- 
vrjcTTia (§ 22). — Der. omn/srier, 

AMOINDRIR, va. to lessen. See moindre. — 
Der. a;wom(/nssement. 

AMOLLIR, va. to soften. See mou. — Der. 

AMONCELER, va. to heap up, amass. See 

AMONT, adv. up stream. See aval. 

AMORCE, sf. a bait, lure ; corruption of 
O. Fr. amorse, strong p. p. (see § 187) of 
amordre, which is an O. Fr. compd. of 
mordre. Amorse comes from amordre, like 
entorse from entordre (see tordre). The 
original meaning is * that which lures,' 
makes fish, etc. take the bait, bite. — Der. 

AMORTIR, va. to slacken, soothe, deaden. 
See mort. — Der. amorrissement (§ 225, 
note 4). 

AMOUR, sm. love ; from L. amorem. For 
o = ou see § 81. — Der. amourette. 

+ Amouracher (S'), vpr. to be en- 
amoured; introduced in the 1 6th cent, by 
the Italians (§ 25). Amouracher is formed 
from amourache, which from It. amorracio, 
an ill-regulated passion. 

AMOUREUX, adv. loving, amorous; from 
L. amorosus. For o = om see § 81; for 
-OB\ia = -eux, cp. spinosus, epinetix, § 229. 
This suffix was afterwards employed in the 
Fr. language to form new derivatives which 
have no corresponding Lat. words, as hetir- 
eux, honteux, etc. which come straight 
from Fr. heur, honte, etc. — Der. amoureuse- 

Amovible, adj. removable; from L. aftio- 
vibilis. For the dropping of the penult i, 
see § 51. — Der, inamovible, inamovibilite. 

Amphibie, adj. amphibious; from Gr. 

AmphibolOgie, «/". ambiguousness of lan- 
guage; from L. amphibologia. 

AMPHIGOURI, sm. nonsense, rigmarole. 
Origin unknown (§ 35). 

A TTi phithe&.tr e, sm. an amphitheatre ; from 
L. amphitheatrum. 

Amphitiyon, sm. an amphitryon, host (at 
dinner), alluding to the saying of Sosie in 
Moli^re's Amphitryon, 3. 5, Le veritable 
Amphitryon est I' Amphitryon oil Von dine. 

(§ 3.S.) 

Amphore, sf. an amphora; from L. am- 

AMPLE, adj. ample, full, copious; from L. 
amplus. — Der. amplement, -eur. 

Ampliation, sf. an official copy, duplicate ; 
from L. ampliationem. 

Amplifier, va. to amplify, enlarge on ; from 
L. amplificare. For the loss of c, see 
Hist. Gram. p. 37. Am.plification, sf. 
exaggeration ; from L. amplificatio- 

Am.plitude, sf. amplitude; from L. am- 

AMPOULE, sf (I) a little vessel, (2) the holy 
ampulla ; from L. ampulla, which signifies 
(l) a little bottle, and (2) a small tumour or 
boil. The sense of 'bottle' is still to be seen 
in the Sainte Ampoule, which held the sacred 
oil for the consecration of the kings of 
France. ^ For u = om see § 90. 

AMPOULE, adj. bombastic ; from L. am- 
pullatus. For u = om see § 90 ; for 
atus = e see § 201. The suffix -atus 
always becomes Fr. e, as in pratum, pre; 
curatum, cure (§ 200). The suffix -ata 
drops the t and becomes ee, as in annata, 
annee (§ 201). 

Amputer, z/a. to amputate; from L. ampu- 
tare. — Der. amputation. 

Am.lllette, s/. an amulet; from. L. amu- 
letum, a talisman (Pliny). 

AMURE, sf. a tack (of a ship). Origin un- 
known (§ 35). 

AMUSER, va. to amuse ; compd. of O. Fr. 
verb muser (preserved in its deriv. musard). 
Origin unknown (§ 35). — Der. amusement, 

Amygdale, sf the tonsil ; from L. amyg- 
dalus, an almond, as this gland is almond- 
shaped. A mygdale is a doublet of amande. 

AN, sm. a year ; from L. annus. For 
nn = n cp. v annus, van; pannus, pan; 
bannum *, ban. 

Ajiachordte, sm. an anchoret ; from L, 
anachoreta, from Gr. avaxoip'r}7^s, one 
who withdraws from the world. 



Anadironisme, sm. an anachronism ; from 
Gr. avaxpoviOfibs, a chronological error. 

Anagramme, sf. an anagram ; from Gr. 
dvdypafi/jia, a transposition of letters. 

Analogie, ff. analogy ; from L. analogia. 

Analogue, adj. analogous; from L. ana- 

Analyse, sf. analysis; from Gr. dvdXvais, 
the resolution of a whole into its parts, 
from dvaXvoJ. — Der. analydque (§ 247, 
note 4). 

+ Ananas, sm. a pine-apple; introduced 
by travellers from the Indies (§ 31). 

An archie, sf. anarchy ; from" Gr. dvapxia. 

Anath^me, sm, an anathema ; from Gr. 
dvddifxa, an exposure (to the public curse). 
— Der. anathemzViStr. 

Anatomie, sf. anatomy ; from L. ana- 
tomia, which from Gr. dvaTOfxfi. — Der. 
a«a/omiste, -ique. 

ANCETRE, sm. an ancestor ; from L. ante- 
cessor. Antecessor, according to the 
rule in § 52, loses its atonic e, and is con- 
tracted into ant'cessor, which is written 
ancessor in a Lat. document of the year 

Ancessor, accented on the penult, and 
consequently proncd. anc^ss'r, became in 
O. Fr. ancestre, by change of sr into str, 
a t being euphonically inserted. (See Hist. 
Gram. p. 74.) This insertion was not 
done by the Fr. language, but by the Lat., 
which transformed esserix, tonsorix, into 
estrix, tonstrix. The form Istrael for 
Israel is to be found in a biblical MS. 
of the 5th cent., and the Fr, has car- 
ried on this tendency in ^tre, O. Fr. eslre, 
from ess're; paraitre, O. Fi. paraistre, from 
pares're ; croirfe, O. Fr. croistre, from 
cres're* ; connaiire, O. Fr. connaistre, from 
cognos're ; pattre, O. Fr. paistre, from 
pas're*; naitre, O. Fr. naistre, from nas're ; 
coudre, O. Fr. cousdre, from cons're ; ladre, 
laz'rus; tistre, tex're. The common peo- 
ple, ever faithful to their instincts, con- 
tinue this euphonic transformation, and say, 
castrole for casserole, etc. Ancetre is one 
of the rare nominatives retained in the 
French language ; see Hist, Gram. p. 96. 

ANCHE, sf. a reed, pipe ; from O. H. G. 
anche, which was first the leg-bone, then a 
pipe; just like tibia, which was first the 
bone of the leg, then a pipe, then a flute 
(§ 15). Anche is a doublet of hanche, q. v. 

+ Anchois, sm. anchovy, formerly an- 
choie; introduced about the 15th cent, from 
Sp. anchoa (§ 26). 

ANCIEN, adj. ancient, old ; from L. anti- 
anus * (an adj. derived from ante, and to 
be found in Papal bulls of the nth cent.) 
For ti = ci, see agencer. The suffix -anus 
usually becomes -aih in Fr., as in humanus, 
humain, § 198. But -anus usually be- 
comes -ten, -yen, when preceded in Lat. by 
a medial consonant, which is dropped in Fr., 
as we see in de(c)anus, doyen, etc. § 198. 
— Der. ancienneie. 

ANCRE, sf. an anchor ; from L. ancora. 
The atonic o of 6ncli6ra disappears, ac- 
cording to the strict rule of the Lat. accent 
(§ 51), as we see also in such words as 
arbor, arbre, etc. 

+ Andante, sm. (Mus.) an andante, slow 
movement ; an It. word which properly 
signifies 'going,' 'walking' (§ 25). 

ANDOUILLE, sf. chitterlings, corruption of 
O. Fr. endouille, which comes from L. 
inductilis, which in low Lat. glossaries 
is given for a ' sausage,' and comes from L. 
inducere. Inductilis is properly a gut 
into which minced meat has been intro- 
duced (inductus). 

In passing from inductilis to the O. Fr. 
endouille, there have been four philological 
changes: — (l) in into en, a regular tran- 
sition, as in infantem, enfant (§ 72); (2) 
ductilis was at first regularly contracted 
into duct'lis (§ 51) ; (3) this was changed 
into ducllis by assimilation of the t'l into 
// (§ 268), and its change into cl, a change 
which occurred in Lat. (the Roman people 
changed vet'lus, vetulus ; sit'la, situla, 
into vec'lus, sicla); (4) ducllis became 
douille, by cl = il (Hist. Gram. p. 71), 
and VL — ou (§ 90). So too sicla he- 
c?Lme seille ; v e c\us, vieil; and volat'lia, 
volatile. — Der. andouillette. 

ANDOUILLER, sm. an antler. Origin un- 

^ known (§ 35). 

ANE, sm. an ass. O. Fr. asne, from L. asinus. 
For the loss of the short i see § 51 ; for 
the loss of the s, and for the circumflex 
accent, see Hist. Gram. p. 81. — Der. awesse 
(§ 222), anon (§ 231), anerie (§ 244, 
note 2). 

ANEANTIR, va. to annihilate. See neant. — 
Der. aneanlissement (§ 225, note 5). 

Anecdote, sf an anecdote, from Gr. dven- 
80TOS, that which has never yet been given 
out, kept secret. — Der. anecdoiique (§ 247, 
note 4). 
Anemone, sf. the anemone ; from L. ane- 
An^vrisme, sm. an aneurism; in the 15th 



cent, an^vrysme, from Gr. ayfvpvfffm, a 
dilatation (of the veins). 

Anfractueux, adj. crooked, tortuous ; from 
L. anfractuosus. — Der. anfractuos\t6. 

ANGE, sm. an angel ; from L. angelus. 
Angdlus became ange, according to the 
law of the Lat. accent (§ 51). Ange is 
a doublet of angelus. 

Ang61ique, (i) adj, angelic, (2) sf. the 
angelica; from L. angel icus. The plant 
called the • angelica ' received this name 
from the excellence ascribed to it by l6th- 
cent. physicians, who believed that it would 
cure the stings of insects, and serpents' 

Angine, sf. (Med.) angina (pectoris) ; from 
L. angina. 

ANGLE, sf. an angle ; from L. angulus. 
For the loss of the penult, ti, see § 51. — 
Der. anguleux, from L. angulosus (for 
-os\xa = -etix see § 229); angulaire, from 
L. angularis. 

ANGOISSE, sf. anguish, pang ; from L. an- 
gustia. For st = ss cp. testonem*, 
tesson (§ 168). 

This very uncommon reduction of st 
into s was known to the Lat. : we find 
pos-legem for post-legem in Roman 
land-surveyors, and posquam for post- 
quam in some gloss writers. 

Angustia, thus changed into angusia, 
became angoisse, by the change of Lat. u 
into oi, which is often caused by the attrac- 
tion of an i, as in fusionem, foison (§ 
96) ; but it also occurs when u is alone, 
(l) if accented, as in crticem, croix, etc. 
(§ 91); (2) or of u atonic, as in muc^re, 

"t Angora, sf. angora, a word of historic 
origin (§ 33), a kind of cat brought from 
Angora in Asia Minor (L. Ancyredes). 
The Angora cat, the Angora goat and 
rabbit, are notable for the fineness and 
length of the hair of their coat. 

ANGUILLE, sf. an eel ; from L. angixilla. 

ANICROCHE, sf. a hindrance, obstacle; in 
the 16th cent, hanicroche, something that 
catches one as on a hook. Tous ces 
gens-la, says Regnard, sont faits de croche 
et d^anicroche. Anicroche originally, then, 
meant the same as croche, a crook, quaver. 
In Rabelais, hanicroche is used for the 
sharp point of a hook, lis aiguisoient 
piques, hallebardes, hanicroches. Origin 
unknown (§ 35). 

ANIER, sm. an ass-driver. O. Fr. asnier, 
from L. asinarius, by dropping the short 

i (§ 52), and by a = ie (as'-narius = 
asnier), a change to be seen also in can is, 
chien, etc. (§ 54) ; and in all Lat. suf- 
fixes in -aris, -arius, which become -er, 
-ier, as primarius, premier (§§ 197, 198). 
The suffix -ier, perhaps the most common in 
Fr., has formed many deriv. which had no 
original in Lat., as barriere from barre, per- 
ruqiiier ^xom perruque, arbale trier from arba- 
lete, etc. This suffix usually marks (l) trades, 
boutiquier, potier, batelier, berger, archer, 
ecuyer, viguier; (2) objects of daily use, 
sablier, encrier, foyer, etc. ; (3) vegetables, 
laurier, grenadier, figuier, pommier, poirier, 
peuplier, cerisier, etc. 

Animadversion, sf. animadversion ; from 
L. animadversionem. 

Animal, sm. an animal; from L. animal. 
— Der. animaliser, animalite, animalcule' 
(§ 154, note 4). 

Animer, va. to animate ; from L. animare. 

— Der. a«2TOation, lanimer (Hist. Gram, 
p. 179). 

Anis, sm. anise, aniseed ; from L. anisum. 
— Der. aniser, anisette (§ 282). 

Ankylose, sf. (Med.) ankylosis ; from Gr. 
dyKvXojms. — Der. ankylose. 

Annales, sf. pi. annals; from L. annales. 
Der. a?tnaliste (§ 217). 

Annate, sf. annates, yearly income ; from 
L. an n at a* (found in medieval documents 
in the sense of yearly revenue). 

ANNEAU, sm. a ring ; from L. annellus 
(in Horace). For -ellus = -ea2^ see § 204. 
Anneau in O. Fr. was annel, a form which 
is retained in the deriv. annelet, anneler, 

ANNEE, sf. a year; from Merov. Lat. an- 
nata, which from L. annus. For -ata = 
-ee see § 201. Annee is a doublet of 
annate, q. v. 

Annexe, sf. an annexe; from L. annexus. 
— Der. annexex, annexion. 

Annihiler, va. to annihilate; from L. an- 

Anniversaire, adj. anniversary; from L. 

ANNONCER, va. to announce ; from L. an- 
nuntiare. — Der. annonce (verbal subst., 
§ 184). 

For -tiare = -cer, see agencer. The 
change of u into is to be found in very 
many words : the accented Lat, u becomes 
when long by position, as in columba, 
colombe (§ 97). The atonic Lat. u be- 
comes o, when short, as in ciineata, 
cognee, etc. (§ 93) ; when long by nature, 



as in frumentum, frotnent, etc. (§ 96); 
when long by position, as in urtica, ortie, 
etc. (§ 97). 

This change of the Lat. u into most 
frequently occurs (as we have just seen) 
before nasals and liquids, following a u in 
position : it is also found in the Lat. ; thus 
volpes, volsus, voltus, volnus, volt, 
exist by the side of vulpes, vulsus, vultus, 
vulnus, vult. In Old Lat. the finals -us, 
-um, -unt, and the sufBxes -ulus, -ula, are 
usually -OS, -om, -ont, -olos, -ola ; we 
also find popolus, tabola, vincola, non- 
tiare, sont, consolere, for populus, 
tabula, vincula, nuntiare, sunt, con- 
sul ere, in the oldest Roman inscriptions. 
The rostral column has on it pop lorn, 
diebos, navebos, primos, for populum, 
diebus, navibus, primus : we may also 
mention the beginning of the well-known 
inscription on the tomb of the Scipios, 
' Hone oino ploirume consentiont duonoro 
optumo fuise viro, Luciom Scipione, fi- 
lios Barbati, consol.' The Graffiti of 
Pompeii, and certain inscriptions of the 
later Empire, have also dolcissima, mon- 
do, tomolo, for dulcissima, mundo, 
tumulo ; and solcus, fornus, moltus, 
sordus, polchrum, colpam are found in 
texts of the 5th and 6th cent. Lastly, 
several Merov. diplomas have titolum, 
singoli, somus, fondamentis, polsatur, 
onde, for singuli, sumus, fundamentis, 
pulsatur, unde. 

Annoter, va. to annotate; from L. anno- 
tare. — Der. a««o/ation. 

Annuaire, sm. a year-book; from L. an- 

ANNUEL, adj. annual; from L. annualis. 
See 071. 

Annuite, s/. an annuity; from L. annui- 

Annulaire, adj. annular; from L. annu- 

Aimuler, va. to annul ; from L. annullare, 
to annihilate (used by S. Jerome). — Der. 

ANOBLIR, va. to ennoble ; -ISSEMENT, sm. 
ennoblement (§ 225, note 5). See noble. 

Auodin, {i)adj. soothing; (2) sm. an ano- 
dyne; from L. anodynos, painless (used by 
Marcellus Empiricus). 

Anomal, adj. anomalous ; from Gr. dvw/jia- 
\os — Der. anomalie. 

ANON, sm. a young ass. See ane. — Der. 

Anonyme, (1) adj. anonymous, (2) sf. an 

anonymous author ; from L. anony- 

ANSE, sf. a handle ; from L. ansa. 

Antagonisme, sm. antagonism ; from Gr. 
avTayuviafia. — Der. antagonists (§ 217). 

Antarctique, adj. antarctic; from Gr. 

Ant6c6dent, adj. antecedent; from L. 

Antechrist, sm. antichrist ; in Rabelais an- 
tichrist ; from Gr. dvTixpiOTos. 

Ant6diluvien, adj. antediluvian ; imitated 
from antediluvianus. 

Antenne, sf. an antenna; from L. antenna. 

Ant6p6nulti§ine, (l) adj. antepenulti- 
mate, (2) sf. the antepenult, that which 
precedes (ante) the penultimate. See 

Ant6rieur, adj. anterior; from L. anterior. 
— Der. anterionte. 

Anthdre, sf. an anther ; from Gr. dvOrjpos, 
from dvOos. 

Anthologie, sf. anthology ; from Gr. dvOo- 

Anthracite, sf. anthracite, stone coal ; de- 
rived from L. anthracem. Anthracites 
is used by Pliny for a precious stone. 

Anthrax, sm. (Med.) anthrax ; from L. 

Anthropologie, sf. anthropology; from 
Gr. dvOpoorros, and \6yos. 

Anthropophage, adj. anthropophagous; 
from Gr. dvOpojiros and (pajeiv. 

Antichambre, sf. an antechamber; from 
L. ante, and Fr. chambre, a learned and 
irregular compd. 

Anticiper, va. to anticipate; from L. an- 

Antidate, sf an antedate; from L. ante, 
and Fr. date, a false date earlier than the 
right one. — Der. antidatex. 

Antidote, sm. an antidote; from L. anti- 

ANTIENNE, sf. an anthem ; from L. anti- 
ph.ona (chant of alternate voices). Anti- 
(ph)6na lost its medial ph (/), a loss 
very uncommon in Fr. and only met with 
in three other words, viz. scro(f)ellae*, 
ecrouelles; Stephanus, Etienne ; bi(f)a- 
cem*, biais. Antienne is a doublet of 
antiphone, q. v. 

For o = e (a very rare change), cp. non- 
illud, nennil. 
Antilope, sf. the antelope. Origin un- 
known (§ 35). 
Antimoine, sm. antimony. Origin un- 
known (§ 35). 



Antinomie, sf. antinomy ; from Gr. dyri- 

Antipathie, sf. antipathy ; from Gr. &vti- 

Antiphonaire, sf. an anthem-book ; from 
L. antiphonarium from antiphona, 
antiphone, which is a doublet of antienne, 

Antiphrase, sf. an antiphrase; from Gr. 
ovr'nppaais. See phrase. 

Antipode, sm. antipodes; from L. anti- 

Antiquaille, sf. an old curiosity; intro- 
duced in the 1 6th cent, from It. anticaglia 

(§ ^5). 
Antique, adj. ancient, antique; from L. 
antiquus. — Der. an/Zyr/aire, antiqmXe. An- 
tique is a doublet of O. Fr. anti, antif. 
An-tithdse, sf. antithesis; from Gr. avri- 

deais. See these. 
Antonomase, sf. (Rhet.) antonomasia; 

from Gr. avTojuo/Maia. 
Afltre, sm. a cave, den; from L. antrum. 
Anus, sm. (Med.) the anus; from L. anus. 
Anxi6t6, sf. anxiety; from L. anxieta- 

Anxieux, adj. anxious ; from L. anxiosus. 
Aorte, sf. (Med.) the aorta ; from Gk. doprr] 

AOUT, sm. august. O. Fr. aoust, Pro v. aost, 
It. agosto; from L. augustus. ' For the 
fall of g in augustus, aout, see Hist. Gram, 
p. 82 ; for au = see § 106 (this o is 
dropped unusually to a, as in orichalcum, 
archal) ; for u = ou see § 90 ; for the sup- 
pression of the s see Hist. Gram. p. 81. 
AoUt is a doublet of atigiiste, q. v. 
APAISER, va. to appease ; der. from paix 
through the O. Fr. form pais. See paix. — 
Der. apaisement. 
APANAGE, sm. an apanage, now restricted 
to a domain given to princes of the blood 
royal for their sustenance : in feudal law it 
meant any pension or alimentation. Apa- 
nage is derived from the O. Fr. verb apaner, 
to nourish ; apanage being derived from 
apaner, like badinage from badiner, patenlin- 
age from pateliner, savonnage from savon- 
ner, etc. (§ 248). 

Apaner is the feudal Lat. apanare, 
adpanare, from panis. 
+ Aparte, adv. aside; two unaltered Lat. 

words (a, parte). 
Apathie, sf. apathy ; from Gr. andSfia. — 

Der. apath\(\\it. 
APERCEVOIR, va. to perceive. See perce- 
voir. — Der. apergvi, aperception. 

Ap6rltif, adj. aperient ; from L. aperitivus, 

from aperire. 
Apetisser, va. to make little. See petit. 

— Der. lapelisser. 
Aphorisme, sm. an aphorism; from Gr. 

Aphthe, sm. (Med.) thrush, mouth-ulcer ; 

from L. aphtha. 
Api, sm. rosiness (of apples) ; from L. ap- 

piana. Pliny uses the phrase * appiana 

mala' for ' rosy-cheeked apples.' 
APITOYER, va. to touch with pity ; compd. 

of a (Hist. Gram. p. 177) and a primitive 

pitoyer (which survives in pitoyable, impitoy- 

able). Pitoyer is derived from pitie, q. v. 
APLANIR, va. to make level. See plane. 

— Der. a/)/amssement (§ 255, note 5). 
APLATIR, va. to flatten. See plat.— Der. 

appl a/i^sement (§ 255, note 5). 
APLOMB, sm. (Archit.) perpendicularity (as 

of a wall), thence stability, self-possession ; 

derived from a and plomb, because one 

plumbs a wall with a leaden plummet. 
Apocalypse, sf. the apocalypse ; from Gr. 

dnoKoXvipis. — Der. apocalyptique. 
Apocope, sf. (Gram.) apocope; from Gr. 

Apocryphe, adj. apocryphal; from Gr. 

Apog6e, sm. (Astron.) apogee, greatest dis- 

ance from earth ; from Gk. dnoyaiov. 
Apolog6tique, adj. apologetic; from Gr. 

Apologie, sf. apology ; from Gr. dvoXoyia. 

— Der. apologiste (§ 217). 
Apologue, sm. an apologue, fable; from 

Gr. dnoKoyos. 
Apophthegme, sm. an apophthegm ; from 

Gr. dn6<pO€yfw.. 
Apoplexie, sf. apoplexy; from Gr. drro- 

Apostasie, sf apostasy ; from Gr. dnoaTa- 
aia. — Der. apostat, from Gr. dTroffrdTTjs. 

APOSTER, va. to place, post (for a bad pur- 
pose) ; compd. of poster, q. v. 

Apostille, sf a postil, postscript; compd. of 
a and pastille, which is simply a transcript of 
the schol. Lat. post ill a (meaning explana- 
tion, subjoined annotation). The full phrase 
is post ilia [verba auctoris]. Several 
medieval treatises have this word in their 
titles ; as ' Postillae in Psalterium,' 
'Postillae Morales,' etc. — Der. apostiller. 

Apostolat, sm. the apostolate ; from L. 
apostolatus (Tertullian). 

Apostolique, adj. apostolical ; from L. 



Apostrophe, (i) (Rhet.) an apostrophe, 
rebuke, quick interruption ; from Gk. avo- 
arpocpij (used of an orator who turns aside 
to address any one) : (2) (Gram.) the or- 
thographic sign called an apostrophe ; from 
L. apostrophus. 

Apostume, sm. an abscess ; corruption 
(§ 172) of aposteme, which is from Gr. 

Apoth.6ose, sf. apotheosis, deification ; from 
Gr. airoOiOJOLS. 

Apothicaire, sm. an apothecary ; from 
L, apothecarius, one who keeps an 
apotheca, or shop. Apothicaire is a 
doublet of boutiquier, q. v. 

APOTRE, sm. an apostle. O. Fr. apostre, 
still earlier apostle ; from L. apostolus. 
Apostolus, contracted into apost'lus 
after the law of Lat. accent (see § 51), pro- 
duced the O. Fr. apostle, which became 
apostre by changing I into r, as in ulmus, 
orme, (§ 157), and, at the beginning of a 
word, in the single example of lusciniola, 
rossigfiol, which is written .ruse inio la in 
a 7th-cent. text (§ 157). 

This change of / into r was not un- 
known to the Romans, who said either 
palilia or parilia, caeluleus or caeru- 
leus. ^ 

APPARAITRE, va. to become visible, ap- 
pear, look, seem ; from popular L. appa- 
rescere. Appar6sc(e)re being accented 
on the antepenult, became regularly (§51) 
appares're ; this gave the O. Fr. appar- 
oistre, (i) by ST — str (see under ancetre, 
and Hist. Gram. p. 74), (2) by e = oi and 
oi = ai (§ 63). For the loss of the s {appar- 
aistre, apparaitre), see Hist. Gram. p. 81. 

Apparat, sm. pomp, state ; from L. appa- 

APPAREIL, sm. preparation ; verbal subst. 
from appareiller (§ 184). 

APPAREILLER, va. to pair, match, to put 
together. For the etymology see pareil; 
for ad = ap see Hist. Gram. p. 177 and 
§ 168. — Der. appareil. 

APPAREMMENT, cc?i/. apparently; formed 
from the adj. apparent. On apparemment 
for apparentment see § 168. 

Apparent, adj. apparent; from L. appa- 

APPARENTER, va. to ally by marriage. See 

APPARIER, va. to match, pair. See paire. 

Appariteur, sm. an apparitor ; from L. 
apparitorem (a servant, or inferior officer, 
attached to the Roman magistrates). 

Apparition, sf. an apparition ; from L. 

APPAROIR, vn. to be apparent ; from L. 
apparere. For e = oz see § 62. 

APPARTEMENT, sm. an apartment; from 
low L. appartiiuentuni. 

APPARTENIR, vn. to appertain, belong; 
from L. adpertinere, appertinere, 
compd. of pertinere (to belong, in Ter- 
tullian). For e = a see amender and Hist. 
Gram. p. 48; for i=^e see Hist. Gram, 
p. 49 ; for accented e^i see Hist. Gram, 
p. 50. 

APPAS, sm. pi. attractions, charms, anything 
that allures : a pi. word simply because 
it is in fact the pi. of appat. Appdt, O. Fr, 
appast, was then in pi. appasts, of which 
appas is a corruption. For the etymology 
see appat, which is its doublet. 

APPAT, sm. a bait, allurement ; O. Fr. appast, 
medieval Lat. appastum, adpastum 
(food to allure game or fish), compd. of 
class. Lat. pastum. — Der. appdter. Ap- 
pdt is a doublet of appas, q. v. 

APPAUVRIR, va. to impoverish ; -ISSE- 
MENT, sm. impoverishment. See pauvre. 

APPEAU, sm. a bird-call, decoy-bird, formerly 
appel (as beau has come from bel, § 1 5 7), 
an instrument which, by imitating a bird's 
note, draws it into a snare. Appeau is 
then only a secondary form of appel, q. v. 

APPEL, sm. a call, appeal ; verbal subst. of 

APPELER, va. to call ; from L. appellare. 
— Der. appel. 

Appellation, sf. an appellation, naming, 
appeal; from L. appellationem. 

Appendice, sm. an appendix ; from L. 

APPENDRE, va. to hang up; from L. ap- 
pendere. For the dropping of the penult. 
Lat. e. see § 51. 

APPENTIS, sm. a shed, pent-house ; from L. 
appendicium, deriv. of appendere. 

APPESANTIR, va. to make heavy, weigh 
down . See pesant. 

App6tit, sm. appetite; from L. appetitus. 
— Der. appetissznt. 

Applaudir, va. to applaud ; from L. ap- 
plaudere. — Der. applaud\%s&mQi\t (§ 225, 
note 5). 

Appliquer, va. to apply; from L. appli- 
care. — Der. appliczhle, applicztxon. 

APPOINT, sm. odd money, balance due on 
account. See point. 

APPOINTER, va. to refer a cause ; -MENT, 
sm. a salary. See point. 



APPORTER, va. to bring ; from L. appor- 
, tare. — Der. apport (verbal subst., § 184), 

rapport, rapporter, rapporteur. 
APPOSER, va. to set, affix ; from L. appau- 
sare, compd. of pausare, whence poser. 
For au = o see § 107. 
Appr6cier, va. to appreciate, ascertain 
(weight) ; from L. appretiare (to estimate 
worth, in TertuUian). — Der. a/»/>re«ation, 
Appr6hender, va. to apprehend ; from L. 
apprehendere. Apprehender is a doublet 
of apprendre. — Der. apprehension, from L. 

APPRENDRE, va. {i') to learn, (2) to teach; 
from L. apprendSre, a form which co- 
existed in Lat. with apprekendere. (Ap- 
prendere is found in Silius Italicus.) For 
the loss of the penult, e, see § 51. — Der. 
dhapprendre, apprenti (which was in O. Fr. 
apprentif, from low L. apprendivus, a 
medieval deriv. of apprendere. Apprendre 
is a doublet of apprehender, q. v. 

APPRENTI, sm. an apprentice. See appren- 
dre. — Der. apprentisszge. 

APPRETER, va. to make ready. See pret. 
— Der. appret (verbal subst.). 

APPRIVOISER, va. to tame; from L. ap- 
privitiaie *. Apprivitiare is from 
privus. For -tiaxe = -ser see agencer; 
for i = oi see § 68. 

Approbation, sf. approbation ; from L. 

APPROCHER, va. to approach; from L. 
appropiare (in Sulpicius Severus and St. 
Jerome). For •pi = ch by consonification 
of the i into 7, and consequent disappearance 
of the first consonant p, see Hist. Gram, 
p. 65. — Der. approche (verbal subst.), rap- 
procher, rapprochement. 

APPROFONDIR, va. to deepen, to fathom. 
See profond. 

Approprier, va. to appropriate ; from L. 
appropriare. — Der. appropriztion. 

APPROUVER, va. to approve ; from L. ap- 
probare. For o = ow see § 81 ; for b = i/ 
see § 113. — Der, desapprouver. 

APPROVISIONNER, va. to provision ; 
-EMENT, sm. storing, stock, supply. See 

Approximatif, adj. approximate; from 
schol. L. approximativus. 

Approximation, sf, an approximation; 
from schol. L. approximationem. 

APPUI, sm. a support, stay; verbal subst. of 
appuyer (§ 184). 

APPUYER, va. to support, prop up; from 

late Lat. appodiare*, found in William 
of Nangis, 'Appodiantes gladios lateri 
eius': and in the Philipp. of William the 
Breton, we have, ' Fossis iam plenis parmas 
ad moenia miles appodiat.' Pui is from 
podium (a balcony, in Pliny ; a base, 
pedestal, in other writers). S'appuyer is, 
therefore, to support oneself by the help 
of something, of a pui, a prop. That 
podium produced pui, as hodie has 
hui (in aujourd'hui), as m odium, itiuid, as 
in odio, ennui, is perfectly certain. For the 
attraction of the Lat. i see Hist. Gram. 
PP' 53» 77 ; for the loss of the d see Hist. 
Gram. p. 81. 

Lastly, low Lat. appodiare, from po- 

divma, and It. appogiare from poggio, 

both in the sense of appuyer, confirm this 

^ etymology. 

APRE, adj. rough, harsh ; formerly aspre, 

from L. asper. — Der. apremenl. 
APRES,^re/). after. See /res. 
APRETE, sf. roughness, harshness. O. Fr. 
asprete, from L. asperitatem. Asper(i)- 
tatem, contracted into asper'tatem. (§52), 
at first produced asperte (for atem = e, 
see § 230), and asperte became asprete, by 
the displacement and transposition of the 
r, with a view to an easier pronunciation. 
This metathesis (discussed in Hist. Gram, 
p. 77), frequent in Fr., also takes place in 
Gr., as in KapSia and Kpabia ; and in Lat., as 
in crevi,pret. of cerno, sprevi of sperno, 
etc. In Fr. this metathesis of the r is seen 
in vervecem, brebis; it has also taken 
place within the Fr. language in com- 
paratively modern days : in the 1 7th cent, 
the word brelan was proncd. either berlan 
or brelan ; peasants say berbis, bertaudre, 
berteche, for brebis, bretauder, breteche, etc. 
Aprete is a doublet of asperite, q. v. 
A-PROPOS, adv. apropos. See propos. 
Apte, adj. apt ; from L. aptus. — Der. apt- 
itude, which is a doublet of attitude, q. v. 
APURER, va. to audit (accounts) ; -MENT, 

sm. an audit. See pur. 
t Aquarelle, sf. water-colour; from It. 

acquarella (§ 25). 
+ Aquarium, an aquarium; from. L. 
aquarium. Aquarium is a doublet of 
evier, q. v. 
Aquatique, adj. aquatic; from L. aqua- 

Aqueduc, sm. an aqueduct ; from L. aquae- 

Aquilin, adj, aquiline; from L. aquili- 



Aquilon, sm. the north wind ; from L. 
aquilonem. Aquilon is a doublet of 

t Arabesque, sm. ac?/. arabesque ; from 
arabe, through the It. arahesco (§ 25). 

Arable, adj. arable; from L. arabilis. 

ARAGNE, sf. a spider ; O. Fr. araigne, from 
L. aranea. For the change of the suffix 
-anea into -agne, -aigne, cp. castanea*, 
chataigne ; montanea*, montague ; Cam- 
pania*, campagne. -aneus usually be- 
came -ain, as subitaneus, soudain. In 
O. Fr. aranea was called araigne, and 
its web araignee, from araneata (the 
work of the aranea). For the loss of 
Lat. t see § 201. In the 16th cent, the 
etymol. meaning was lost, and the insect 
was called either araigne or araignee. In 
the 1 7th cent, araignee drove out the other 
form, and we find araigne no later than 
La Fontaine. The word is now banished to 
patois. The loss of it is certainly to be 
regretted. It survives only in the compd. 

ARAIGNEE, s/. a spider. See aragne. 

Aratoire, adj. belonging to tillage ; from L. 

ARBALETE, sf. an arbalet, cross-bow. O. Fr. 
arhaleste, from L, arcubalista (in Ve- 
getius). Arcubalista, contracted into 
arc'balista in low Lat., became arbalete, 
(1) by reduction of re into r, as in quadri- 
furcum*, carrefour ; (2) by the loss of 
the s of O. Fr. arhaleste ; see Hist. Gram, 
p. 81. — Der. arbaletritr. 

1. ARBITRE, sm. an umpire, arbiter; from 
L. arbiter. — Der. arbiirage, arbitniie, 

2. Arbitre, sm. arbitrement, free-will ; from 
L. arbitrium. — Der. arbitrniie. 

Arborer, va. to set up (a standard), lit. to 
raise upright like a tree (arbre) ; from low 
L. arborare, from arbor. The It. word 
alberare is similarly formed from albero (a 
tree). See § 15. 

ARBOUSE, sf. the arbutus berry ; from L. ar- 
buteus, deriv. of arbutus. Arbuteus, 
regularly changed into arbutius (see § 58), 
gives arbouse, by u = om (see § 90), and 
ti^s (sfee agencer, and § 264). — Der. ar- 

ARBRE, sf a tree ; from L. arborem. For 
the loss of the o, see § 51. 

ARBRISSEAU, sm. a shrub, small tree ; from 
L. arborieeUus, dim. of arbor. For 
the loss of o see § 52; for c = ss see 
amide; for -ellus = -eaM see § 282. 

Arbuste, sm. a bush; from L. arbus- 

ARC, sm. a bow, arc, arch ; from L. arcus. 
Arc n z doublet of arche. — Der. archer. 

t Arcade, sf an arcade; from the It. 
(§ 25). 

Arc-boutant, sm. (Archit.) an arched but- 
tress, flying buttress. See bouter. 

ARCEAU, sm. a vault, arch; O. Fr. arcel (lit. 
a little arc). See arc. 

ARC-EN-CIEL, sm. a rainbow ; from arc, en, 
and del. See Hist. Gram. p. 176. 

Archaisme, sm. an archaism ; from Gr. 
apx°'^^i^^^- — D^r- archdi(\we. 

ARCHAL, sm. brass wire; from L. orichal- 
cum. For o = a see aout; for loss of i 
see § 52. 

ARCHANGE, sm. an archangel; from L. 
archangelus (St. Jerome). Arcbangelus 
is Gr. apxayye^os, from dpx^i- and dy- 

ARCHE, (i) sf. an ark; from L. area. (2) 
sf. an arch ; from L. archia *, deriv. of 
arcus, a bow. — Der. archev, which is a 
doublet of arquer. 

Arch^ologie, sf. archaeology ; from Gr. 
apxaiokoyia, from dpxaios and \6yos. — 
Der. arc/te'o/ogue. 

ARCHET, sm. a bow, fiddlestick; dim. of arc, 
cp. cochet from coq, § 281. Arche t was ori- 
ginally a wand bent in form of a bow. 

ARCHEVEQUE, sm. an archbishop ; from 
eccles. Lat. archiepiseopus, from Gr. 
dpxi- and kmaKoitos. Episc(6)pus, fol- 
lowing the law of Lat. accent (see § 51), 
dropped the short vowel 6, then, for 
euphony, not being able to bear the three 
consonants scp together, it dropped the p ; 
the word, then reduced to episc, became 
evesque, (i) by p = i', see § iii; (2) by 
i = e, see § 72 ; (3) hy c^q, see § 124, and 
Hist. Gram. p. 63 : then evesque became 
eveque, by the suppression of the s; see 
Hist. Gram. p. 81. — Der. archeveche. 

ARCHIDIACRE, sm. an archdeacon; from 
Gr. dpxi- and diacre. 

Archiduc, sm. an archduke ; from Gr. dpx*- 
and due. 

t Archipel, sm. an archipelago; from It. 
arcipelago. In the 1 7th cent, the It. form 
was still retained by some, who wrote archi- 
pelague (§25). 

ARCHITECTE, sm. an architect; from L. 
architectus. — Der. architectare, -ural. 

Architectonique, adj. related to archi- 
tecture, architectonic; from Gr. apxircK- 




Architrave, sf. (Archlt.) an architrave; 

from Gr. <Jpx*~ *"^ L. trabem. 
Archives, archives; from L. archi- 

vum (Tenullian). — Der. arc/»"t/iste. 
tArchivolte, sf. (Archit.) archivault, 

introd. in 1 6th cent, from It. arcivoUo 

(§ 25). 
AR(^ON, sm. saddlebow (like It. arcione) ; 

from Low Lat. axcionem, dim. of arcus. 

The saddlebow is a piece of arched 

wood. — Der. ddsarponner (Hist. Gram. 

p. 178). 
Arctique, adj. arctic; from Gr. &pktik6s, 

which from apKTos, the Bear, the constella- 
tion near the North Pole. 
Ardent, adj. burning, ardent ; from L. 

ardentem. — Der. ardemment. 
Ardeur, sf. heat, ardour ; from L. ar- 

ARDILLON, sm. the tongue of a buckle. 

Origin unknown (§ 35). 
ARDOISE, sf. slate. Origin unknown (§ 35). 
Ardu, adj. steep ; from L, arduus. 
Are, sw. an are (in Mensuration) = 1,196,049 

sq. yards ; from L. area. Are is a doublet 

of aire, q. v. 
Ar^ne, sf. sand ; from L. arena. 
ARETE, sf. fish-bone ; from L. arista (used 

for a fish-bone in Ausonius). For i = e 

see § 72 ; for the loss of s see Hist. Gram. 

p. 81. 
ARGENT, sm. silver; from L. argentum. — 

Der. argenttx (formed from argent, after the 

pattern of are = cr, § 263), -erie (§§ 208, 

244), -ure (§ 236), -ier (§ i98),-in(§ 220), 

A^inrgent&x (Hist. Gram. p. 178). 
Argile, «/. clay; from L. argilla. — Der. 

Argot, sm. slang. Origin unknown (§ 35). 
i" Argousin, sm. a convict-warder ; in the 

1 6th cent, algosans, corrupted from Sp. 

alguazil (§ 26). 
Arguer, va. to accuse, reprove; from L. 

Argument, sm. an argument ; from L. 

argumentum. — Der. argumentei, -ation. 
Argutie, sf. a quibble; from L. argutia. 
Aride, adj. arid, dry; from L. aridus. — 

Der. aridite. 
+ Ariette, s/a little air, tune; dim. of It. 

aria, introd. by LuUi (§ 25). 
Aristocratie, sf. an aristocracy ; ftom Gr. 

dpiaTOKparda. ^ f 

Arithm6tique, sf. arithmetic f" from L. 

+ Arlequin, sm. a harlequin; introduced 

in i6th cent, from Jt. arlechino (§ 25). 

Armateur, sm. a shipowner, privateer cap- 
tain, privateer ; from L. armator. 

ARME, sf arm, weapon ; from L. arma. — 
Der. armtx (§ 263), -^e (§ 201) (part, 
subst., § 184), -enient (§ 225), -ure (§ 236) 
(of which the doublet is armature), -orier 
(§ 198), -orial (§ 191). 

Armet, sm. a helmet, headpiece. Origin 
unknown (§ 35). 

Armistice, sm. an armistice; from L. ar- 
mistitium *. 

ARMOIRE, sf. clothes-press, chest of drawers. 
O. Fr. armaire, from L. ariuariuxa. For 
oi and ai see § 63 ; in this case the process 
is reversed. 

ARMOIRIES, sf. pi. a coat of arms, arms ; 
O. Fr. armoyeries, der. from the old verb 
armoyer, to emblazon, which from arme, 
like larmoyer from larme. 

ARMOISE, sf (Bot.) mugwort ; from L. 
artemisia. For the loss of the atonic e 
see § 52 ; for the accented i = oi see § 68. 

ARMORIAL, adj. armorial. See arme. 

Arm.ure, sf. armour. See arme. — Der. ar- 

Arome, sm. aroma ; from L. aroma. — Der. 
aromatique, aromatiser. 

ARONDE, sf. a swallow; from L. hirundo. 
This word is used in the 1 7th cent, by La 
Fontaine ; in the iSth by Voltaire. For 
loss of the Lat. initial h see §134; for 
atonic i = a see Hist. Gram. p. 48; for u = o 
see § 97. 

+ Arp§ge, sm. (Mus.) an arpeggio; from 
It. arpeggio, derived from arpa, a harp 

(§ 25)- 

ARPENT, sm. an acre. Prov. arpen, from 
L. arepennis. For the loss of the atonic 
e see § 52. (In class. Lat, we find 
arpennis as well as arepennis.) — Der. 
arpentex, -age, -eur. 

t Arquebuse, sf. an arquebuse; introd. 
in 16th cent, from It. archibuso (§ 25). 
— Der. arquebuslex. 

Arquer, va. to bend, curve. See arc. Ar- 
guer is a doublet of archer. 

ARRACHER, va. to pluck out, eradicate; 
from L. eradicare, which is first contr. 
into erad'care (§52); it next became 
era'care (Hist. Gram. p. 81), then arra- 
cher, (l) byo = ch (§ 126), (2) by er = arr, 
the passage of which seems to be er = o/r = 
air = arr, formed as if from adr (§ 168). — 
Der. arrachement, -pied. 

ARRANGER, va. to arrange. See rang. — 
Der. arrangement. 

ARRERAGES, sm. pi. arrears. See arriere. 



Arrestation, sf. arrest. See arreter. 

ARRET, sm. a judgment, decree, sentence; 
verbal subst. oi arreter (§ 184). 

ARRfiTER, va. to stop, arrest ; from L. ad- 
restare, arrestare. Arrestare first 
became, in O. Fr., arrester, then arreter, by 
loss of the s (see Hist. Gram. p. 8l); but 
the prim, form survives in arrestation, which 
properly ought to have been arretation., sf. pi. earnest-money ; from L, 

ARRIERE, adv. behind ; from L. ad-retro*, 
like derriere from de retro, The L. retro 
became in O. Fr. riere (as 'petra pro- 
duced pierre) : — 

1. By e = ie, whether it be (l) accented, 
as bSne, bien ; i^\, fiel (§ 56); or (2) 
atonic, as brgvitatem, brievete (§ 56 and 
Hist. Gram. p. 68). 

2. By tr = r, as in retro, riere. Lat. tr 
first became dr (see aider and § 117); dr 
became rr by assimilation (§ 168), as in 
latronem, larron. The rr is softened 
into r in such words as fratrem, frere; 
deretranus*, derrain, whence O. Fr. der- 
rainier, now dernier (§ 168). 

We thus see how retro became riere : 
next, the Merov. Lat. having produced the 
compds. ad-retro, de-retro, these became 
respectively arriere, derriere, by dr being 
assimilated into rr and thence to r (see 
§ 168), as in quadratum, carre; quadra- 
ginta, quarante, etc. 

The O. Fr. had the form arrere, which 
comes from arriere ; cp. acerer, from acier. 
— Der. arrerage, arriertx. 
ARRIVER, vn. to arrive ; from L. adri- 
pare*, which is arripare in a Qth-cent. 
text, and arribare in a iith-cent. chartu- 

Arriver was first a sea-term ; and, 
like its primitive adripare, it meant to 
come to shore. In a 1 2th-cent. poem, the 
Life of Gregory the Great, a fisherman 
pilots travellers to an island in the high sea: 
after many efforts, says the old poet, au 
rocher il les arriva, i. e. he made them 
touch, or reach, the shore. This original 
meaning is still visible in a collection of ad- 
ministrative rulings of the 13th cent, in the 
Livre de Justice. Here we read that boat- 
men may arriver their boats, and fasten 
them to the trees ashore. From the 14th 
cent, arriver loses its first meaning and 
takes the more general sense of reaching 
one's end, arriving. 

We have seen under aller the passing from 

the metaphor of seafaring to that of walk- 
ing : a d n a r e , in Cicero, = to come by sea, in 
Papias, to come by land (§ 13). 

For dr = rr see § 168, for p = v see 
§ III. We have seen that p first becomes 
b before becoming v, and that between Lat. 
arripare and Fr. arriver we have the inter- 
mediate Low L. arribare. This softening 
of p into V is found in Fr. in assopire*, 
assouvir, etc., puree (O. Fr. pevree) from 
pip'rata*. — Der. arrivage, -ee. 

Arrogance, sf. arrogance; from L. arro- 
gant i a. — Der. arrogant. 

Arroger, va. to arrogate; from L. arro- 

ARRONDIR, va. to make round, enlarge. 
See rond. — Der. arrowcfissement (§ 225, 
note 4). 

ARROSER, va. to sprinkle, water ; from L. 
adrorare (Marcellus Empiricus). For dr 
= rr see § 168 ; as for r = s (adro-r-are, 
arro-s-er), it is to be seen in plusieurs, beside 
(O. Fr. bericle, beryllus); chaise {chair e, 
cathedra). This phonetic change of r into 
s or z is old: Theodore Beza, in the 1 6th 
cent., tells us that the Parisians said peze, 
tneze, chaize, Th4odoze, Mazie, for pere, 
mere, chaire, Theodore, Marie. Pals- 
grave (1530) remarks that at the court 
people said not Paris, but Pazis. This 
permutation is still to be found in some 
patois, specially in that of Champagne, 
which says ecuzie for ecurie, freze for frere, 
etc. — Der. orrosage, arrosoir. 

t Arsenal, sm. an arsenal; introd. in 
16th cent, from It. arsenate (§ 25). 

Arsenic, sm. arsenic; from L. arsenicum. 
Arsenic is a doublet of O. Fr. arsoine.— 
Der. arsenicsil. arsenieux. 

Art, sm. art; from L. artem. 

Art^re, s/. an artery ; from L. arteria. — • 
Der, arteriel. 

ARTESIEN, adj. artesian; a word of hist, 
origin, these wells having been bored in 
France for the first time in Artois (§ 33). 

tArtichaut, sm. an artichoke; introd, 
in 1 6th cent, from It. articiocco (§ 25). 

Article, sm. (1) an articulation, knuckle, (2) 
article ; from L. articulum. Article is a 
doublet of orteil, q. v. 

Articuler, va. to articulate; from L. arti- 
culare/ Articuler is a doublet of ar tiller. 
— Der. articulztion (§ 232, note 4), -aire 
(§ 197, note i), d^sarticuler (Hist. Gram, 
p. l'jS),marticule. 

Artifice, sf. an artifice ; from L. artificium. 
— Der. artificial. 




Artiflciel, adj. artificial ; from L. art i fie i- 


Artificieux, adj. artful, cunning ; from L. 

ARTILLERIE, sf. artillery; a word existing 
in Fr. more than two hundred years before 

I the invention of gunpowder. It then had 

' a double sense, (i) arms or engines of war, 
generally ; and specially such arms as the 
bow, arbalest, etc., weapons of offence, to 
shoot with : — Qtticonque doresenavanl vou- 
dra etre artilleur et user du mestier rf'ar- 
tillerie en la ville et banlieue de Paris, 
c'est a savoir faiseur d'arcs, de flesches, 
d'arbalestes (from a document of a. d. 
'375)- (2) Also, as in Joinville, in the 1 3th 
cent., the arsenal in which such arms were 
deposited. The soldiers of the artillerie 
were archers and crossbowmen ; then 
gunpowder came in, and fire-arms sup- 
planted the bow, etc., but the name for the 
older weapons was retained for the new. 
Joinville also calls the maitre des arbales- 
triers the maistre de /'artillerie; and 
again he has nul ne tiroit d'arc d'arbaleste, 
ou d' autre artillerie. Artillerie is derived 
from O. Fr. ar tiller, to arm. (This word 
survived long in the navy: as late as the 
1 6th cent, the phrase un vaisseau artille 
was used for ' an armed ship.') 

Artiller is in Low Lat. artillare, answer- 
ing to L. axticulare, derived from artem 
through articulus. That artem should 
take in late Lat. the sense of the 'art of 
war ' will be better understood when we 
remember that the same metaphor has pro- 
duced en^in.{({.y.) from ingenium (§ 13). 

ARTILLEUR, sm. an artillery-man ; derived 
from artiller. See artillerie. 

ARTIMON, sm. the mizen-mast ; from L. 
artemonem, used by Isidore of Seville in 
the same sense. For e = t see § 60. 

+ Artisan, sm. an artisan, mechanic; in- 
trod. in 16th cent, from It. artigiano 
(§ 25). Originally ar/isa« meant an artist: 
Peintre poete ou aultre artisan, says 

+ Artiste, sm, an artist; introd. in l6th 
cent, from It. artista (§ 25). 

As, sm. an ' as ' (Roman coin) ; from L. as. 

Ascendant, (i) adj. ascendant ; (2) sm. 
ascendancy, influence ; from L. ascend- 
ent em, ascendnnce. 

Ascension, s/. ascension, ascent; from L. 
ascensionem. — Der. ascensionnd. 

Ascdte, smf. an ascetic ; from Gr. daKfjTr)s 
(§ 21). — Der. asceVisme, -ique. 

Asile, sm. an asylum; from L. asylum. 

Aspect, sm. aspect, sight; from L. aspec- 
tus, deriv. of aspicere. 

ASPERGE, s/. asparagus; from L. aspara- 
gus. Aspar(fi,)gus, contracted into as- 
p^r'gus (§ 51), becomes asperge by a=c 
(see § 54). 

Asperger, va. to sprinkle ; from L. asper- 

Asp6rit6, sf. asperity, roughness ; from L. 
asperitatem. Asperitd is a doublet of 
aprete, q. v. 

Aspersion, sf. an aspersion, sprinkling ; from 
L. aspersionem. 

Aspersoir, sm. a sprinkling-brush ; from L. 

Asphalte, sm. asphalte; from L. asphal- 

Asphyxie, sf. (Med.) asphyxy, suffocation ; 
from Gr, dacpv^ia. 

ASPIC, sm. lavender-spike, corruption of 
espic, from Lat. spicus (lavender). The 
sweet and volatile oil from the large laven- 
der, known commonly as huile d' aspic, is 
called by Fr, chemists huile de.spic. For 
sp = esp see Hist. Gram. p. 78. 

+ Aspic, sm. an aspic, a kind of viper. The 
word is not found in Fr. before the i6th 
cent., and comes from Prov. aspic (§ 24), 
from L. aspidem. In O. Fr. aspic existed 
under the form of aspe, which is its doublet. 

Aspirer, va. (i) to draw breath, (2) to 
aspire (to); from L. aspirare. — Der. 
as/>z>ation, -ateur. 

ASSAILLIR, va. to assail, attack ; from L. 
assSlire (used in this sense in the Salic 
Law ; also in one of Charlemagne's Capitu- 
laries, ' Qui peregrine nocuerit vel eum 
adsalierit '). For the change of salire 
into saillir see saillir. For assimilated ass 
for ads see § 168. 

ASSAINIR, va. to make wholesome. See sain. 
— Der. assamissement (§ 225, note 4). 

ASSAISONNER, va. to season, dress. See 
saison. — Der. assaisonnement. 

Assassin, sm. an assassin, a word of historic 
origin (see § 33), Assassin, which is 
assacis in Joinville. in the 13th cent., in 
late Lat. hassessin, is the name of a well- 
known sect in Palestine who flourished in 
the 13th cent., the Haschischin (drinkers 
of haschisch, an intoxicating drink, a decoc- 
tion of hemp). The Scheik Haschischin, 
known by the name of the Old Man 
of the Mountain, roused his followers' 
spirits by help of this drink, and sent them 
to stab his enemies, especially the leading 



Crusaders. Joinville uses' the word assassin 
in the sense of a member of this sect, but 
from the 15th cent, the word becomes a 
synonym for a murderer, and loses its original 
and special signification. We have at this 
day quite forgotten the origin of the word, 
an(t*the fact which introduced it to Europe. 
The same is true of several other words of 
the same kind, like the berline, which 
originally meant a Berlin carriage, or seide, 
which is the name for a fanatic blindly de- 
voted to the Prophet in Voltaire's ' Ma- 

ASSAUT, sm. an assault. O. Fr. assalt, from 
L. assaltus, compd. of saltus. For al = 
au see § 157. 

ASSEMBLER, va. to assemble, collect, gather; 
from L. adsxmiilare, assimulare. A.s- 
sirauldre becomes assim'lare (see § 52), 
and thence assembler, by (l) val^mbl 
(see Hist. Gram. p. 73); (2) i = e (§ 72). 
— Der. assemblee (partic. subst., § 201), 
-age, rassembler, rassemblement. 

ASSENER, va. to strike hard, to deal a blow ; 
from L. assignare. Assener at first meant 
to direct a blow, to hit the mark : Froissart 
speaks of an archer who drew un carreau, 
et assena un chevalier en la teste, i. e. hit 
him on the head. Little by little assener 
lost its etymol. meaning, and came to 
signify, as it does now, 'to hit hard' (§ 13). 
The forms assinare, assenare are to be 
found in chartularies of the llth cent. The 
Romans similarly used either aprugna or 
apruna. This gn = « is to be met with 
in benignus, benin, etc. (§ 131). It is 
also found, orally, in the word signet, 
proncd. sinet. For i = e see § 72. Assener 
is a doublet of assigner, q. v. 

Assentiment, sm. assent, approval ; from 
O. Fr. assentir, from L. assentire. 

ASSEOIR, va. to seat ; from L. assidere. 
For the loss of the d see § 117; for 
i = e see § 72; for e — oi see § 62. — Der. 
rasseoir, rassis. The fem. part, assise has 
become a subst. (§ 187). 

ASSERMENTER, va. to swear (a witness, etc.). 
See serment. 

Assertion, s/. an assertion; from L. asser- 

ASSERVIR, va. to reduce to servitude ; from 
L. asservire. — Der. asseri/issement. 

ASSESSEUR, sm. an assessor ; from L. as- 
sessorem. For 6 = eu see § 79. 

ASSEZ, adv. enough ; from L. adsatis* (the 
t may be traced in Prov. assatz). Assez 
at first meant ' much,' and was placed after 

the subst. It may be found on every page 
of the Chanson de Roland : ' I will give 
you or et argent assez ' (i. e. plenty of gold 
and silver), trop assez (i. e. far too much), 
plus assez, etc. Similarly with It. assai: 
presto assai (prestus adsatis) = very quick, 
tresvite, not assez vite. For change and 
comparison of meanings see §§ 13, 15. 

In this word ds is assimilated to ss, 
as in aliud-sic, aussi (§ 168). For 
a = e see § 54. Adsatis becomes assez, 
just as amatis, portatis become aimez, 

Assidu, adj. assiduous, punctual; from L. 
assiduus. — Der. assiduxXe, assiduvntxiX.. 

ASSIEGER, va. to besiege ; from L. assedi- 
are*, used in sense of laying siege in 8th- 
cent. texts. For diare=^er see Hist. 
Gram. p. 65 and §§ 137, 263; for e = /c 
see § 56. 

ASSIETI'E, (i) s/. a position, site, equilibrium, 
incidence (of taxation). This word is simply 
the strong part, of asseoir (§§ 187, 188; 
see also aftsow/^). (2) s/. a plate. The Lat. 
assecare (compd. of ad and secare. Hist. 
Gram. p. 177 and § 1 68) gave birth, through 
the supine assectum, to the fictitious verb 
assectare, whence It. assettare. 

The Fr. assiette, also spelt assiecte, answers 
to assecta*, and means properly ' the 
platter on which meat is cut up.' For § = 
ie see §§ 56, 66; as to ct = « (a change 
which maybe seen in dact'lum, datte, etc., 
§ 18), this assimilation had already taken 
place in Lat. ; thus we find mattea for 
mactea, natta for nacta, gluttio for 
gluctio. — Der. assiettee. 

Assigner, va. to assign; from L. assignare. 
— Der. assigna.tion, -at. 

Assimiler, va. to assimilate; from L. as- 
similar e. — Der. assimihtion. 

ASSISE, sf. a course (of stones). See as- 

Assister, (i) va. to assist, help, (2) va. to 
be present, attend; from L. assistere. — 
Der. assistance. 

Associer, va. to associate ; from L. asso- 
ciare. — Der. assoc/ation. 

Assolement, sm. a distribution of crops. See 

ASSOMBRIR, va. to darken. See sombre. 

ASSOMMER, va. to fell, knock down. See 
somme. — Der. assommoir. 

Assomption, sf. an assumption ; from L. 

ASSONANT, adj. (Rhet.) assonant ; from L. 
assouautem. — Der. assowance. 
D 2 



ASSORTIR, va. and «. to match, sort. See 
sorte. — Der. assortiment, d^sassortir. 

Assoupir, va. to make drowsy, lull to 
sleep; from L. assopire. Assoupir is a 

. doublet of assouvir, q. v. — Der. assoupisse- 

ASSOUPLIR, va. to make supple. See 

ASSOURDIR, va. to deafen. See sourd.— 
Der. asso«rrfi ssement. 

ASSOUVIR, va. to satiate, glut; from L. 
assopire. For 6 = om see § 8i ; for p = t/ 
see § 1 1 1 . Assouvir is a doublet of assoupir, 
q. V. — Der. assoj/vissement. 

ASSUJETTIR, va. to subject. See sujet 

Der. assujettissement. 

Assumer, va. to assume ; from L. assu- 

, mere. 

ASSURER, va. to secure, prop up; in the 
1 6th cent, asseurer, from L. assecu- 

, rare (found in a 12th -cent, document, 
* Adsec\iravit in manu domini regis 
patris sui'). For the loss of the c 
see Hist. Gram. p. 81. — Der. assurance, 

Ast6risque, sm. an asterisk; from Gr. 

Asthme, sm. the asthma ; from Gr. aaOpa. 
— Der. asthmat\(\ne. 

ASTICOTER, va. to plague, tease. See 

ASTIQUER, va. to polish leather with a 
glazing-stick, called an astic. Origin un- 
known (§ 35). Asticoter is derived from 
astiquer in the metaph. sense of ' to plague, 

• tease.' Frequentative verbs of this kind 
are not rare in Fr. as picoter for piquer, 
tremhloter for trembler, etc. 

Astragale, sm. the ankle-bone ; from L. 

Astre, sm. a star; from L. astrum. 

ASTREINDRE, va. to oblige, compel, bind ; 
from L. astringere. Astringere, regu- 
larly contr. to astrin*re (see § 51), pro- 
duced astreindre by wc — ndr (see Hist. 
Gram. p. 73). 

Astringent, adj. astringent; from L. as- 

Astrolabe, sm. an astrolabe ; from Gr. 
d(TTp6\a^ov, lit. an instrument for taking 
the position of stars. 

Astrologie, .«/. astrology ; from Gr. aarpo- 
\oyia. — Der. astrologae. 'AarpoKoyia had 
. "no bad sense in Gr., and answered exactly to 
our Astronomy, not to Astrology. 

Astronoinie, .</". astronomy ; from L. as- 
tronomic. — Der. astronome, as/rowowique. 

Astuce, sf. cunning, astuteness ; from L. 
astucia. — Der. asft/cieux (§ 229). 

ATELIER, sm. a workshop. O. Fr. astelier 
(Bernard Palissy has bastelier), from L. has- 
tellarius*, a place at which are made the 
hastellae (for hastulae, i. e. little planks, 
splints, in Isidore of S<5ville). Hastella* 
becomes in O. Fr. astelle, a splint, now 
attelle. The astelier (place for making these 
astelles) was at first simply a carpenter's 
workshop, whence it came to mean a work- 
shop generally, (For such enlargements of 
meaning see § 13). As to the philological 
changes, the chief is the loss of the h, which 
may also be seen in habere, avoir, etc. 
(§ 134). This is to be noted even in 
Class. Lat. ; er, olus, era (Old Lat. her, 
holus, hera), are very common in inscrip- 
tions, in which we also find ujus, ic, oc, 
eredes, onestus, omo, for hujus, hie, 
hoc, heredes, honestus, homo ; and this 
though the Romans aspirated the initial 
h strongly, just as is done in England or 
Germany. For the loss of the s see Hist. 
Gram. p. 81 ; for arius = «Vr see § 198. 

ATERMOYER, va. to delay payment of, put 
off the terme (q. v.) Atermoyer is derived 
from terme, Hke riidoyer from rude, nettoyer 
from net, etc. — Der. atermoiement. 

Ath6e, sm. an atheist; from Gr. d9€os. — 
Der. atheisme. 

Athlete, sm. an athlete ; from Gr. dOXtjr-qs. 
— Der. athletique. 

Atlas, sm. (i) Atlas, (2) an atlas, map-book ; 
a word of historic origin. Mercator first 
gave this name to a volume of geographical 
maps, because Atlas was thought in classical 
mythology to bear the world on his shoul- 
ders (§ 33). 

Atmosphere, sf. the atmosphere ; a word 
constructed by the learned (§22) from Gr. 
drfids and acpaipa. — Der. atmospherique. 

A.tome, sm. an atom ; from Gr. dro- 


Atonie, sf. (Med.) atony ; from Gr. drovia. 
— Der. alone. 

Atour, sm. attire, ornament ; derived from 
O. Fr. verb atourner. Atour comes from 
atourner, like tour from tourner, contour 
from contourner. For the etymology of 
atourner see tourner. 

ATRE, sm. a hearthstone, fireplace. O. Fr. 
in 8th cent, astre (in the Glosses of Reiche- 
nau, meaning 'tile-flooring'). For as = a 
see Hist. Gram. p. 81. The atre was 
rightly the tiled floor of a corner, nook, or 
fire-hearth, and the word comes, through 



astre, astrum, from O. H. G. astrih, flag- 
ging, paved flooring (§ 20). The Glosses of 
Reichenau confirm this, translating astrum. 
by pavimentum. 

Atroce, adj. atrocious; from L. atrocem. 
— Der. atroc'ii^. ik 

Atrophie, &f. atrophy; fiom Gr. dTpo(pia. 
— Der. s'atrophiev. 

ATTABLER, va. to place at table. See table. 

ATTACHER, va. to attach, fasten, tie; 
DETACHER, to detach, unfasten ; from a 
common radical lacher, as attendre and de- 
tendre are from tendre, and attirer and de- 
tirer from tirer. This radical verb has dis- 
appeared, leaving no traces in O.Fr., and its 
origin is unknown (§ 35). Attacker is a 
doublet of attaquer, q. v. — Der. attachemtnt, 
rattacher, soustacher, detachement. 

ATTAQUER. va. to attack, assail. We have 
explained (Hist. Gram. pp. 21, 22) how the 
He de France dialect grew in the middle ages 
at the expense of the Norman, Picard, and 
other dialects, and ended by supplanting 
them ; how, nevertheless, it accepted certain 
words from these dialects, words which al- 
ready existed in the He de Fr. dialect under 

^ a different form, and how thenceforth the 

I two forms were used indiff'erently, either 
with the same meaning, or with two mean- 
ings. Attaquer, really the same word as 
attacker, as may be seen by the phrase 
s'attaquer a = s' attacker a, was one of the 
latter. The history of the language also 
proves it, the two words being formerly used 
indiff'erently, attaquer being sometimes used 
in the sense of attacker, as in the following 
passage (14th cent.): Elle attaque au mantel 
line ricke escarboucle (Baudoin de Sebourc). 
Sometimes, on the other hand, attacker 
means attaquer, livrer un combat, as in the 
following extract from a letter of Calvin to 
the Regent of England : A ce que j'entends, 
Monseigneur, vous avez deux especes de mu- 
tins qui se sont eslevez centre le roy et I'estat 
du royaume : les uns sont gens fantastiques 
qui soubs couleur de VSvangile vouldroient 
mettre tout en confusion; les autres sont 
gens obstines aux superstitions de VAntechrist 
de Rome. Tous ensemble meritent bien d'es- 
tre reprimes parle glayve qui vous est commis, 
veu quails s'attaschent nonseulement au 
roy, mais a, Dieu qui Va assis au siege royal, 
et vous a commis la protection tant de sa 
per Sonne que de sa majeste. (Lettres de 
Calvin recueillies par M. Bonnet, ii. 201). 
Attaquer, then, being simply a doublet of 
attacker, I refer the student to attacker 

for its etymology. — Der. attaque, mattU' 

ATTARDER, va. to retard, delay. See 

ATTEINDRE, va. to touch, strike, reach, 

attain ; from L. attingire. For i = ei 

see § 73 ; for loss of atonic e (ng're) see 

§ 51 ; for iig'r = nr see § 131 ; for nv^ndr 

see Hist. Gram. p. 73. — Der. atteinte (partic. 

subst., § 188), see absoute. 
ATTELER, va. to yoke, put to ; DETELER, 

to unyoke. Both these words come from 

a common radical teler, whose origin is 

unknown (§ 35). — Der. atteUge. 
ATTENANT, adj. adjoining, contiguous ; 

from L. attinentem. See tenir. 
ATTENDRE, va. to await, wait for, expect ; 

from L. attendere. For the loss of the 

penult e see § 51. — Der. attente (participial 

subst., § 188), see absoute. 
ATTENDRIR, va. to soften, affect. See 

tendre. — Der. a/^ewcfrissement. 
ATTENTE, sf. expectation, hope. See at- 
Attenter, va. to attempt; from L. atten- 

tare. — Der. attentat, attenta-toire. 
Attentif, adj. attentive; from L. atten- 

Attention, sf. attention ; from L. atten- 

Att6nuer, va. to weaken, waste ; from L. 

attenuare Der. attenuation. 

ATTERRER, va. to throw down; lit. to 

throw down to the ground. The etymol. 

meaning is still to be traced in Bossuet : 

Se ralentir apres V avoir atterr^, c'est 

luifaire reprendre ses forces. 
ATTERRIR, vn. to land. See terre.—'Dtr. (§ 248), -issement (§ 225). 
Attester, va. to attest; from L. attestari. 

— Der. attestsition, 
Attieisme, sm. an atticism ; from Gr. oltti- 

ATTIEDIR, va. to cool. See tiede — Der. 

ATTIFER, va. to dress one's head. Origin 

unknown (§ 35). 
ATTIRER, va. to attract. See tirer. — Der. 

ATTISER, va. to stir (the fire); from L. 

attitiare * (deriv. from titio). For tiare 

= ser see agencer. 
+ Attitude, s/. an attitude ; introd. in i6th 

cent, from It. attitudine (§ 25). Attitude 

is a doublet of aptitude. 
ATTOUCHEMENT, sm. a touch, contact ; 

from attoucker. See toucher. 



Attraction, s/. attraction ; fromL. attrac- 

ATTRAIT, 5m. attraction, allurement, pi. 
charms ; from L. attractus, found in sense 
of allurement in Dictys of Crete, ct be- 
comes it by an incomplete assimilation 
(§ 168) : ot first became jt, which passed 
into it, wherein the French i represents the 
Lat. o. This change is not rare in Fr. ; 
thus after a, as in factus, fait', after e, as 
in confectus, con/it; after i, as strictus, 
etroit; after o, as coctus, cuit; after u, 
as fructus, /rwt'/. See Hist. Gram. p. 50. 
The spelling, faict, traict, etc., is the 
grotesque and barbarous work of I5th-cent. 
pedants. The medieval Fr. wrote it, as 
now, fait, trait, etc. Wishing to bring 
these words nearer to their Latin original 
the pedantic Latinists intercalated a c, and 
wrote faict, traict, not knowing that the it 
already represented the Lat. ct. 

ATTRAPER, va. to catch; from trappe. 
For the etymology see trappe. — Der. attrape 
(verbal subst.), rattraper. 

Attribuer, va. to attribute ; from L. at- 
tribuere. — Der. attribution, attributif. 

Attribut, S7W. an attribute; fromL. attri- 

ATTRISTER, va. to sadden. See triste. 

ATTROUPER, va. to gather, assemble. See 
troupe. — Der. attroupement. 

AU, art. to the. O. Fr. al, contr. from a le 
(see le). AUX, O. Fr. aus, earlier als, for 
d les (see les). For Z = «, in these words, see 


AUBAINE, sf. escheat, right of succession to 
the goods of an alien at his death. An 
aubain was a foreigner who had not been 
naturalised. Origin unknown (§ 35). 

AUBE, sf. the dawn of day, daybreak, formerly 
albe, from L. alba. For l = w see § 157. 
— Der., introd. in 15th cent, from 
Sp. albada (§ 26). 

AUBE, sf. an alb, vestment of white linen ; 
from L. alba. 

AUBE, sf. a paddle (of a wheel). Origin un- 
known (§ 35). 

AUBEPINE, sf. the hawthorn. O. Fr. 
albespine, from L. albaspina. For l = u 
see § 157; for Bp = ep see Hist. Gram, 
p. 74. 

AUBERGE, sf. an inn, public house. O. Fr. 
alberge, earlier still helberge; in the nth 
cent, herberge in the Chanson de Roland, 
meaning a military station — a word of 
Germanic origin, like most war-terms, and 
from O. H.G. her'berga, heriberga (§ 21). 

It is curious that the mod. Germ, deriv. 
herberg also signifies * an inn,' by the same 
extension of meaning as has modified the 
sense of the Fr. word (§ 15). 
AUBIER, sm. (Bot.) the blea ; from L. alba- 
rius% from albuB (by reason of the white- 
ness of the inner bark of the plant). For 
al = AM see § 157 ; for -arius = -/er see 

§ 198. 

AUBOUR, sm. (Bot.) the cytisus, laburnum; 
from L. albtumum. For al = ou see 
§ 157 ; for u = OM see § 97 ; for m = r cp. 
cornu, cor, § 163. 

AUCUN, adj. any, any one, some one. This 
word (in the 1 3th cent, alcun, in the 1 2th 
alquti) is a compd. of alque, as chacun of 
cheque, and quelqu'un of quelque. AUquis 
produced O. Fr. alque'. aUqul venerunt, 
in O. Fr. alque vinrent. Alque therefore 
answers to quelque, and alqun to quelqu'un. 
The history and etymology of aucun show 
that the word is properly affirmative, not 
negative : Avez-vousf entendu aucun dis- 
cours qui vous fit croire? . . . Allez au 
bord de la mer attendre les vaisseaux, et 
si vous en voyez aucuns, revenez me le 
dire. . . . Pbedre etait si succinct yw' aucuns 
Cen ont bldme. La Fontaine, Fables, 6. i. 
Aucun becomes negative when accompanied 
by ne: J' en attendais trois, aucun ne vint; 
but we must not forget that the word it- 
self is positive, meaning quelqu'un, ' some 
one.' For the change of aliqiiis into 
alque, by the fall of the Lat. i, see § 51 ; 
for al = aw see § 157. 

Audace, sf boldness; from L. audacia. — 
Der. audacieux. 

Audience, sf. an audience, hearing; from 
L. audientia. — Der. audiencitx. 

Auditeur, sm. an auditor; from L. audi- 

Auditif, adj. auditory; from L. audi Vi- 

Audition, sf. a hearing; from L. auditio- 

Auditoire, sm. (l) a court, hall, (2) audi- 
ence; from L. auditorium. 

AUGE, sf. a trough ; from L, alvSus. For 
al = QM see § 157 ; for -veus = -ge, 
through yjus, 'jus, ge, see Hist. Gram, 
p. 66 ; for the loss of v see Hist. Gram, 
p. 81. 

Augment, sm. an augment, increase ; from 
L. augmentum. 

Augmenter, va. to augment; from L. 
augmentare, — Der. augmentation. 

Augure, sm. an augury; from L. augurium. 



Atigure is a doublet of O. Fr. heur Der. 


AugUSte, adj. august, noble ; from L. au- 
gustus. Auguste is a doublet of aout, q. v. 

AUJOURD'HUI, adv. to-day. Hni is L. 
hodie. For hodie = odie see § 134; for 
odie=w see § 120; for loss of d, and 
for 6 = M, see § 77. The O. Fr. word re- 
mains in the law term, d'hui en un an. 
Aujoiird'hui, in O. Fr. written more cor- 
rectly an jour d'hui, is a pleonasm, lit. 
meaning ' on the day of to-day.' 

AUMONE, sf. alms, charity. O. Fr. aumosne ; 
in nth cent, almosne ; in 9th cent. 
almosna, elmosna, from L. eleemosyna. 
For the loss of the Lat. y, under the rule 
of the Lat. accent, see § 51 ; for the loss 
of the ee see § 52; for e\ = au see 
§ 157; for the loss of s see Hist. Gram, 
p. 8x. Der. aumomtx, -erie, -ifere. 

AUMUSSE, sf. amess, a kind of fur worn on 
Church vestments. Origin unknown (§ 35). 

AUNE, sm. (Bot.) an alder-tree ; from L. al- 
nus. For Ql = au see § 157. 

AUNE, sf. an ell. O. Fr. alne, from Low L. 
alena, which from Goth, aleina. For al = 
au see § 157. — Der. auner, aunage. 

AUPARAVANT, adv. before; from au and 
paravant. The article au was not attached to 
this word till towards the 15th cent.: O.Fr. 
said par-avant. Je ne votdus point etre 
ingrat, says Froissart, quand je consid6rai 
la honte miil me montra par-avant. 

AUPRfeS, adv. near. See pres. 

Aur6ole, sf. an aureole, glory, halo ; from 
L. aureola, sc. corona, a crown of gold. 
Aureole is a doublet of loriot, q. v. 

Auriculaire, adj. auricular; from L. aur- 
icular is. Auriculaire is a doublet of 
oreiller, q. v. 

AURONE, sf. (Bot.) southernwood; from L. 
abrotonum. Abrotonum, regularly 
contrd. into abrot'num, according to the 
law of the Lat. accent (see § 51), reduced 
tn to n, as in plat'nus, plane; retna, 
rene (Hist. Gram. p. 81). br becomes ur 
as follows : b is softened first into v ; this is 
next vocalised and becomes u, a transition 
very common in Lat. as nauta for nav'ta ; 
naufragium for nav'fragium ; aucellus 
for av'cellus, etc. (§ 113). Even in Lat. 
there are examples in which the u (as in 
Fr.) comes from b through v; thus ab- 
fero becomes aufero, by the way of 
avfero ; abfugio, avfugio, aufugio. 
Cp. also the common Lat. form gauta 
for gab'ta (gabata). This change of b 

into u is found in parol^ tole, forge, puree, 
which words have lost their etymol. form 
in mod. Fr., but in O. Fr. were paraide 
(parab'la), taule (iAWXi), faurge, (fabr'- 
cz), petiree (pevree, pip'rata). This soft- 
ening also goes on within the Fr. language : 
thus aurai, saurai, were in O. Fr. avrai, 
for averai, from habere; savrai, saver ai 
from sap ere, as has been shown in the 
Hist. Gram. p. 128. 

Aurore, sf. the dawn, break of day ; from 
L. aurora. 

Ausculter, va. (Med.) to auscultate, Hsten ; 
from L. auscultare. Ausculter is a doublet 
of ecouter, q. v. — Der. awscw/^ation. 

Auspice, sm. an auspice; from L. auspi- 

AUSSI, adv. also, likewise. O. Fr. alsi, from 
L. aliud sic (Hist. Gram. p. 158), aliud 
having regularly produced al in O. Fr. by 
dropping the d of the medial consonants ds 
(see Hist. Gram. p. 81), and then by drop- 
ping the short atonic vowels iu (§ 51). 
Then for sic = s/ see si; for al = au see 

§ 157-^ 

AUSSITOT, adv. immediately. See aussi and 

Austere, adj. austere; from L. austerus. 
— Der. austerhe. 

Austral, adj. austral, southern ; from L. 

+ Autan, sm. the south wind ; from Prov. 
autan (§ 24). This word, originally altan, 
is from L. altanus (the south wind, in 

AUTANT, adv. as much, as many ; so much, 
so many. O. Fr. altant, from L. aliud 
tantum (Hist. Gram. p. 159). For aliud 
— al = au see aussi. 

AUTEL, sm. an ahar. O. Fr. altel (in the 
nth cent, alter, in the Chanson de Roland), 
from L. altare. For al = aM see § 157; 
for a, = e see § 54; for r = / cp. pere- 
grin us, pelerin, § 154. 

Auteur, sm. an author ; from L. autorem, 
which is found as well as auctorem. 

Authentique, adj. authentic ; from L. 
authenticus. — Der. authenticite. 

Autochthone, (l) adj. autochthonic, ab- 
original, (2) sm. an aboriginal ; from Gr. 

Autocrate, sm. an autocrat; from Gr. 

+ Auto-da-f6, sm. an auto-da-fe, 'act of 
faith '; a word introduced from Port., used of 
the execution of the victims of the Inquisi- 
tion (§ 26). 



Autographe, S1^. an autograph ; from Gr. 

Automate, sm. an automaton; from Gr. 
avT6fMros. — Der. aw/owa/ique, 

Automne, sm. the autumn; from L. au- 
tumnus, a form of auctumnus. 

Autonome, adj. autonomous, independent ; 
from Gr. avT6voyiOS. — Der. autonomic. 

Autopsie, sf. an autopsy, post-mortem ex- 
amination ; from Gr. avTO\pia. 

Autoriser, va. to authorise ; from Low L. 

Autorit6, s/ authority; from L. auctori- 

AUTOUR, prep, round about. See tmr. 

AUTOUR, sm. a goshawk. Pro v. austor. 
It. astore ; Low L. ast6rius, from L. astu- 
rius *, from astur, used in 4th cent, 
by Firmicus Maternus. For ast = aust see 
autruche ; for loss of s see Hist. Gram. p. 81. 

AUTRE, adj. other ; formerly altre, from L. 
alter. Autrui answers to autre as cettui to 
ctf/ (see Hist. Gram. p. 1 15); consequently 
autrui had no article in O. Fr. : men said 
V autrui cheval or le cheval autrui (al- 
terius equus) for le cheval d'un autre. 

AUTRUCHE, sf. an ostrich; O. Fr. autruce 
and austruce from L. avistrutliio (strucio 
for struthio is to be found in medieval 
Lat.). Avis -struthio, avis-strucio, is 
contr. into av'strucio; v then becomes 
u, as in navifragium, nav'fragium, 
naufragiuiu (§ 141). For the loss of the 
s see Hist. Gram. p. 81. The Sp. avestruz, 
an ostrich, confirms this derivation from avis 
struthio (§ 15). 

AUVENT, sm. a penthouse. Origin unknown 

(§ 35). 

Auxiliare, adj. auxiliary; from L. auxili- 

AVAL, adv. down-stream ; from L. ad val- 
lem, used of a river flowing vale-wards : its 
opposite is amont (ad montem), which is 
upwards, towards the hill. The verb avaler 
(lit. to go aval) signified at first ' to descend,' 
and was but gradually restricted to its 
present sense of swallowing. (For such 
restrictions, see § 13.) Some traces of 
the original meaning remain in mod. Fr., 
such as the phrase les bateaux avalent le 
fleuve, and in the word avalanche, which is 
properly a mass of snow which slides to- 
wards the vale. Lat. dv is here reduced to 
V, as in advertere, avertir (§ 120). 

"t Avalanche, sf. an avalanche; a word 
introduced from Switzerland. For its ety- 
mology see avcd. 

AVALER, va. to swallow. See aval. 

A V ANGER, {l)va. to advance, stretch forth; 
(2) vn. to come forward. See avant. — Der. 
avance, avancemtni. 

\ Avanie, sf. molestation, annoyance. This 
word is a curious instance of the vicissi- 
tudes in meaning described in § 13. Avanie, 
which is simply the common Gr. d^avla (an 
affront), which again is from the Turkish 
avan (a vexation, trouble), signified origin- 
ally the exactions practised on Christian mer- 
chants by the Turks. Brought by travellers 
into Europe, the word soon passed out of 
its special signification of annoyance to 
Christians, to its present sense of annoyance 

AVANT, (l) prep, before, (2) adv. far, for- 
ward ; from L. abante, a form found in a 
few inscriptions of the Empire, e. g, in the 
epitaph, ' Fundi hujus dominus infans hie 
jacet similis Deo; hunc abante oculis 
parentis rapuerunt nymphaeo in gurgite.' 
Abante was certainly a common Lat. 
form, answering to ante, the Class, form. 
There is preserved a curious testimony on 
this point : the common folk said ab-ante 
for ante, and an old Roman grammarian 
finds great fault with the form, and bids his 
readers avoid it: '"Ante me fugit" 
dicimus non " ab-ante me fugit " ; nam 
praepositio praepositioni adjungitur impru- 
denter : quia ante et ab sunt duae praepo- 
sitiones.' (From the Glosses of Placidus 
in Mai, iii. 431.) The Lat. b becomes v : 
this softening is found in Lat. ; in the oldest 
monuments we see incomparavilis for 
incomparabilis, acervus for acerbus, 
devitum for debitum ; in 6th-cent. 
documents deliverationem for deliber- 
ationem. This softening also takes place 
in Fr. in habere, avoir, etc. (§ 113). — Der. 
avantage (that which advances, profits us, 
sets us avant). 

A VANTAGE, sm. an advantage. See avant. — 
Der. avantager, desavantager, avantageux, 

Avare, adj. avaricious, greedy ; from L. 
a varus. Avare is a doublet of O. Fr. aver. 
— Der. avarice. 

AVARIE, sf. a damage, injury (properly the 
damage done to a cargo in transit). 
Avarie, in late Lat. havaria, haveria, 
answers to the Dutch havery. 

AVEC, prep, with ; formerly aveuc, originally 
avoc, from a barbarous Lat. abhoc, aboc, 
which is a transformation of the expression 
apud hoc, lit. 'with this,' apud having 



the signification of cum in several Merov. 
and Carol, documents, as in one of the 
Formulae of Marculphus, ' Apud xii 
Francos debeat coniuvare.' Apud soon 
lost its d (as is seen from the form apue, 
found for apud in an inscription of 
the Empire), and then became ap, which 
passed into ab by the regular transition of 
p into b (see § ili). Ab for apud is 
found in a Chartulary of Louis the Pious, 
*ab eum,' ' Ab his celluhs,' and in the 
oldest monument of the language, the 
Strasburg oaths (a.d. 814), we have ' Ab 
Ludher nul plaid numquam prindrai'=: 
avec Lothaire je ne ferai aucun accord. 
This ab came to have the same sense as 
Fr. avec. The Lat. hoc lost its h (see 
§ 134) and the compd. ab-oc changing 
b into V (§ 113) became avoc, a form 
found in iith-cent. documents. The o of 
avoc then became en (§ 79), aveuc, which 
towards the 14th cent, became avec. 

AVELINE, sf. a filbert ; from L. avellina. 

AVENIR, vn. to occur ; from L. advenire. 
For dv = i/ see § 120. Avenir (as a verb) 
is now archaic : it was still in use in the 
17th cent,, Ce que les prophetes ont dit de- 
voir avenir dans la suiie des temps (Pas- 
cal), Avenir is a doublet of advenir, q, v. 
— Der, avenir (sm. arrival, the infin, taken 
as a subst,, § 185), avenue (partic. subst,, 
§ 187), aventme. 

AVENT, sm. Advent, the coming of Jesus 
Christ ; from L. adventus. 

AVENTURE, sf. an adventure. See avenir.— 
Der. aventurer, -eux, -ier, -iere. 

AVENUE, sf. an avenue, approach. See 

AVERER, va. to aver, prove the truth of; 
from L. adverare*. For dv = v see § 120. 

AVERSE, sf. a shower. See verser. Averse 
is a doublet of adverse, q. v. 

Aversion, sf an aversion, dislike ; from L. 

AVERTIR, va. to inform, warn ; from L. 
advertere. — Der. avertisstment. 

AVEU, sm. an avowal. See avouer. 

AVEUGLE, adj. blind ; from L. abdeillus*, 
compd. of ab (privative) and oculus, like 
amens, out of one's mind, which is compd. 
of a and mens. This word is old in 
common Lat. ; it is found in Petronius 
(ist cent.) in the phrase ' aboeulo librum 
legere ' (to read with eyes shut). Abo- 
culus is regularly contrd. into aboclus 
(§ 51). This derivation is confirmed (§15) 
by It, avocolo, now vocolo : oclus is to be 

found for oculus in the Appendix ad 
Probum. For b=v see § ill ; for o = eu 
see § 88; for c\ = gl see § 129. — Der. 
aveughr, aveuglement. 

Avide, adj. greedy ; from L. avidus. 

AVILIR, va. to vilify. See vil. — Der. avil- 

AVINER, va. to season with wine. See vin. 

AVIRON, sm. any instrument which serves to 
turn an object with, an oar. See virer. 

AVIS, sm. an opinion, mind, vote, advice; from 
ct and vis, which, from L. visum, in O. Fr. 
meant opinion, way of seeing a thing. 
The medieval expression was il m'est a vis 
(my opinion is that . . .). A and vis be- 
came presently united in avis. — Der. aviser, 
raviser, mzlaviser. 

AVITAILLER, va. to provision, victual. 
Vitaille in O.Fr. signified 'provisions,' from 
L. victualia. For ct^^ see Hist. Gram, 
p. 50 ; for the loss of u see coudre ; and, 
besides, we find vitalia for victualia in 
Carlov. Chartularies. — Der. ravitailler. 

AVIVER, va. to polish, burnish. See vif. 
— Der. raviver. 

Avocat, sm. an advocate, pleader, barrister ; 
from L. advocatusj Avocat is a doublet 
of avoue, q. v. — Der. ai/ocasserie. 

AVOINE, sf. oats ; from L. avena. For e 
= oi see § 62. 

AVOIR, va. to have ; from L. habere. For 
the loss of h see § 134; for b = 2/ see § 113 ; 
for e = oi see § 62. 

AVOISINER, va. to border on. See voi- 

AVORTER, va. to miscarry ; from L, abor- 
tare (Varro), For h—v see § 113, — Der, 
avortement, avorton. 

AVOUE, sm. an attorney ; from L, advoca- 
tus. For the loss of c see § 129; for 
dv — v see aval and § 120; for o = ow (the 
6 being treated as if it were 6) see § 81; 
for -atus = -e see § 200. Avoue is a 
doublet of avocat, q. v. 

AVOUER, va. to avow, confess ; compd. of 
vouer, q. v. The history of this word 
gives us a curious example of those 
changes of meaning treated of in § 15. 
Originally avouer was a term of feudal 
custom : avouer un seigneur is ' to re- 
cognise him for one's lord,' ' to swear him 
fealty, to approve all his acts.' Thence 
came the second sense ' to approve.' Je 
t^avouerai detout, says Racine in his Phfedre. 
Corneille says, Et sans dotite son coeur vous 
en avouera bien. Paul Louis Courier uses 
the word in this sense, when he says in 



one of his letters, Parle, ^cris, je t'avouerai 
de tout. After ' approval ' it passes to 
' ratification,* thence to ' recognition as one's 
own,' as in avouer une lettre. Lastly it 
means *to recognise 'generally, 'to avow.' — 
Der. aveu (verbal subst., § 184), A^%avouer 
(whose verbal subst. is d^sav^w). 

AVRIL, sm, April; from L. apriLis. For 
p=v see § III. 

Axe,5m. an axis; from L, axis. — Der. oxille, 
of which the doublet is aisselle, q. v. 

Axiome, sm. an axiom ; from Gr. a{ia)/jia. 

Axonge, sf. (Pharm.) axunge; from L. 
axungia (pig's fat, in Pliny). 

Azote, sm. (Chem.) azote ; a word made up 
of Gr. a priv. and ^<ui]. 

+ Azur, sm. azure, sky-blue. This word, 
which can be traced in Fr. back to the ilth 
cent., is of Eastern origin, a corruption of 
Low Lat. lazzurum, lazur, which is the 
Persian lazur, the stone now called lapis 
lazuli (§ 31). 

Azyme, sm. unleavened bread ; from Gr. 


Babeurre, sf. butter-milk. In 1604 Nicot's 
Diet, has Batbeurre, instrument pour hattre 
le lait. The implement thus gave its name 
to the substance it created. For change of 
sense see § 13. Batbeurre is a compd. 
of bat (see battre) and beurre. For such 
compds. of subst. and verb see Hist. Gram, 
p. 1 76 ; for loss of t see Hist. Gram, 
p. 81. 

BABILLER, vn. to babble, chatter (15th cent, 
in the Farce de Patelin) ; an onomatop. 
word (§ 34). Cp. analogous words in 
other languages ; Engl, babble. Germ, bab- 
heln. — Der. babilUTd,babilhge, babil (verbal 

BABINE, sf. a lip, chops (of apes, etc.) (i6th 
cent, in Beroalde de Verville, p. 258); der., 
with suffix ine, from root bab (a lip), of 
Germ, origin, found in several mod. Germ, 
patois as b'dppe. For pp=6 see § ill. 

tBabiole, sf. a plaything; from It. bab- 

+ Babord, sm. (Naut.) larboard, port; from 
Germ, bachbord. 

+ Babouche, sf. a slipper; from Ar. 

BABOUIN, sm. a baboon, monkey. Origin 
unknown {baboin in R. Estienne's Diet., 
1549). I know no example of the word 
before the 14th cent., but it certainly existed 
in the 13th, as we read in an English in- 
ventory of 1295, in Ducange, 'Imago 
B.V. . . . cum pede quadrato stante super 
quatuor parvos babewynos;' and the 
verb bebuinare signified, in the 13th cent., 
to paint grotesque figures in MSS. 

BAG, sm. a ferryboat ; from Netherl. bak (in 
15th cent, in Eustache Deschamps). From 
this prim, has come the dim. bachot, a little 

bac, or boat. For the suffix 0/ see § 281. 
For c — ch see § 128. Bac also signifies 
a trough ; brewers call the wooden vessel 
in which they prepare their hops a bac. In 
this sense the word has produced another 
dim. baquet ; for dim. in -et see ablette. 
For transition of sense from boat to vat 
see § 13. 

Baccalaur6at, sm. bachelorship. See 

Bacchanales, sf. pi. bacchanalia ; from 
L. bacchanalia. 

Bacchante, sf. a Bacchante, priestess of 
Bacchus; from L. bacchantem. 

BACHE, sf. (l) an awning, (2) cistern, (3) 
frame. Origin unknown (a word not older 
than the 19th cent.). 

BACHELIER, sm. a bachelor. Prov. bac- 
calar. It. baccalare, Merov. Lat. bacca- 
larius* (a man attached to a baccalaria, 
or grazing-farm). ' Cedimus res proprie- 
tatis nostrae ad monasterium quod vocatur 
Bellus Locus, cum ipsa baccalaria et 
mansis,' from a Donation of 895, Chartulary 
of Beaulieu, p. 95. Baccalaria, which is 
connected with baccalator, a cow-herd, 
found in 9th-cent. documents, comes from 
baccalia, a herd of cows, which from 
bacca, a cow, a form used for vacca in 
Low Lat. For change of v into b see § 1 40. 
Baccalarius is then rightly a cow-herd, 
a farm-servant; moreover, in Carolingian 
texts which have lists of serfs we see that 
baccalarius and baccalaria are applied 
only to young persons over sixteen years of 
age, old enough to be engaged on field- 
labour : thus, in a Descriptio mancipio- 
rum, or list of property of the Abbey of St. 
Victor at Marseilles (9th cent.), we find a 



list of serfs living on a colonica (or 
breadth of land tilled by a colonus) : 
' Colonica in Campania : Stephanus, colo- 
nus ; uxor Dara ; Dominicus, filius bacca- 
larius; Martina, filia baccalaria, Vera, 
filia annorum xv ' (Chart, of S. Victor, 
ii. 633). The word has thus passed through 
a series of meanings before reaching its 
present modern sense. The bachelier, farm- 
servant, attached to a baecalaria, works 
under a colonus ; this word then takes the 
sense, in feudal custom, of a lower vassal 
who marches under the banner of another ; 
then it comes to mean a youth too young 
to carry his banner as yet, who serves under 
a lord ; then, in old University speech, he is 
a young man who studies under a Master, 
with a view to gaining the degree below 
that of Doctor ; lastly, it means a graduate 
in a Faculty. 

Baccalarium becomes bacalarium by 
cc — e, whence in nth cent, baceler. For 
a = e see § 54; for arium = 5r see Hist. 
Gram. p. 1 84. Baceler in 1 2th cent, becomes 
hacheler: for c = ch see § 128. Bacheler in 
13th cent, becomes bachelier: for eT = ier 
see § 66. From O. Fr. bachelier comes 
through the Normans the Engl, bachelor. 
Let us add that towards the end of the 
middle ages bachelier, in the sense of a 
Graduate in a Faculty, was latinised into 
baccalaureus by the University clerks, 
who also gave to this new-formed word the 
et)'^mology bacca lauri, thus alluding to 
Apollo's bay. After inventing baccalau- 
reus (a word found in 15th cent, in N. de 
Clemengis de Studio Theol.), they made out 
of it baccalaiireatus, which was then 
turned into baccalaureat. It is hardly neces- 
sary to add that this etymology has no 

Bachique, adj. Bacchic; from L. bacchi- 

BACHOT, sm. a wherry (1549, R. Estienne's 
Diet.) ; see bac. — Der. bachoteur. 

BACLER, va. to bar, fasten (door or window) ; 
a word not found in Fr. before the 17th 
cent. It came in towards the end of the 
l6th cent, from Prov. baclar, to close a door 
with a wooden bar, a baculus, whence 
baculare, whence baclar by loss of u 
(§ 52). In 1604 Nicot's Diet, gives this 
definition of bacler: Bacler estfermer huys 
avec un baston par dedens, Pessulum fori- 
busobdere; et s' entend de ce petit baston 
ou cheville d'un pied de long qjii ferme 
I'huys en maniere de verroil de fer. From 

this literal sense the word got, in the mid- 
dle of the 1 7th cent., the figurative sense of 
' closing an affair'; and in 1690 Furetiere's 
Diet, says, Bacler, fermer avec des chaines 
barres, bateaux . . . on dit figiircment et 
bassement: C'est une affaire baclee, c'est a 
dire conclue et arretee. For change of 
meaning see § 1 3. The original meaning 
of 'to shut' remains in some technical 
phrases, such as bacler un port, to close 
it with chains ; bacler une riviere, etc, 
— Der. debdcler, debacle (verbal subst.). 

+ Badaud, sm, a booby, ninny; introd. 
towards the 16th cent, from Prov. badau, 
which is connected with Lat. badare (see 
under bayer). 

BADIGEON, adj. stone-coloured (1690, Fure- 
tiere's Diet.). Origin unknown. — Der. ba- 
digeonner, -age. 

t Badiner, vn. to jest, make merry ; from 
Prov. badiner, which is connected with Lat, 
badare (see bayer). For badiner from 
bader, cp, trottener, trotter. — Der, badimge, 

BADINE, sf. a switch (not found in Diet, 
before the present cent.); verbal subst. 
of badiner (see badin), of which Richelet's 
Diet. (1728) says, Badiner, joiier et 
folatrer de la main. A badine is something, 
then, to amuse the hand : Trevoux's Diet. 
(1743) says, Badines, pincettes legeres 
qu'on appelle ainsi parce qu'elles servent a, 
badiner et a s'amuser en arrangeattt, quel- 
ques charbons. Hence can easily be seen 
how the word coqi^es to mean ' a switch, 
cane,' to hold in the hand and 'flirt^but 
not to use. 

BAFOUER, va. to baffle, scoff at (l6th 
cent, in Montaigne, ii. 153); from O. Fr, 
baffer, beffer. A word of Germ, origin, 
from Netherl, beffen. For e = a cp. Hist. 
Gram. p. 48. 

Bafrer, vn. to gourmandise, stuff; from 
L, baferare*, der. from bafer, found 
in a Gloss, published by Mai (Class, auct. 
Fragm. viii) : ' Bafer, grossus, turgidus, 
ventriculosus.' Baf(e)rare, contr. to baf- 
rare, becomes bafrer by are = er. — Der. 
bafre (verbal subst.), bafreur. 

BAGAGE, sf. baggage ; deriv. in age (§ 248) 
of bague, which originally meant ' parcels,' 
' bundles.' The word remains in the phrase 
Sortir d'un danger vie et bagues sauves. 
Bague comes from Celt. (Gael, bag, a parcel, 
see § 19). 

Bagarre, sf. a hubbub, fray. Origin un- 



t Bagatelle, sf. a trifle; introd. in the 
1 6th cent, from It. hagatella. 

tBagne, sm. galleys; introd. in l6th cent, 
from It. bagno. Bagne is a doublet of 
hain, q. v. 

BAGUE, sf. a ring ; from L. bacoa, which 
bears the sense of a ring in early middle 
ages. For 00 =g see adjuger. 

+ Baguette, s/". a switch, rod, wand; in- 
trod. in 1 6th cent, from It. bacchetta. 

+ Bahut, sm. a chest, a trunk ; from M.H.G. 
behut, a hutch for provisions. 

BAI, adj. bay ; from L. badius, bay-coloured 
(in Varro). For the loss of the d see alouette 

. and appiiyer. 

BAIE, sf. a bay ; from L. baia (in Isidore 
of Seville) : ' Hunc portum veteres vocabant 

BAIE, sf. a berry; from L. bacca, baca. 
For the loss of the c see ami. 

BAIGNER, va. to bathe ; from L. balneare. 
The 1 disappears, as in albula, able, q. v.; 
and baneare becomes baigner, by the 
change of ne into gn (see cigogne), and of 
a into ai (see aigle). — Der. bain (verbal 
subst., see aboi), baigneur, baignoire. 

BAIL, sm. a lease, verbal subst. of battler, to 
lease, give by contract (still used in sense of 
*to give,' as in // lui bail la cent coups), 
had in O. Fr., under the form bailler, the 
sense of to hold, keep, administer ; whence 
the deriv. bail\i, fcaz/liage. Bailler comes 
from L. bajulare. For the loss of the u, 
and change of baj'lare into bai'lare, and 
thence into bailler, see aider. 

BAILLER, vn. to yawn. O. Fr. baailler, Prov. 
badailler, Cat. badallar, from L. bada- 
culare*, dim. of L. badare. Atonic u 
disappears : for cl = // see Hist. Gram. p. 71 ; 
for loss of d (ba(d)ac'lare, baailler) see 
§ 1 20. — Der. bdillement, eniTebdiller. 

BAILLER, va. to deliver, lease. See bail. 

BAILLI, sm. a bailiff; BAILLIAGE, sm. a 
bailiwick. See bail. 

BAILLON, sm. a gag ; from L. baculonem, 
deriv. of baculus. Atonic ti disappears : 
for ol = il see Hist. Gram. p. 71. — Der. 

BAIN, sm. a bath. See baigner. Bain is a 
doublet of bagne. 

Baionnette, sf. a bayonet ; a weapon 

named from Bayonne, where it was invented. 

BAISER, va. to kiss ; from L. basiare. For the 

transposition of the i see Hist. Gram. p. 77. 
BAISSER, vn. to lower. See bas. — Der. baisse, 
baissieTj abaisser, rzbaisser, rzbais, surbaisser. 
BAL, sm. a ball, verbal subst. of O.Fr. bailer, to 

dance, from L. ballare. — Der. bal\et. Bal- , 
lade, a ballad, came in 14th cent, from Prov. ! 
ballada. Baladin, a mountebank, also from 
Prov. baladin, is connected with the verb 
balar, to dance. 

t Baladin, sm. a dancer, mountebank. See 

BALAFRE, sf. a gash. Origin unknown. 

BALAI, sm. a broom. O. Fr. balain, from 
Celt. (Breton balaen). — Der. balaytx. 

+ Balais, adj. a balass (ruby). It. balascio, 
late Lat. balascius, a word introd. from the 
East with many other terms of jewellery, and 
der. from Ar. balchash, a kind of ruby. 

BALANCE, sf. a balance, scales : from L. 
bilancem. This change of atonic i into a 
is to be found in common Lat. (as in calan- 
drus for cylindrus in Schuchardt, sal- 
vaticus for silvaticus, in the Glosses of 
Cassel, It occurs in Fr. in such words as 
cylandrus, calandre ; lingua, langue 
(Hist. Gram. p. 48). See andouille. 
Balance is a doublet of bilan, q. v. — Der. 
balancer, -poire, -ier. 

Balauste, sm. a pomegranate-tree ; from L. 

BALAYER, va. to sweep. See balai. Der. 

Balbutier, I'M. to stammer; from L. bal- 

fBalcon, sw. a balcony; introd. in l6th 
cent, from It. balcone. 

^Baldaquin, STW. a baldaquin, canopy; in- 
trod. in 16th cent, from It. baldacchino. 

BALEINE, sf. a whale ; from L. balaena. 
For ae = « see § 104. — Der. baleineau, -ier. 

BALISE, sf. a buoy, beacon. Origin unknown. 
— Der. balisex. 

BALISIER, sm. (Bot.) carmacorus, a kind of 
Indian cane. Origin unknown. 

Baliste, sf a balista (for slinging stones) ; 
from L. balista. 

BALIVERNE, sm. nonsense, stuff. Origin 

+ Ballade, sf a ballad. See bal. 

BALLE, sf. a ball, from O. H. G. balla.— 
Der. ballon, -ot, de6a//er, emballex. 

BALLE, sf. chaff. Origin unknown. 

BALLET, sm. a ballet. See bal. 

BALLON, sm. n balloon. See balle (i). — Der. 

BALLOT, sm. a bale, package. See balle ( 1 ). — 
Der. ballolter, originally to vote by means of 
ballottes, little balls ; still used in that sense 
by Montaigne : Le peuple neut pas le cceur 
de prendre les ballottes en main. — Der. 



t Balourde, sm. a dolt, dullard ; introd, in 
1 6th cent, from It. balordo. — Der. ba- 

Balsamine, sf. balsam; from L. balsam- 

Balsamique, adj. balsamic; from L. bal- 
samicus, from balsamum, balsam, balm. 

f Balustre, sm. a balustrade, banisters; in- 
trod. in 1 6th cent, from It. balaustro. — Der. 
balustrade, answering to It. balaustrata. 

f Balzan, sm. a white-footed horse; introd. 
in 1 6th cent, from It. balzano. 

\ Bambin, sm. a babe; introd. in i6th cent, 
from It. bambino, 

t Bamboo he, j^/". a puppet; from It. bam- 

fBambou, sm. bamboo; a Hindu word, 
introd. from India by travellers (§ 31). 

BAN, sm. ban, a proclamation, ordinance ; of 
Germ, origin, from H. G. batman, to or- 
dain, publish a decree or sentence. As a 
feudal term the four a ban ox four banal is 
the oven at which all the vassals were bound 
to bake their bread, by ban of their lord : 
there were also moulins banaux, putts ban- 
aux, i. e. mills and wells to which all per- 
sons subject to a seignorial jurisdiction or 
ban were bound to go, and hence the origin of 
the word banal; meaning (i) what is used 
by all alike; and then (2), by a natural 
transition, that which is well known to all, 
vulgar, without originality. The expres- 
sion rompre son ban signifies lit. to break 
the command, or ban, imposed on one. 
Ban in certain cases has taken the special 

. sense of a sentence of banishment, and in 
the phrase mettre au ban, the actual sense 
of banishment. In O. Fr. bannir had a 
corn^A. forbannir (for = hors, and bannir), 
a reminiscence of which remains in the 
Vfordforban, q. v. From the word ban, in 
sense of permission, comes bandon, permit, 
whence the phrase a bandon = in liberty, 
whence abandonner, q. v. 

BANAL, adj. common, vulgar. See ban. — 

. Der. banalhe. 

+ Banane, sf. a banana ; introd. from India 
by travellers (§ 31). — Der. bananier. 

BANC, sm. a bench ; from O. H. G. banc. 

. Banc is a doublet of banque, q. v. — Der. 
banquet (cp. the Germ, tafel, which means 
both table and feast), banquette. 

BANCAL,arf/. bandy-legged. Origin unknown. 

BANDE, sf. a band, strip (of stuff), from 
. O. H. G. band. — Der. bandea.VL (formerly 

- bandeX, whence bandellette), -er, -age, 

BANDE, sf. a troop, band; from Germ. 

+ Banderole, sf a streamer, pennant ; 
introd. in 1 6th cent, from It. banderuola. 

t Bandidre, sf. a banner, streamer; introd. 
in 1 6th cent, from It. bandiera. Bandiere 
is a doublet of banniere, q. v. 

+ Bandit, sm. a bandit; introd. in l6th 
cent, from It. bandito. Bandit is a doublet 
of banni. 

t Bandouli^dre, sf (i) a bandoleer, (2) a 
shoulder belt; introd. in i6th cent, from 
It. bandoliera. 

BANLIEUE, sf. suburbs, precincts; in cus- 
tomary Lat. banleuca, from leuca (a 
league) and ban. Leuca had, in medieval 
Lat., the sense not only of a league, but of 
an indefinite extent of territory : it is 
found with this meaning in the Capitu- 
laries of Charles the Bald, and also in the 
modern Fr. banlieue. Banlieue, properly the 
extent of ban, is the territory within which 
a ban is of force (for the etymology see ban 
and lieue), and thence a territory subject to 
one jurisdiction. 

BANNE, sf. an awning, tilt (of a wagon) ; from 
L. benna (a car of osier), noticed by 
Festus as a word of Gaulish origin. 

BANNlJlRE, sf. a banner, dim. of a radical 
6a«*, from Low Lat. bandum, der. from 
Germ. band. Banniere is a doublet of 
bandiere, q. v. — Der. banneret. 

BANNIR, va. to banish. See ban. 

t Banque, sf. a bank ; introd. in i6th cent, 
from It. banca. Ba?ique is a doublet of 
banc, q. v. — Der. banqmer. 

tBanqueroute, sf bankruptcy; introd. 
in 1 6th cent, from It. bancarotta. — Der. 

BANQUET, sm. a banquet. See banc— Der. 

BAPTEME, sm. baptism ; formerly baptesme ; 
from L. baptisma. For i = e see § 72; 
for loss of s see § 148. 

Baptiser, va. to baptize; from L. bapti- 

Baptistdre, sm. a baptistery; from L. 

BAQUET, sm. a tub, trough. See bac. 

Baragouin, sm. jargon, gibberish ; origi- 
nally the Bas-Breton language, now any 
unintelligible speech. A word of hist, 
origin (see § 33). Baragouin, written by 
Rabelais baraguoin, is formed from two 
Breton words bar a (bread) and gwin (wine), 
words which occurred most often in conver- 
sation between the Bas-Br&tons and the 



French, and so applied by the latter as a 
nickname to the Breton tongue. — Der. 
haragouintx, -age. 

+ Baraque, sf. a barrack ; introd. in i6th 
cent, from It. baracca. 

BARATTER, va. to churn. Origin unknown. 
— Der. baratte (verbal subst.). 

+ Sarbacane, ^f. a barbican ; introd. from 
the East by the Crusaders, like many other 
military terms. Barbacane (originally bar- 
baquane in Joinville) is the transcription of 
the Ar. barbak-khaneh (a rampart). 

Barbara, adj. barbarous ; from L. bar- 
barus. — Der. barbarie, -isme. 

BARBE, sf. a beard ; from L. barba. — Der. 
barbicbe, barbe\e, barbier, barbxi, barbve, 
^barber, 6ar6ouiller, q. v. 

BARBEAU, sm. a barbel. O. Fr. barbel, 
from barbellus, dim. of barbus. For 
ellus = ea74, see agneau. Another dim. of 
barbus is barbillon. 

+ Barb on, sm. a greybeard, old dotard; 
introd. in i6th cent, from Sp. barbon (§ 26). 

BARBOTER, vn. to dabble, muddle. Origin 

BARBOUILLER, va. to daub, besmear. Ori- 
ginally se barbotiiller meant * to dirty one's 
beard,' then to dirty oneself generally. — 
Der. debarbouiller, barbouilhge, barbouil- 

+ Barcarolle, s/". a barcarole; introd. in 
1 6th cent, from It. barcarola (song of the 
Venetian gondoliers). Barcarolle is a 
doublet of barquerolle. 

BARD, sm. a hand-barrow. O. Fr. bar, a word 
of Germ, origin, from O. H. G. bara (a 
barrow). — Der. border, bardem, debarder 
(to discharge a load), debardeur (properly 
a workman who unloads wood). The dress 
of the debardeur introduced into fancy 
balls has given the word a fresh sense. 

BARDE, sf. (i) bard, horse-armour, (2) thin 
slices of bacon with'which woodcocks or 
partridges are larded. Origin unknown. — 
Der. bardtT. 

Barde, sm. a bard ; from L. bardus. 

BARGUIGNER, vn. to haggle. Origin un- 

BARIL, sm. a barrel. Origin unknown. — 
Der. barihtt. 

BARIOLER, va. to variegate; from L. bis- 
regulare* (to stripe with divers colours). 
Hegulare, which becomes re-ulare by 
the regular dropping of the medial g (see 
Hist. Gram. p. 82), and ri-ulare by change 
of eu into iu (see § 60), produced O. Fr. 
riuler, changed into rioler by the ordinary 

transformation of u into before a liquid 
(see § 93). Riole in Ambroise Pare is used 
as meaning freckled, spotted. For bis = ba 
see Hist. Gram. p. 48 ; and for the loss of 
the s see § 148. For the meaning and 
form of the word, see bis. — Der. bariohge. 

BARLONG, adj. twice as long as broad, 
parallelogram-shaped ; from L. bis-longus. 
For i = a see Hist. Gram. p. 48; for s = r 
see Hist. Gram. p. 5 7, See also bis. 

Baromdtre, sm. a barometer; a word 
formed by the learned by the help of the 
two Gr. words 0apos and /ierpov. 

BARON, sm. a baron. Origin unknown. — 
Der. baronne, baronmge, baronnet, baron- 

t Baroque, a<^'. (l) irregular-shaped, (2) 
whimsical, odd. Originally a jeweller's term 
(a baroque pearl was one not spherical, of a 
strange shape) it soon was much extended in 
sense, and was applied to the shape of dif- 
ferent objects (as furniture, houses, etc.), 
then to intellectual qualities {une pensee 
baroque = a. whimsical thought). Baroque 
was introd. in 1 6th cent, from Sp. barruco, 
and Port, barroco, in connection with the 
pearl trade (§ 26). 

t Barque, sJF. a bark ; not found in Fr. be- 
fore the i6th cent.: from L. barca(a little 
boat, in Isidore of Seville), through the in- 
termediate Sp. or It. forms barca, these 
two nations on the Mediterranean having 
provided the Fr. language with many sea- 
faring terms. The form barque proves that 
the word did not come direct from Lat. to 
Fr., for barca would have produced fearcA^, 
as area came to arche. Barque is a doublet 
of barge, barche. — Der. embarquer, embarc- 
ation, debarquer, -ement. 

BARRE, sf. 2L bar. Low Lat. barra, from 
Celt. bar. — Der. barreau, properly a little 
bar : this law term designates the enclosure, 
divided oif by railings from the rest of the 
hall, reserved for barristers. — Der. barrVexe, 
barrtr, barrage. 

BARRETTE, sf. a cap, bonnet; from L. 
birretum, a word found in the 6th cent, 
meaning a cap : the phrase ' birreto auri- 
culari' is in a Chartulary of a.d. 532. For 
i = a see Hist. Gram. p. 48. Barrette is a 
doublet of beret, q. v. 

f Barricade, sf. a barricade; introd. in 
1 6th cent, from It. barricata. — Der. barri- 

BARRIERE, sf. a barrier, fence. See barre. 

BARRIQUE, sf. a barrel, cask. Origin un- 



Baryton, stn. barytone ; from Gr. ^apv- 


BAS, (i) adj. low; from L. bassus (in Isi- 
dore of Seville, and stated by Papias to = 
curtus, humilis). A word clearly belong- 
ing to the popular Roman speech. — Der.bass- 
esse, basset, basson, 6aisser, a&aisser, rafea- 
isser, rafeais. (2) sot. a stocking ; abbrev. 
from the phrase has de chausses, used for- 
merly in contradistinction from haut de 

Basalte, sm. basalt; from L. basaltes. — 
Der. basaltiqae. 

BASANE, sf. sheep-leather. Origin unknown. 
— Der. basaner, basaft6. 

BASCULE, s/. poise, balance. Origin un- 

Base, sf. a basis, foundation; from L. basis. 
— Der. baser. 

Basilic, sm. a basilisk ; from L, basiliscus. 

Basilique, sf. a basilica ; from L. basilica. 
Basiligue is a doublet of basoche, q. v. 

BASOCHE, sf. a legal tribunal, which in the 
middle ages had cognisance of difficulties 
and disputes between the Clerks of the 
Parliament ; from L. basilica. Basil- 
(i)ca contrd. into basil'ca (§51), became 
baselche (for a = ch see § 126), then 
baseuche (by softening of 1 into m, see 
agneau), and thence the modern basoche, 
which seems at first sight very unlike the 
primitive Lat. word. The expression Clerc 
de la Basoche de Paris, simply meant a 
clerk of the tribunal of Paris : these clerks 
were styled clercs basilicams, and in popular 
language basochiens, a word answering 
exactly to basilicanus. Basoche is a 
doublet of basilique. 

Basque, sf. a* skirt. Origin unknown. 

Basquine, sf. a petticoat; from Sp.basquina. 

Basse, sf. (Mus.) bass. See bas. 

BASSIN, sm. a basin. O. Fr. bacin and bachin, 
from L. baech.inon * (a vessel), which Gre- 
gory of Tours cites as a word of rustic use : 
' Paterae quas vulgo bacchinon vocant.' — 
Der. bassiner, bassinet, bassinoire. 

t Bastide, sf a country house : from Prov. 
bastida, partic. subst. of Prov. vb. act. bastir, 
answering to Fr, batir. Bastide is a doublet 
of hade, q. v. 

BASTILLE, sf. a fortress, Bastille. See batir. 

BASTINGAGES, sm. netting. Origin un- 

+ Bastion, sm. a bastion ; introd. in i6th 
cent, from It, bastione. 

tBastonnade, sf. a bastinado; introd. 
in i6th cent, from It. bastonnata, as were 

many other terms of military discipline. 
Bastonnade is a doublet of batonnee. 

BAT, SOT. a packsaddle. O. Fr. bast, from L. 
bastum, a word of common Lat.: 'Sagma,' 
says a gloss writer, ' sella quam vulgus 
bastum vocat, super quo componuntur sar- 
cinae.' For as = d see Hist. Gram. p. 81. 
— Der. bdter. 

BATAILLE, sf a battle ; from L. batalia, a 
word which in common Lat. answered to 
the Class. Lat. pugna. The testimony of 
Cassiodorus is positive : ' Quae vulgo bata- 
lia dicuntur exercitationes militum signifi- 
cant.* For -alia = -aille see § 278. — Der. 
baiailler, bataillewr. 

+ Bataillon, sot. a battalion; introd. in 
1 6th cent, from It. battaglione. 

BATARD, sot. a bastard, from bastard, a son 
of a bast. For as = a see Hist. Gram. p. 
81; for the affix -ard see § 196. For 
other details see M. G. Paris, Histoire poet- 
ique de Charlemagne, p. 441. 

BATARDEAU, sot. a dyke, dam ; dim. of 
O. Fr. bastard (a dyke). Origin unknown. 

BATEAU, SOT, a boat. O. Fr. batel ; dim. of 
a root bat, which survived in Merov. Lat. 
batus (used in 7th cent. = bateau, boat). 
This word, of Germ, origin, like most Fr. 
sea terms, comes from A.S. bat. For -el = 
-eau see § 282. 

BATELEUR, sm. a juggler, mountebank. 
Origin unknown. 

+ Batifoler, vn. to trifle, play ; introd. in 
1 6th cent, from It. batifolle (to play at 
fighting under the ramparts). 

BATIR, va. to build. Origin unknown. — 
Der. batiment, bathse, 6as/ille (from the 
O. Fr. form bastir'). 

BATIR, va. to baste (of needlework), formerly 
bastir, of Germ, origin ; O. H. G. bestan 
(to sew). 

BATON, sm. a stick. Origin unknown. — 
Der. bdtonnev, batonnieT. 

BATTERIE, sf a battery. See battre. 

Battologie, sf. vain repetition; from Gr. 

BATTRE, va. to beat. O. Fr. batre, from L. 
batere, popular form of batuere. For 
the loss of the ii see coudre ; for loss of e 
see § 51, — Der, feasant, battoix, battevr, 
battene, battage, battement, battue (partic. 
subst,), zbattre, rabattre, combattre (whence 
com6a/, verbal subst,), debattre (whence de- 
bat, verbal subst.), rebattre, xebattu, ebattre 
(whence ebat, verbal subst,). 

BAUDET, sm. an ass, donkey ; a word of 
hist, origin (see § 33). In O. Fr. there 



was an adj. baud, originally hald, from 
O. H. G. bald, gay, pleased, content. (For 
1 ■! M, see § 157.) This adj. baud, fre- 
quently used in O. Fr., survives in modern 
Fr. in the compd. s'ebaudir, to rejoice 
( = 6tre baud). 

Again, we know that in the middle ages 
there was developed, if not invented, a 
great cycle of fables on the life and adven- 
tures of beasts, each personified under a 
special and significant name. Thus the Fox 
was Maitre Renard (lit. the cruel) ; the 
Bear was Bernard', the Ram, Belin. The 
Ass, ever gay and content (the beast ever 
baud, as they said in the llth cent.), re- 
ceived in that mythology the surname of 
Maitre Baudet, or Baudouin (both names 
dim. of baud). This soubriquet stuck to 
the Ass, which is still nicknamed in Fr. 
Baudet, ' the sprightly,' just as the Fox still 
goes by the name of Reynard. 

B A UDRIER, sm. a baldric, shoulder-belt; 
from L. baltSrarius*, deriv. of balteus. 
Balt(d)rarius loses its §, see § 52; it 
then becomes baudrier by changing (l) 
-arius into -ier (see § 198), (2) tr into dr 
(see § 117), (3) al into au (see § 157). 

The present sense of baudrier is not 
earlier than the 14th cent. In the 12th 
cent., to designate the soldier's shoulder- 
belt, the word baudre was adapted (from 
balteratus, deriv. from balteus), and 
the maker of these baudres was called a 
baudrier. This distinction, well marked in 
the early middle ages, became obliterated 
in the T4th cent., which in its ignorance 
gave the name of the thing made to the 
maker (just as it thought Piraeus was the 
name of a man). We have seen a similar 
example of confusion between aragne and 
araignee, q, v. See also § 198. 

BAUDRUCHE, sm. goldbeater's skin. Origin 

BAUGE, sf. a lair. Origin unknown. 

BAUME, sm. balm, balsam. O. Fr. bausme, 
from L. balsSjuum. Bals(a)muin loses 
its a (§ 51), Bals'mum produced O. Fr. 
bausme by change of al into au (see § 1 5 7). 
For the loss of s in bausme see Hist. Gram, 
p. 81. — Der. baumier, embaumer. 

BAVARD. adj. talkative. See bave. — Der. 
bavarder, -age. 

BAVE, sf. drivel, slaver, foam ; an onomato- 
poetic word. — Der. bavette, baveux, bavnd, 

BAVOLET, sm. head-dress of a country lass, 
curtain (of a bonnet). Origin unknown. 

BAYER, vn. to gape. O. Fr. baer, Prov. 
badar. It. badare; from L. badare (in 
Isidore of Seville = to gape). For loss of 
mpdial d see § 1 20 ; for -are = -er see 
§ 263. Another form of baer is beer, by 
change of atonic a into e (§ 54). This 
O. Fr. verb is gone from modern Fr., leav- 
ing its pres. part, b^ant. — The Prov. badur 
had two deriv. badau and badin (q. v.) 
which have got footing in modern Fr. 
+ Bazar, sm. a bazaar; introd. by travel- 
lers from the East. Ar. bdzar, a market. 
BEANT (p. pres. of beer or bayer) adj. gap- 
ing. See bayer. 
B^at, sm. a devotee, bigot; from L. bea- 
tus. — Der. fcfi'a/itude, 6<?a/ifique, fee'arifier, 
BEAU, adj. fine, beautiful. O. Fr. bel. For / 
= M see § 157. Bel comes from L. bel- 
lus. — Der. belUUe, embellk. 
BEAUCOUP, adv. much; from beau and 
coup, q. V. The O. Fr. phrase was more 
often grant coup than beaucoup: Le rot 
eut grant coup de la terre du comte, 
says Joinville. This sense of grant is 
to be seen in other phrases, as un beau 
+ Beaupr§, sm. a bowsprit; from Engl. 

bowsprit (§ 28). 
BEAUTE, sf. beauty. O. Fr. belte, originally 
beltet, from L. bellitatem. The 1 is 
dropped after the rule (§ 52); then it 
becomes beaute by changing (l) el into 
eau (§ 157), (2) -atem into -e (§ 230). 
BEG, sm. a beak, bill; from L. beccus, a 
word quoted by Suetonius as of Gaulish 
origin. For cc = c cp. siccus, sec; 
soccus, soc, saccus, sac, and § 168. — 
Der. becquetet, becusse, bequiWe (properly 
canne u bee). 
B6carre, sm. B natural, thence a natural 
(Mus.) ; a transcription of the abbreviation 
B B. This was formerly called B carre : 
B being Si in the scale of La, was called 
B carre (i. e. = S dur, hard B) when in its 
natural tone, as distinguished from B mol 
(i. e = 5 moti, soft B), for Bt7. 
BECASSE, sf. a woodcock. See bee— Der. 

BECHE, sf. a spade ; from L. becca*, fem. 
form of beccus. For -ca = -cA^ see § 126. 
— Der. bechtr. 
BEDAINE, sf. a paunch. Origin unknown. 
BEDEAU, sm. a beadle. O. Fr. bedel, a word 
of Germ origin, from O. H. G. butil, a 
BEFFROI, sm. a belfry. O. Fr. berfroi, in 

bSga yersequille. 


Low Lat. berfredxis. For e = oi see 
§ 63. This word, of Germ, origin, like 
most terms of military art in the middle 
ages, comes from M. H. G. bervrit, a watch- 

BEGAYER, vn. to stammer. See begue. 

BEGUE, adj. stammering. Origin unknown. 
— Der. begaytr. 

BEGUEULE, sf. a haughty disdainful woman, 
a prude. O. Fr. beegueule, or gueule bee. For 
the etymology see under gueule and bayer : 
bee is the past partic. of beer, see bayer. 
Avoir la gueule bee, or etre gueule bee, is 
properly to remain bouche beante, open- 
mouthed : begueule, formerly signified folly, 
now prudery. 

Beguin, sm. a Beguine's head-dress (the Be- 
guines are a Neth. religious order) ; a word 
of hist, origin (§ 33), — Der. emb^guinei. 

BEIGNET, sm. a fritter. Origin unknown. 

BSJAUNE, sm. (l) a nias hawk, (2) a ninny. 
O. Fr. becjautie, a form which makes the 
deriv. quite plain. See bee nadjaune. 

BEL, adj. fair. See beau. 

t B e 1 a n d r e, s/. a bilander, an EngHsh word, 
^signifying a flat-bottomed coasting vessel. 
! BELER, vn. to bleat ; from L. balare. For 
a = e see § 54. The form belaxe for 
balare is to be found in Varro. — Der. 
\ BELETTE, sf. a weasel; dim. of O. Fr. bele. 
For dim. in -etfe see § 28 1. The O. Fr. 
bele is Lat. bella ; belette is therefore — la 
jolie petite bete (the pretty little beast). 
While speaking (§ 15) of these popular me- 
taphors, we remarked that their characteristic 
feature was that they were never isolated, 
but occurred side by side in several Euro- 
pean languages. This is true of this word : 
in Dan. the weasel is called den kjcenne (the 
pretty) ; in Bavarian schonthierlein (the 
jiretty little beast); and in O.Eng. /a/ry. 

BELIER, sm. a ram. The Neth. bell (a bell) 
produced Low Lat. bella, and in Fr. bele (a 
little bell), which has gone without leaving 
a trace of itself, though its existence is re- 
vealed by the word beliere, q. v., der. from 
it, and by belier, which rightly means ' he 
who bears the bell,' We know the custom 
of fastening a bell to a ram's neck, as a signal 
for the flock and the shepherd. Thence by 
a metaphor common in Europe it comes 
to designate the ram. In Eng. bellwether ; 
in Neth. belhamel; and lastly, in several 
Fr. provinces the belier is simply the belled- 
j! jheep, thus plainly confirming the deriv. given. 
|i BfiLIERE, sf. a clapper-ring. See belier. 

B^LITRE, sm. a scoundrel. Origin unknown. 

+ Belladone, sf. belladonna ; from It. bel- 
ladonna. Belladonna is a doublet of belle 

Bellig^rant, aof/. belligerent; from L. bel- 

Belliqueux, adj. warlike; from L. belli- 

+ Belv6d§re,sw.abelvidere; introd.ini6th 
cent., with many other archit. terms, from 
It. belvedere, which means strictly ' a beauti- 
ful view,' a spot where one gets a fine view. 
Belvedere is a doublet of beau voir. 

B6inol, sm. (Mus.) (i) B flat, (2) flat (in 
music). See becarre. 

Benedicit6, sm. a grace, a blessing ; a Lat. 
word signifying ' bless ye.* 

Ben6dictin, sm. a Benedictine, monk of the 
Order of S. Benedict. 

Benediction, sf. benediction; from L. be- 

Benefice, sm. a benefit; from L. benefi- 
cium. — Der. 6e'«y?ciaire, -er. 

BENfiT, adj. silly, simple ; sm. a simpleton ; 
from L. benedictus. This metaphor, 
which may seem strange, is still quite cor- 
rect ; the Gospel says that the Kingdom of 
Heaven belongs to the ' poor in spirit,' who 
are the blessed (benedicti) of God: thence 
the word benedictus came to be used for 
the simple, thence for the silly. For change 
of ct into t see affete, and loss of medial d 
see § 1 20 ; hence beneit, which by contrac- 
tion took two forms btnit and benet. The 
same metaphor is to be found in the word 
innocent. Benet is a doublet of benoit. 

B6n6vole, adj. benevolent; from L. bene- 

BENIN, adj. benign; from L, benignus. 
J^'or gn = « see assener and § 131. 

B^NIR, va. to bless. O. Fr. bencir. It. bene- 
dire ; from L.benedicere. Bened£c(§)re, 
contrd. to benedic're after the rule of Lat. 
accent, became b^nir (i) by changing cr 
into r, as in fac're, faire (Hist. Gram. p. 
82), a change which is usually accompanied 
by the formation of a diphthong in room 
of the preceding vowel ; (2) by losing the 
medial d (§ 120), and becoming beneir, a 
form found in llth cent, in the Chanson de 
Roland, which leads us on to the mod. 
form. Benir is a doublet of bien dire. — 
Der. betiit, benitier. For the gram, distinc- 
tion between benite and benie see Hist. 
Gram. p. 150. Benit is a doublet of 
bentt, benoit. 

BEQUILLE, sf. a crutch. See bee. 



BERCAIL, sm. a sheepfold ; from L. berbSoa- 
lia* for vervecalia* ; heThecemfoTvervecem 
being found in the 1st cent. For v = 6 
see bachelier and § 140. The 6 is dropped 
after the rule given in § 51 ; and berb'calia 
became bercail by reduction of bo to c after 
assimilation (see § 168), and the change of 
-alia into -ail, see ail and § 278. 

BERCEAU, sm. a cradle. See bercer. 

BERCER, va. to rock, lull. Origin unknown. 

•f"B6ret, sm. a beretto, flat cap, introd. from 
Beam patois {berreto)', from L. birretum*, 
found in a 6th-cent. MS. Bhet is a 
doublet of barrette. 

+ Bergainote, sf. a bergamot pear; in- 
trod. from Port, bergamofa. 

BERGE, sf. a bank (of a ditch). Origin un- 

BERGER, sm. a shepherd ; from L. verve- 
carius, berb§carius, which wasbercarius 
in the 5th cent, and even earlier. Ver- 
v(§)c£rius loses its S after the rule given 
under accointer. Verv'carius became 
berger by changing (1) v into 6, see bache- 
lier ; (2) vc into c, see alleger ; (3) c into 
g, see § 129; (4) -arius into -ier, see 
dnier. — Der. bergerie. 

Berline, sf. a berlin ; a carriage first introd. 
at Berlin. 

BERLUE, sf. dimness of sight ; properly a 
condition of the eyes which makes people see 
the same objects repeated, or even fictitious 
objects ; der. indirectly from L. bis-lucere. 
For bis = ber see bis ; the relation between 
lue and lueur, luire, is clear. 

A softened form of berlue is bellue (for r 
= 1 see § 154), whose dim. is beluette, a 
spark, now contrd. into bluette, q. v. 

+ Ber me, sf. bench or sloping bank of 
a canal ; from Germ, berme. 

BERNER, va. to toss in a blanket. O. Fr. 
berne, a garment, cloth. Similarly the Ro- 
mans used the subst. sagatio, as they tossed 
persons in a sagum (military cloak). Origin 

B6ryl, sm. a beryl; from L. beryllus. 

BESACE, sf a beggar's double wallet. It. 
bisaccia, from L. bisaccia (used by Pe- 
tronius for a wallet with a pouch at either 
end). For i = e see § 71; for -cia = -ce 
see § 244. 

BESAIGRE, adj. doubly acid ; from bis and 
aigre, q. v. 

BESAIGUE, sf. a double axe, bill; from bis 
and aigue, q. v. 

BESANT, sm. a bezant. Prov. bezan, It. 
bizanie, originally meaning a gold coin, 

struck by the Eastern Emperors, from L. 
byzantius*, sc. nummus (coin of Byzan- 
tium). For y = je see § 71. 

BESICLES, sf. pi. spectacles. O. Fr. bericle, 
meaning crystal, or spectacles ; from bery- 
ciilus, beryclus*, dim. of L. beryllus 
(used in both senses in medieval writers). 
For r = s see arroser. 

BESOGNE, sf. work, business. Origin un- 
known. Besogne is a doublet of besoin. 

BESOIN, sm. need, desire. Origin unknown. 
— Der. besoigneux. 

Bestiare, sm. a gladiator, bestiarius ; from L. 

Bestial, arf/. bestial ; from L. bestialis. — 
Der. bestiality. 

BESTIAUX, cattle; from L. bestialia. 
For 1 = « see agneau. 

Bestiole, sf. a small beast, a ninny ; from L. 

BfiTAIL, sm. cattle ; from L. bestialia. For 
loss of s see § 148 ; for -alia=-az7 see ail 
^and § 278. 

BETE, sf a beast. O, Fr. beste, from L. 
bestia. For loss of s see § 148. — Der. 
bk'xst, zbetir, embeter. 

BETOINE, sf. (Bot.) betony; from L.bet6nica 
cited by Lat. authors as a word of Gaulish 
origin. Betonioa loses its two short syl- 
lables under the influence of the Lat. accent, 
see §§ 50, 51, and the Lat. o becomes oi 
by the attraction of the subsequent i : see 
ckanoine &nd Hist. Gram. p. 52. 

+ B6ton, sm. bitumen; from Prov. betun, 
L. bitumen. Beton is a doublet of bitume. 

BETTE, */. (Bot.) beet ; from L. beta. For 
betterave, beetroot (in 1 6th cent, so written), 
see bette and rave. 

BEUGLER, vn. to low, bellow; from L. 
buculare*, to low like an ox, from bucu- 
lus, in Columella. Buc('u)lare, regularly 
contrd. into buc'lare (see § 52), pro- 
duced beugler by change of cl into gl, see 
aigle ; and of u into en, a change found in 
fluvius, fleuve. — Der, beuglemtnt. 

BEURRE, sm. butter; from L. butyrum. 
Butyrum is regularly contrd. into but'rum 
(§ 51), and becomes beurre by changing 
(l) u into eu, see beugler; (2) br into rr, 
see § 168. 

B^VUE, sf. a blunder, oversight ; formerly 
besvue, a false view. Cettefausselumiere est 
une b^vue de ses yeux, says a lyth-cent. 
writer. This is the right meaning ; an 
error springing from an optical illusion ; — 
one has believed one saw something that 
had no existence, or had seen amiss, had 



hevu, seen double. See his for bis = fee; 
for vue see voir. 
■fB^zoard, sm. a bezoar, in the 16th 
cent, bezoar ; introd. from India by the 
Port, bezuar. 
BIAIS, sm. slant, slope; from L. bifacem, 
used by Isidore of Seville in the sense of 
squinting, of one who looks sidelong. For 
loss of f see antienne ; for -acem = -ais see 
vrai. — 'Der. biaiser. 
Biberon, sm. a sucking-bottle, a toper ; a 
bastard word formed from bibere and the 
suffix -on, like forgeron {rom forger. 
Bible, sf. the Bible ; from L. biblia, which 
from Gr. ISipXia, collection of sacred books. 
— Der. bibliqvie. 
Bibliographie, sf. bibliography ; from Gr. 

^i^Kiov and ypacp'q. — Der. bibliograph. 
Bibliomanie, sf. bibliomania ; from Gr. 

^i^Kiov and ixavia. — Der. bibliomane. 
Bibliophile, sm. a lover of books; from 

Gr. ^i^Xiov and (piXos. 
Bibliothdque, sf. a library ; from Gr. 

^i^XioOtikt]. — Der. bibliothecHre. 
BICHE, sf. a hind, roebuck. Origin un- 
tBicoque, sf. a little paltry town, a hovel; 

introd. in i6th cent, from It. bicocca. 
BIDET, sm. a nag, pony. Origin unknown. 
BIDON, sm. a jug, can. Origin unknown. 
BIEF, sm. a mill-race. See biez. 
BIEILLE, sf. a connecting rod. Origin un- 
BIEN, adv. well, sm. good; from L. bene. 
For e = ie see § 56. — Der. bien-etre, bien- 
fare, 6/enfaisant, bienhisa.nce (a word not 
invented by the Abbe de Saint Pierre, as 
has been said, but brought into fashion by 
him), bienfa.h, 6fenfaiteur, fez'enheureux, bien- 
seant, bientbt, bienveiWant, bienvenu, bien- 
Biennal, adj. biennial; from L. bienna- 

lis. ^ 
BIENSEANT, adj. becoming, proper; from 
hien and seant partic. of seoir, q. v. — Der. 
BIENT6t, adj. soon. See tot. 
BIENVEILLANT, adj. kind, benevolent; 
MALVEILLANT, adj. unkind, malevolent. 
One might believe, on a superficial exami- 
i nation of these words, that they were formed 
from veillant, partic. of veiller. This is not 
the case. The old form of these words 
is bienveuillant, malveuillant : veuillant 
the old pres. part, of vouloir, q. v., and 
hien- mal- veillant are simply = i/ott/a«/ le 
hien, voulant le mal. This origin is proved 

by It. benivolente : had the word been 
formed from veiller, the It. form would 
have been bene vegliante ; hence it is clear 
that vouloir is the true original of the 
words. — Der. bienveillance, malveillanct. 
BIERE, sf. beer ; from O. H. G. bisr. 
BI^RE, sf. a bier ; from O. H. G. hara, a 

BIEVRE, sm. the beaver ; from L. bibrum 
(' castorem, bibrum,' says the Schol. on 
Juvenal, Sat. 12). For i = e see § 71 ; and 
then for e = ie see § 56; for b=v see 
§ 113. Bibrum has given bievre, like 
BIEZ, Ibief) sm. a mill-race. O. Fr. hied. Low 
L. bedum; of Germ, origin, from O.H.G. 
betti, lit. of a water-course. 
BIFFER, va. to strike out, erase. Origin 

tBifteck, sm. a beefsteak; a word 
introd. into the Fr. language after the inva- 
sions of 1814, 1815; corruption of Engl, 
Bifurquer, vn. to fork ; from L. bifurcus. 

— Der. bifurc^tjpn. 
Bigame, adj. bigamous ; from L. bigamus. 

— Der. bigamie. 
tBigarade, sf. a bitter orange; from 

Prov. bigarrat. Origin unknown. 
Bigarrer, va. to streak, chequer; a word 
which does not seem to be old in the Fr. 
language. Origin unknown. 
BIGLE, adj. squint-eyed. Origin unknown. 
BIGORNE, sf. a beaked anvil ; from L. bi- 

cornis. For e=^see § 129. 
BIGOT, adj. bigoted ; sm. a bigot. Origin 

unknown. — Der. bigot'isme, bigoterk. 
BIJOU, sm. a jewel, trinket. Origin un- 
known —Der. bijouiiei, bijouttrie. 
t Bilan, sm. a balance-sheet; introd. in 
1 6th cent., with many other commercial 
terms, from It. bilancio. Bilan is a doublet 
of balance, q. v. 
BILBOQUET, sm. cup and ball. Origin un- 
Bile, sf. bile; from L. bills. — Der. hilieux. 
t Bill, sm. a bill ; an Engl, word introd, in 
the first years after the Restoration into 
parliamentary language. Bill is a doublet of 
BILLARD, sm. billiards. See bille. 
BILLE, sf. a ball. Origin unknown. — Der. 

BILLE, sf. a log of wood, ready to be sawn 
into planks ; from Celt. (Irish hille, a tree 
I trunk). — Der. billot. 
1 Billet, sm. a note, billet. The form bill a is 





found in medieval Lat. parallel to Class. Lat. 
bulla ; of this word billet is the dim. 

BILLEVESEE, sf. nonsense, trash. Origin un- 

BILLON, sm. copper coin ; a word traceable 
to the 13th cent. Origin unknown. — Der. 
hillonntx, -age. 

BILLOT, sm. a block. See hille. 

BIMBELOT, sm. a plaything, toy. Origin 
unknown. — Der. bimbelotier, -erie. 

Binaire, adj. binary; from L. binarius. 

BINER, va. to turn up the ground a second 
time; from L. binaxe*, deriv. from 

Binocle, sm. binocle, double eye-glass ; a 
faulty word made since the beginning of 
this cent., from L. bini-oculi (bin-ocli, 

Bindme, sm. a binomial; from L. bis and 
Gr. vofxrj. 

Biographe, sm. a biographer; from two 
Gr. words, Pios and ypd<peiy. — Der. bio- 
^raphie, -ique. 

Bipdde, adj. two-legged ; from L. b ip e d e m. 

BIQUE, s/. a she-goat. Origin unknown. 

Bis, adv. again, encore; a Lat. word 
used as a prefix to bisaHeul, bissac, biscuit, 
etc. By changing i into e (see § 71) 
bis becomes bes in besaigre, besaigue, 
besace, q. v. ; and this is reduced to be in 
bevue, q. v. By changing s into r (see or- 
fraie) bes becomes ber in berlue, q. v., and 
in berouette, q. v., which has been contrd. 
to brouette, q. v, Ber before / even assimi- 
lates its r into /, as in belluette, later bluette, 
q. V. Lastly in the two words barlong, ba- 
rioler, q. v., the prefix ber becomes bar by 
changing e into a, see amender. 

Along with these changes of form has 
come an important change in sense; bis in 
passing into the Romance languages takes a 
bad sense, which affects the rest of the 
compound. Thus the Sp. bis-ojo (lit. two- 
eyed), Walloon bes-iemps (lit. double-time 
or weather), It. bis-cantare (lit. to sing 
double), Cat. bes-compte (lit. double ac- 
count), signify respectively, squinting, bad 
weather, to sing false, a false account. 
Similarly in Fr. biscomu (lit. two-horned), 
bistorne (lit. twice-bent), have taken the 
sense of crooked, queer, and deformed. So 
also with bevue, berlue, q. v., which etymo- 
logically do not deserve the bad sense given 
them by the Fr. language. 

BIS, adj. brown. Origin unknown. 

BISAIEUL, sm. a great-grandfather. See bis 
and aieul. 

fBisbille, sf. bickering, jangling; introd. 
in 1 6th cent, from It. bisbiglio. 

BISCAYEN, sm. a long-barrelled musket, 
invented in Biscay. The name is still ap- 
plied to the balls which fitted it, though 
of a calibre no longer useful. 

BISCORNU, adj. strange, queer, crotchety. 
See bis and cornu. 

BISCUIT, sm. biscuit ; from L. bis cocttis. 
For oct = uit see attrait. 

BISE, sf. the north wind. Origin unknown. 

BISEAU, sm. a slant, bevil. Origin unknown. 

t Bismuth, sm. bismuth; from Germ, 
bissmuth. The ordinary form of the Germ, 
word is wissmuth. 

Bison, sm. a bison; from L. bison. 

BISQUE, sf. odds. Origin unknown, 

BISQUER, vn. to be vexed. Origin unknown. 

Bissac, sm. a wallet; from L, bissacium. 

Bissexte, sm. the bissextile (day) ; from L. 
bissextus,the 'double-sixth,' TheRomans 
once in four years reckoned two sixth days 
before the Kalends of March, so that there 
was a second sixth day, whence the name 
bissextus, — Der. bissextWe. 

Bistouri, sm. (Surg.) bistoury. Origin un- 

BISTOURNER, va. to twist. See bis and 

BISTRE, sm. bistre. Origin unknown. — Der. 

BITORD, sm. spun yarn ; from L. bis tortus. 

Bitume, sffz. bitumen ; from L. bitumen. 
Bitume is a doublet of beton. 

tBivouaC, sm. a bivouac, guard; origi- 
nally bivac, from Germ, beiivache; introd. 
at the time of the Thirty Years* War.— 
Der. bivaqutr. 

+ Bizarre, adj. strange, capricious. It 
originally meant valiant, intrepid ; then 
angry, headlong ; lastly strange, capricious. 
From Sp. bizarro, valiant. — Der. bizarrerie. 

BLAFARD, adj. wan, pallid; of Germ, 
origin, from O. H. G. bleifaro. 

BLAIREAU, sm. a badger. O. Fr. blereau, a 
form which shows the origin of the word 
better. Blereau is a dim. of ble, the blereau 
being rightly an animal which feeds on 
corn, ble, q, v. The Engl, badger signifies 
lit. a corn merchant, and thus illustrates the 
etymology of blereau. See § 15 for these 

BLAMER, va. to blame. O, Fr. blasmer, 
from L, blasphemare (used by Gregory 
of Tours in the sense of blame) ; in 
the glossaries we find ' blasphemare, 
vituperare, reprehendere.' * Tantummodo 



blasphemabatur a pluribus,' says Aymon 
the Monk, ' quod esset avaritiae deditus.' 
For the loss of the e see § 52. Blas'mare 
gives us the O. Fr. blasmer, whence bldmer. 
For the loss of the s see abime. Bldmer 
is a doublet of blasphemer, q. v. 

BLANC, adj. white ; from O.H.G. blanch. — 
Der. blanchet, blancher, blanchatre, blajich- 
ir, blanchi$, blanchissem, blanquette. 

BLANQUETTE, sf. a blanket. See blanc. 
Blanquette is a doublet of blanchette. 

BLASER, va. to blunt, cloy, satiate. Origin 

BLASON, sm. arms, coat of arms, in the llth 
cent, a buckler, shield ; then a shield with 
a coat of arms of a knight painted on it ; 
lastly, towards the 15th cent, the coats of 
arms themselves. Origin unknown. — Der. 

Blasphemer, va. to blaspheme; from L. 
blasphemare. Blasphemer is a doublet 
of bldmer, q. v. — Der. blaspheme (verbal 
subst.), blasphemiteuT. 

BLATIER, sm. a corn factor. See ble. 

Blatte, sf. a cockroach; from L. blatta. 

BLE, sm. corn. O. Fr. bled, Prov. blat, Low 
L. bladum, abladum (meaning corn 
harvested), from L. ablatum * (gathering 
in, harvest, in medieval texts). Ablatum 
is properly what one has gathered in and 
carried off: the metaphor is not unusual 
in the Indo-Germanic languages ; in Gr. 
KapiTos, fruit, is lit. ' destined to be carried 
off, gathered ; ' the Germ, herbst means 
properly what is carried off. Ablatum 
becomes ble, (i) by changing -atum. into -e, 
see § 201 ; (2) by loss of initial a, as in 
adamantem, diamant. Hist. Gram. p. 80. 
— Der. 6/a/reau (q.v.), Watier (q.v.), in Low 
L.bladarius. For -arius = -/er see § 198. 

BL£ME,arf;. wan, pale ; of Germ, origin, from 
Scand. bldman (bluish, livid). — Der. blemir. 

BLESSER, va. to wound. Origin unknown. 
— Der. blessme. 

BLETTE, adj. mellow, over-ripe. Origin un- 

BLEU, adj. blue; of Germ, origin, from 
O.H.G. blao. — Der. bleuir, bleuktie, bleuet. 

* Blinde, sf. sheeting; from Germ, blende. 
— Der. blinder, blindage. 

BLOC, sm. a block, lump ; of Germ, origin, 
from O. H. G. bloc. — Der. bloquer, de- 

t BlockhaUS, sm. a block-house ; introd. 
lately into the military art, from Germ. 
. blockhaus. Blockhaus is a doublet of blocus, 
• q. V. under bloc. 

fBloeUS, sm. a blockade, investment. A 
word introd. in the 1 6th cent., comes from 
the old Germ, form blockhuis (a little fort 
intended to block the communications of 
a besieged town). 

BLOND, adj. fair, light, flaxen. Origin un- 
known. — Der. blond'm, blond'ir, blonde. 

BLOQUER, va. to block. See bloc. 

BLOTTIR (Se), vpr. to squat, cower, crouch ; 
originally a falconry term, used of the falcon 
when it gathers itself up to roost on its 
perch {blot). From this special meaning 
the word gets (by one of those widenings of 
signification spoken of in § 12) the general 
sense of to gather oneself up, crouch. Origin 

BLOUSE, (l) sf. pocket (in billiards). Origin 
unknown. (2) sf. a smock-frock, blouse. 
Origin unknown. 

BLUET, sm. a cornflower. O. Fr. bleuet, from 
bleu, q. V. For eu = M seejumeau. 

BLUETTE, .<f. a spark (from hot iron, etc.), 
a literary trifle, jeu d'esprit. O. Fr. beluette, 
belluette, in Norm, patois berluette, dim. of 
bellue (see berlue). The prim, sense of 
bluette is a spark ; thus R^gnier speaks of a 
great conflagration qui nait d'une bluette : 
hence metaph. a little poem is called a 
bluette, a passing spark of wit. 

BLUTER, va. to bolt, sift (meal). O. Fr. 
beluter, buleter, originally bureter, to sift 
over the coarse cloth, bure, q. v. For 
T = l see § 154. As a confirmation of this 
origin, we find buratare in the sense of 
bluter in a Lat. work of the llth cent.; 
and moreover the It. use buratello for 
bluteau, a bolter. — Der. blutezxx, blutok, 

Boa, sm. a boa-constrictor; from L. boa. 

Bobdche, sf. a sconce, socket. Origin un- 

Bobine, ./. a bobbin. Origin unknown. 

BOCAGE, sm. a grove, thicket. O. Fr. 
boscage, Prov. boscatge, from L. bosca- 
ticum, dim. of boscum. (see bois). For 
-aticum = -age see § 248 ; for the loss of 
s see § 148. 

+ Bocal, sm. a wide-mouthed bottle ; introd. 
in i6th cent, from It. boccale. 

BCEUF, sm. an ox ; from L. bovem. For 
o = (Bu see accueillir ; for v =/ (a rare 
change in Lat., though we find parafredus 
for paraveredus in the Germanic Laws), 
we find it in Fr. (i) for the initial v, as in 
vie em, fois ; and (2) for the final v, as in 
brevem, bref, see Hist. Gram. p. 59. 

BOIRE, va. to drink; from L. bibere. 



Bib(6)re, regularly contrd. into bib*re 
(see § 51), has undergone two changes: 
(i) br into r, as in scrib're, 6crire, 
§ 168. (2) Accented 1 becomes ol, in the 
case of I, as in fidem, foi, § 68; in the 
case of i, as in cervisia, cervoise, § 69, 
note 2 ; in the case of i long by position, as 
in dig'tus, doigt, § 74. Atonic i becomes 
oi, when short, as in ^\ickrQ,ployer, § 68 ; 
when long by nature, as in vicinus, voisin 
when long by position, as in piscionem, 
poisson. — Der. 6oJte (in the expression kre 
en boite, speaking of wine; strong partic. 
of boire, see absoute), bu (O. Fr. beii, contrd. 
from bibiitus, a barbarous form of the 
p.p. of bibere). For loss of medial b in 
bi(b)utTis see § 1 13 ; for loss of final t 
see aigu; for i = e see § 71. This form, 
bibuttis for bibitus is not alone ; we find 
pendtitus, in the Lex Alaman ; battatus, 
in a decree of a.d. 585; reddutus, in 
a chartulary of a.d. 796. 

BOIS, sm. wood. Prov. bosc. It. bosco, in 
oldest Low L. boscum, buscxun, mean- 
ing wood. Origin unknown. For u = oz 
see § 88; for sc = s, cp. discus, dais. — 
Der. boiiCT, debotser, leboisei, boiserie. 

BOISSEAU, sm. a bushel. O. Fr. boissel, from 
L. bustellus*, dim. of busta, properly a 
vessel to measure grain ; see bolie. For st 
= ss see Hist. Gram. p. 73, and u = ot see 
§ 88; for -ellus =-eatt see § 282. 

BOISSON, sf. a beverage, drink; from L. 
bibitionem*. For loss of b, bi(b)ition- 
em see § 113; for -tionem = -5so» see 
§ 132 ; for i = oi see § 68. 

BOITE, sf. a box. O. Fr. boiste, which is 
successively bossida, boxida, in Lat. 
documents : when we reach the 9th cent. 
we find the original form btxxida. Bux- 
ida is the Gr. irv^iSa. Bilxida, after be- 
coming bossida by change of x into s (see 
aisselle), and of u into (see § 98), is 
regularly contrd. into boss'da. Boss'da 
becomes boiste by changing o into oi, 
see § 87 ; and d into /, see doni. For 
loss of s in boisie, see § 148. Boite is a 
doublet of buste, q. v. Boile is also used 
for the socket or ' box ' of a joint ; a mean- 
ing preserved in such phrases as, se de- 
boiter un bras, 'to put one's arm out,' 
i.e. of the socket; emboiter un os, ' to 
but a bone in'; boiler, to be malformed 
at the joints, i. e. to limp. — Der. boitiei. 

BOfTER, vn. to limp, halt. See boite. — Der. 

Bol, sm. a bolus, pill ; from Gr. fiw\os. 

+ Bol, sm. a bowl ; from Engl. howl. 
BOMBANCE, sf. feasting, junketing. Origin 

BOMB, sf. a bomb. Origin unknown. — 
Der. 6ow6arde, 6o»i6arder, 6om6ardement, 

BOMBER, va and n. to swell out. See bombe. 

BON, adj. good ; from L. bonus. — Der. bon 
(sm. a good thing, whence abonnex, lit. 
prendre un bon pour quelque chose), bonne 
(sf.), 6onasse, 6o«ifier, iowification, bonbon, 

+ Bonace, 5/'. a calm smooth sea; introd. 
in 1 6th cent, from It. bonaccia. 

BOND, sm. a bound. See bondir. 

BONDE, sf. a sluice, floodgate ; a word of 
Germ, origin, from Swab, bunte. — Der. 
bondon, bonder, debonder. 

BONDIR, vn. to bound, leap: this sense 
however is comparatively modern, and 
scarcely appears before the i6th cent. Origi- 
nally it meant to resound, re-echo ; in the 
Chanson de Roland the elephant of Charle- 
magne's nephew bondissait, trumpeted more 
loudly than all the others. Bondir comes 
from L. bombitare*. For the change of 
conjugation see aimant. Bombitare, re- 
gularly contrd. into bomb 'tare, changes bt 
into d, see accouder; m into n, see § 160. 
— Der. bond (verbal subst.), bondissement, 

BONHEUR, sm. happiness. See heur. 

fBoni, sm. a bonus; a Lat. word, lit. *of 

BONNET, sm. a cap. The original sense is 
' stuff.' There were robes de bonnet : the 
phrase chapel de bonnet is several times 
found ; this was abridged into un bonnet, as 
we say un feutre for un chapeau de feutre 
(' a beaver ' for ' a hat of beaver '). Origin 
unknown. — Der. bonnetier, bonneterie. 

BONTE, sf. goodness ; from L. bonitatem. 
For the loss of i see § 52 ; and for -tatem 
= -te see § 230. 

+ Borax, sm. borax; introd. from the East, 
with many other chem. terms, from the 
Heb. borak, white. 

BORD, sm. edge, border, bank, shore ; from 
Neth. bord. — Der. border, bordme, ^border, 
deborder, bordage, rebord, borderenu, bordee 
(a broadside, from their arming the same 
side, of the ship). — Another form of border 
is broder, by transposing the r, see Hist. 
Gram. p. 77. The original sense oi border 
is to ornament the edge (bord) of a gar- 
ment, etc., with needlework, to make a 
border. By way of confirming this etymology 



the Sp. bordar means both ' to edge ' 
and ' to embroider.' Border is a doublet 
of trader, q. v. 
Bor6al, adj. boreal, northerly ; from L. 

BORGNE, adj. one-eyed, blind of one eye. 

Origin unknown. — Der. eborgnei. 
BORNE, sf. a boundary, landmark. O. Fr. 
bontie, in nth cent, bodne, from Merov. 
L. bodina, in a 7th-cent. document. The 
origin of the word is unknown. B6d(i)na, 
contrd. into bod'na, became bodne, which 
then became bonne by assimilating dn into 
nn, see aller : just as 11 becomes rl by dis- 
similation in ul'lare, hurler, so nn {bonne) 
becomes rn {borne), § 169. — Der. bornei, 
BOSQUET, sm. a thicket, grove; dim. of 
boscus (see bois), properly ' a little wood.* 
Bosquet is a doublet of bouquet, q. v. 
BOSSE, sf. a hump. Origin unknown. — Der. 

bossii, bossMtv, bosstl&t, 6ossette. 
BOSSE, sf. a hawser. Origin unknown. — 
Der. em6os5er. 

[ t Bosseman, sm. a boatswain's mate; 

I introd. from Germ, bootsmann. 

• BOT, sm. a club-foot. Origin unknown. 

! BOTANIQUE, adj. botanical ; from Gr. 

j ^oraviKT]. — Der. botaniste. 

j BOTTE, sf. a truss, bundle (of hay, etc.) ; 
from O. H. G. bozo, a fagot. — Der. botteler. 

I BOTTE, a butt, leather bottle; of Germ. 

I origin, from butte ; botle (boot) is the same 

I word. The transition from the 'leather 

i bottle ' to ' boot ' is not peculiar to Fr. ; the 

I Engl. 600/ is used to signify both foot-gear 

(and the luggage-box in a stage coach. — Der. 
bottier, bottine. 
tBotte, sf. a thrust, lunge (in fence); 

from It. botta. 
BOTTINE, sf. a half-boot. See botte. 
i BOUC, sm. a buck, he-goat. Origin unknown. 
I — Der. boiiqu'm, bouquetin, toucher. 
JBOUCHE, sf. a mouth; from L. bucca. 
For u = ou see § 90; for co = ch see 
§ 126. — Der. boucMe, emboucktr, em- 
bouchnre, nbouch^t, boucher (properly to 
shut the mouth, close up an opening). 
Boueaner, va. to ' buccan,' smoke-dry ; 
Boucanier, sm. a buccaneer. Origin un- 
BOUCHER, va. to block up. See bouche.— 

Der. bouchon, bouchonner. 
BOUCHER, sm. a butcher, properly one who 
kills ' bucks ' (he-goats) ; BOUCHERIE, sf. 
the place where goat's flesh is sold ( it was 
eaten by the common folk in the middle 

ages). One knows the medieval jealousy^ 
between corporations, and with what rigour 
the division of labour was maintained and 
protected. As late as the i8th cent, shoe- 
makers, who made new shoes, might not 
act as cobblers ; and the cobblers seem to 
have often sued them at the law for trans- 
gressing their limits. Similarly the medieval 
bouchers, i. e. the salesmen of goat's flesh, 
were not allowed to sell meat of any other 
kind : thus we read in the Statuts de la 
Ville de Montpellier, a.d. 1204, Ni el 
mazel de bocarid ?io sid venduda earn de 
feda — ' Merchants in boucherie are for- 
bidden to sell lamb.' Here the word bouch- 
erie— viande de bouc (its proper sense). As 
a full confirmation of this deriv. of boucher 
we may note the It. beccaio, which is de- 
rived in exactly the same way from becco^ 
the he-goat. 

BOUCHON, sm. a wisp (of straw) ; of Germ. 
origin. Germ, busch. 

BOUCLE, sf. a buckle; from L. bucula*. 
•Bucxila, umbo scuti,' says Isidore of Se- 
ville. For loss of the atonic u see § 51 ; 
for u = o« see § 90. Boucle in the middle 
ages had the double sense of a ' shield's 
boss' and 'a ring'; the last sense has 
alone survived, and is metaph. developed 
in the boucle de cheveux, ringlets. The first 
sense has disappeared in the radical, but 
remains in the deriv. bouclier, which in very 
early Fr. was simply an adj. Before the 
13th cent, the phrase ran un ecu bouclier 
(as one says un jour ouvrier), i. e. a shield 
with a boss {boucle) ; then the epithet 
drove out the subst., and from the 14th 
cent, onwards the word bouclier is used 

BOUDER, vn. to pout, sulk. Origin un- 
known. — Der. boudoir (a word created in 
the 13th cent.), 6ottc/me. 

BOUDIN, sm. a black-pudding. Origin un- 

BOUE, sf. mud, mire. Origin unknown.— 
Der. fcoweux. 

BOUEE, sf. a buoy, dim. of boue ; originally 
boye, a buoy, in O. Fr., from L. boja, a 
chain or rope fastened to a piece of floating 
wood. For j = i see aider ; for o = ou see 

BOUFFER, va. to puff, swell ; onomatopoeia, 
see § 34. Bouffer is a doublet of bouffir.—- 
Der. bouffe. 

BOUFFIR, va. to puff up, inflate ; onoma- 
topoeia. — Der. bouffissure. 

tBouffon, sm. a buffoon; introd, in 



1 6th cent, from It. huffone. — Der. houffon- 

BOUGE, sf. a closet, hovel, bulge ; from L. 
bvilga, a little bag ; according to Festus, a 
word of Gaulish origin, * bulgas Galli sac- 
culos scorteos vocant.' From hag it passed 
to the sense of * box,' thence metaph. to 
that of • a retreat,' room as narrow and 
dark as a box. The same metaphor sur- 
vives in the vulgar speech of Paris ; whence 
we can better understand how this change 
came in among the Romans. 

BOUGER, vn. to stir, 'budge.' Prov. bolegar, 
to disturb oneself; It. bulicare*, to bubble 
up; from L. bullicare*, frequent, of 
bullire. Each of the three Romance 
forms works a fresh step in the change of 
sense. Bull(i)c&re, regularly contrd. into 
bull'care, becomes bouger by changing 
(i) ull into o«, see agneau ; (2) care into 
ger, see adjuger. 

Bougie, ^f. wax candle; of hist, origin, 
§ 33- Wax candles were first made in the 
town of Bougie. — ^Der. feoK^eoir. 

BOUGON, adj. grumbling. Origin unknown. 

BOUILLIR, vn. to boil; from L. bullire. 
For u = OM see accouder; for lli = «7/ see 
ail. — Der. bouillon, bouillonner ; bouill'i, 
bouillie, bouilloixQ. 

BOULANGER, sm. a baker. Origin un- 
known. — Der. boulanger'it. 

BOULE, ./. a ball ; from L. biilla. For u = 
ou see accouder. — Der. boulet, boulette, 
boulon, botilevtrstr, whose proper meaning 
is ' to make one turn like a ball.' ^bouler 
is properly ' to roll like a ball as one falls.' 
Boule is a doublet of bulle, q. v. 

BOULEAU, sm. a birch tree ; dim. of O. Fr. 
boule, from L. betula. Betula, regularly 
contrd. into bet'la, changes tl into //, then 
into /, as in rot'lus, rule; see § 168. 

+ Bouledogue, sm. a bull-dog; lately 
introd. from Engl, bulldog. 

BOULEVARD, sm. a boulevard, bulwark, 
rampart. O. Fr. boulevart, boulevert, boule- 
vera, introd. early in the 15th cent, from 
Germ, bollwerk, a fortification. We know 
that originally the word was a term of 
military art, meaning the terre-pleins, plat- 
forms of the ramparts. The Boulevards of 
Paris were, in the time of Louis XIV, simply 
the line of fortifications round the city; 
this, planted with trees, became a fashion- 
able walk, and the word boulevard became 
synonymous with a walk or street planted 
with trees, a meaning quite foreign to its 
etymol. sense. 

BOULEVERSER, va. to overthrow. See 
boule. — Der. bouleversemenX.. 

Boulimie, sf. voracity, diseased hunger; 
from Gr. PovXtfiia. 

fBouline, sf. a bowline; from Engl. 
bowline. — Der. boulinex. 

tBoulingrin, sm. a bowling-green; 
introd. from Engl, boivlifig-green. 

BOULON, sm. a bolt, pin. See boule.— Der. 

BOUQUET, sm. a bouquet, posy. O. Fr. 
bousquet, originally bosquet, properly =/)e/iV 
bois : the phrase bouquet d'arbres is still 
used. This sense of ' a little wood ' is quite 
plain in Mme. de S^vign6's phrase, II a 
voulu vendre un petit bouquet qui faisait 
un assez grande beaute. The prim, form 
bosquet is a dim. of L. boscum* ; see bois. 
For o = OM see affouage ; for loss of s see 
§ 148. — Der. bouquetihie. 

BOUQUIN, sm. an old he -goat. See 

tBouquin, sm. an old buck; introd. 
from Netherl. bceckin. — Der. bouquintx, 

BOURACAN, sm. a barracan. Origin un- 

BOURSE, sf. mire, mud. Origin unknown. 
Der. bourbeux, bourbier, embourber. 

BOURDE, sf. a falsehood, ' bouncer.' Origin 

BOURDON, sm. a pilgrim's staff; from L. 
burdo, an ass. For vi = ou see accouder. 
This metaphor is not peculiar to the Ro- 
mance languages : there are many instances 
of the analogy between the stick which 
supports, and the beast which carries ; the 
Sp. muleta means either ' a mule ' or ' a 
crutch ' ; It. mula means also ' a stick.' In 
the 1 7th cent, the staff" was called ' the 
cordelier's hackney,' a phrase answering to 
the Sp. el caballo de S. Francisco, St. 
Francis's horse, i. e. a stick. 

BOURDON, (1) sm. the drone-stop in an 
organ. Origin unknown. — Der. bourdon, 
an insect whose buzzing is Hke the sound 
of the organ's bourdon. (2) sm. a drone. 
— Der. bourdonntr, bourdonv.ement. 

BOURG, sm. a borough, burgh; from L. 
biirgus, which usually means a small for- 
tified place, as in Vegetius, ' Castellum par- 
vum, quod burgum vocant.' In Isidore 
of Seville the word has already got its 
modern sense; ' Burgus,' he says, * domo- 
rum congregatio, quae muro non clauditur.' 
From burgensis (a form to be found in 
Merov. documents; and in an iith-cent. 



document we find Remenses bvirgen- 
ses) we get Fr. bourgeois, a dweller in a 
bourg. For ns = s see aine ; for e = oi 
see accroire ; for u = ou see accouder. — Der. 

BOURGEOIS, sm. a burger, townsman. See 
bourg. — Der. bourgeoisie. 

BOURGEON, sm. a 'burgeon,' bud, shoot. 
O. Fr. bourgeon, originally burjon; of Germ, 
origin. O. H. G. burjan, to lift; properly 
that which pushes, lifts, as the first out- 
pushing of a sprouting tree. — Der. bour- 

tBourginestre, sm. a burgomaster; 
introd. from Germ, bur germeister. 

BOURRACHE, sf. borage. It. borragine, 
from L. borraginem. Borraginem 
having lost the syllables after the accented 
syllable (Hist Gram. p. 34), produces bour- 
rache. For o — ou see affouage ; for g = c 
(the O. Fr. form was borrace) see fraise ; 
for c = ch see § 126. 

fBourrasque, sf. a squall; introd. in 
1 6th cent, from It. burrasca. 
i BOURRE, sf. hair, flock; from Low L. 
burra* (a heap of wool). For u = om see 
accouder. The bourre of a gun is the same 
word, the wads being ordinarily made of 
wool and hair. From this word comes 6owrrcr, 
(to ram the wad, bourre, home), thence to 
stuff; hence the deriv. Aibourrer, embourrer, 
Tembourrer, bourrade, bourree, bottrra, 
■ bourreXex, bourrelet, bourlet. 

BOURREAU, sm. an executioner. Origin 

BOURRELET, sm. a pad, cushion. See 

BOURRIQUE, sf. a she-ass ; from L. burri- 
cus in Isidore of Seville, which means a 
wretched little nag, ' mannus quem vulgo 
buricum vocant.' For n = ou see accou- 
der. — Der. bourriquet. 

BOURRU, adj. peevish, crabbed ; one who 
crams (bourrer) one with insults. See bourre. 

BOURSE, sf. a purse, exchange ; from L. 
byrsa, the Gr. ^vpaa. For y = ou see 
§ lOi. — Der. boursier ; debourser, debours ; 
rem6o7/r5er, -ement, -able. 

BOURSOUFLER, va. to puff up, bloat ; 
BOURSOUFLE, adj. swollen, bloated, botir- 
sesoufle, i.e. soufle, puffed out like a purse. 
For etymology see bourse and souffler. In 
Wallachia bosunfla is used similarly : the 
word means literally to blow up (unfla) Hke 
a purse (60s), a parallel which confirms the 
metaphor in the Fr. word. — Der. bour- 

BOUSCULER, va. to turn upsidedown. Origin 

BOUSE, sf. cow-dung. Origin unknown. — 
Der. bousiWer. 

tBoussole, sf a compass; introd. in 
1 6th cent, from It. bossolo, properly the 
little box in which the needle, etc., are kept. 

BOUT, sm. end. See bouter. — Der. dtbout^ 
tmbouttr, aboudi. 

t Boutade, sf. a whim, freak. See bouter. 

BOUTE-EN-TRAIN, sm. a breeding-horse. 
See bo7iter. 

BOUTE-FEU, sm. a linstock. See bouter. 

BOUTEILLE, sf. a bottle ; from L. buticula, 
found in the Glosses of Reichenau, 8th cent., 
and after that in the well-known Capitulary 
de Villis. Buticula is dim. of butica, 
which occurs in Papias with the explanation 
'vasis genus' : butica is from Gr. /3vTts (a 
flask). Buticula becomes bouteille by 
changing (i) -icula into -eille, see § 257; 
(2) u into ou, see accouder. 

BOUTER. va. to put, set, push. O. Fr. 
boter, from M. H. G. bi'izen. — Der. bout 
(verbal subst., properly that part of a body 
which pushes or touches first), 6ow^ure (a 
cutting, the piece one puts into the ground), 
bouton (that which pushes out, makes 
knobs on plants ; thence by analogy, pieces 
of wood or metal shaped like buds), boute- 
feu (which is used to set fire, bouter feu, to 
guns), boute-en-train (that which sets going), 
boute-selle (a signal to cavalry to set them- 
selves, see bouter, in the saddle), arc-boutant 
(an arched buttress, flying buttress, an arch 
which pushes back a wall), boutoir (a but- 
tress), boutade (an attack, push, introd. in 
1 6th cent, from It., as is shown by its ter- 
mination -ade). See § 201. 

BOUTIQUE, sf. a shop ; corrupted from L. 
apotheca. For the analysis of this word see 
§ 172, where it has been fully discussed. — 
Der. boutiquier. Boutiquier is a doublet of 
apothecaire, q. v. 

BOUTON, sm. a button. See bouter.— Titr. 
boutonner, deboutonner, boutonmhre. 

BOUTURE, /. a slip, cutting. See bouter. 

BOUVIER, sm. a neatherd, drover ; from L. 
bovarius. For -arius = -zer see § 198 ; for 
o = ou see affouage. Another deriv. of 
bovus is bouvillon. 

BOUVREUIL, sm. a bullfinch ; from L. bo- 
vSriolus, a little neatherd, dim. of bo- 
varius. For the cause of this name see 
§ 15, where it is discussed. Bov(a)riolus 
is contrd. into bov'riolus, see § 5 2 ; it then 
becomes bouvreuil by changing (i) -iolus 



into -euil, see § 353; (2) o into ou, see 

Bovine, adj. bovine; from L. bovinus. 

t Boxer, vn. to box, spar; from Eng. box. 
— Der. 6o*eur. 

BOYAU, sm. a gut. O. Fr. boyel, originally 
boel. It. hudello, from L. botelluB, intes- 
tines, sausage, in Martial ; human intestines 
in the Barbaric Laws. * Si botellum vul- 
neraverit ' occurs in the Lex Frisionum 
(5, 52). For the change of meaning see 
§ 14. For loss of the t see § 117; for 
-ellus = -eau see agneau. 

BRACELET, sm. a bracelet ; see hras. Dim. 
of bracel, which answers to L. brachile, 
which is found in the Germanic Laws : 
* Signis mulieri brachile furaverit,' Salic 
Law, 29, 37. For i = e see admettre. 

BRACONNER, va. to poach. See braque.— 
Der. braconnieT. 

BRAI, sm. residue of tar. Prov. brae. It. brago, 
from Scand. (Nors. 6ra'S, tar). 

BRAIE, sf. breeches. Prov. braya. It. braca, 
from L. braca, a word which Lat. writers 
consider to have been borrowed from Gael. 
— Der. brayette, debraiWer, d6brayeT. 

BRAILLER, vn. to brawl, bawl ; sec braire. 
— Der. brailhrd. 

BRAIRE, vn. to bray. Origin unknown. — 
Der. 6ra/ment, brailler. 

BRAISE, sf. embers. Sp. brasa, Port, braza, a 
word of Germ, origin (O. G. bras, fire). — 
Der. braistv, brasicr, embrasti. 

f Br axner, va. to bell (the stag) ; introd. in 
1 6th cent, from It. bramare. 

BRAN, sm. bran ; a word of Celt, origin (Gael. 

BRANCARD, sm. a litter, handbarrow ; from 
branc, masc. form of branche, q. v. 

BRANCHE, sf. a branch. Origin unknown. 
— Der. ebrancher, embrancher, embranche- 
ment, brancard (which properly means a 
great bough stripped of its leaves, a great 
stick ; then the word is used of the shafts of 
a carriage, and of a litter originally formed 
of crossed sticks). 

BRANCHIES, s/.pl. branchix, gills (of a fish); 
from Gr. fipdyxia. 

BRANDE, sf. heather. Origin unknown. 

BRANDEBOURG, sm. frogs (of a coat) ; a 
word of hist, origin (§ 33), introd. in 17th 
cent, in sense of a coat adorned with trim- 
ming, like those worn in 1674 by the soldiers 
of the Elector of Brandenbourg, when they 
entered France. 

fBrandevin, sm. brandy; from Germ. 

BRANDIR, va. to brandish, properly to shake 
a brand (sword), then to brandish any 
weapon. For such expansions of meaning 
see § 1 2. The O. Fr. brand is of Germ, 
origin (Scand. brandr). 

BRANDON, sm. a wisp of straw, dim. of 
O. H. G. brani. 

BRANLER, va. to shake. Origin unknown. 
— Der. branle (verbal subst.), 6ran/oire, 
6raw/ement, dbranhx. 

BRAQUE, sm. a brach-hound ; of Germ, 
origin (Germ, bracke). The signification, a 
fool, hare-brained fellow, is metaph. = stu- 
pider than a brack, i.e. than a sporting dog. 
— Der. bracon, dim. braque, a little brach : 
the servant who looked after them was called 
the braconnier {c^. fauconnier ixom faucon). 
From this sense braconnier has come by a 
natural transition to its present sense : the 
servant in charge of the dogs hunted them 
on his own account in his master's absence ; 
thence it comes to mean a poacher. 

BRAQUEMART, sm. a broadsword. Origin 

BRAQUER, va. to point. Origin unknown. 

BRAS, sm. an arm ; from L. brachium. 
chi becomes first ci, and then s; see 
agencer. Brachia, by the regular change 
of chi into ci, and of ci into c (see agencer), 
produced O. Fr. brace ; this word again 
underwent the change of c into ss (see 
amide), and became brasse (the distance 
between one's extended arms, a fathom). 
— Der. Wrasse, ferassard, embrasser. 

BRAISER, sm. a brazier. See braise. 

BRASSER, va. to stir up, mix together. 
O. Fr. bracer, to make beer, from O. Fr. 
brace (malt). O. Fr. brace comes from 
L. brace (used by Pliny, who gives the 
word a Gaulish origin). Lat. brace had 
a deriv. bracivuu (' Bracirun unde cervisia 
fit,' says Papias) which has produced the 
O. Fr. brace, by changing ci into c, see 
agencer ; O. Fr. bracer has changed e into 
ss (see ami tie), whence brasser. 

+ Brave, adj. brave, sm. a brave man; 
introd. in 1 6th cent, from It. bravo. — 'Der. 
braver,, bravache, bravo. 

BRAYETTE, sf. flap (of trowsers). See braie. 

BREBIS, sf. a sheep. O. Fr. berbis, It. berbice, 
from L. berbicem*. For the transposition 
of the r see Hist. Gram. p. 77. Berbicem, 
a form found as early as Vopiscus, is common 
in the Germanic Laws : • Si quis berbicem 
furaverit,' Salic Law (t. 4, § 2). Berbi- 
cem is another form of berbecem, to be 
found in Petronius, ist cent. (For e = ? 



see § 59.) Berbecem, used by Petronius 
as a popular Lat. form, answers to the ver- 
vecem of the literary language. For v = 6 
see § 140. 

BRECHE, sf. a gap, break; from O. H. G. 
brecha. — Der. ebrecher. 

BRECHET, sm. the breast-bone, brisket. 
O. Fr. breschet, originally brtschet, a word 
of Celtic origin (Kymri brisket, the breast). 

BREDOUILLER, vn. to stammer. Origin 

BREF, adj. short, brief; from L. brevis. 
For final v=/see § 142. 

BREF, sm. a papal brief; from L. breve 
(used for an act, document, by Justinian 

I and Jerome;. For final v=/ see § 142 — 
Der. brevet (see achever) 

jBREHAIGNE, adj. barren, sterile. Origin 

j unknown, 

! BRELAN, sm. brelan (a game of cards) ; from 

j brelenc, of Germ, origin (Germ, bretling, 

\ dim. of brett, a board, whence a diceboard). 

BRELOQUE, sf. a trinket. Origin unknown. 

BREME, sf. a bream. O. Fr. bresme, from 

1 Germ, brassen. 

BRETAUDER, va. to crop close (hair, etc.). 
Origin unknown. 

JBRETELLE, sf. a strap, brace. Origin un- 

! known. 

JBRETTE, sf. a rapier, long sword; of Germ, 
origin {Sand, bregma). — Der. brettem. 

8REUVAGE, sm. beverage. O. Fr. beuvrage, 
Sp. bebrage, It. beveraggio, from L. biber- 
aticum* (see Ducange). Biberaticum 
is from biberare * (frequent, of bibere). 
Bib(e)rdticuin, contrd. into bib'rdticum 
(§ 52). produced O. Fr. beuvrage by change 
(l) of -aticum into -age (§ 248) ; (2) of 
i into e (§ 72); e = eu is uncommon; (3) 
of b into V (see § 113). Beuvrage became 
breuvage by the transposition of r, discussed 
under dprete. 

Just as biberaticum has produced first 
beuvrage, then breuvage, biberare (a 

1 medieval Lat. word) has produced, by means 

! of its compd. adbiberare, the O. Fr. abeu- 

! vrer, which has become abreuver as beuvrage 

t has become breuvage. For the permuta- 

! tions see dprele. 

iJREVET, sm. brevet, letters-patent. See 

I bref{2). 

i3r6viaire, sm. a breviary; from L. brevi- 

; arium (a manual, and, in particular, in 

I eccles. language, a manual of daily prayers). 

RIBE, ./. a hunch of bread. Origin un- 
Brick, sm. a brig ; from Engl. brig. 


BR I COLE, sf. a breast-band. Origin un- 

BRIDE, /. a bridle ; of Germ, origin (O.H.G. 
brit'l, britiil). — Der. brid&x, bndon, de- 

+ Brigade, sf. a brigade; introd. in i6th 
cent, from It. brigata (division of an army). 
Brigade is a doublet of briguee. — Der. 

BRIGUE, §f. an intrigue. Origin unknown. 
— ^Der. briguev. 

BRILLER, vn. to glitter, shine; from L. 
beryllare * (to sparkle like a precious 
stone ; from L. beryllus). For loss of e 
cp. perustulare, bruler. This loss, other- 
wise very rare, is found in other vowels, 
as in quiritare, crier; corrosus, creux; 
corotulare, crouler: it also occurs in the 
second degree in the Fr. forms bluter 
(beluter), bluette (belueite), brouette (berou- 
ette), etc. — Der. brilUnt, brUhnter. 

Briraborion, sm. a bauble, toy. Origin 

BRIN, sm. a blade (of grass, etc.). Origin 

BRIOCHE, sf. a cake. Origin unknown. 

BRIQUE, sf. a brick ; originally a fragment. 
The Bresse patois has the phrase brique de 
pain for a piece of bread. Of Germ, origin 
(Engl, brick, A. S. brice, a fragment). — Der. 
briquetitx, briqueter, briquet. 

•\' 'Briae, sfa breeze ; a sea term introd. to- 
wards the end of the 1 7th cent, from Engl. 

BRISER, va. to break ; from O. H. G. bristan. 
— Der. bris (verbal subst,), brisee (partic. 
subst.), 6mant, 6nseur. 

BROC, sm. a jug. Origin unknown. 

BROCANTER, va. to deal in second-hand 
goods. Origin unknown. — Der. brocantage, 

t Brocard, sm. a taunt, jeer; word of 
hist, origin. In the middle ages, in scholastic 
phrase, brocard (Schol. Lat. brocarda) 
meant the ' sentences ' of Brocardus, Bishop 
of Worms, who compiled twenty books of 
' Regulae Ecclesiasticae.' 

BROCART, sm. brocade; from brochart, 
a stuff brochee with gold. See broche. 

BROCHE, sf. a spit; from L. brocca * (a 
needle, der. from broccus, used by Plautus 
for a point, a sharp tooth). — Der. brocher, 
brochette, embrocher, brochure, brochige, 
brocket, dim. of broche, a word which in 
O. Fr. meant a pike, so called by reason of 
its pointed head : this metaphor is not pe* 
culiar; Engl, pike is a similar case. 



BROCHER, va. to stitch (a book). See broche. 
— Der. brochure. 

BROCHET, sm. a pike. See broche. 

BRODEQ.UIN, sm. (i) a buskin, sock; (2) 
a half-boot. Sp. borcegui. It. borzacchino, 
from Flem. brosekin. The It. and Sp.have 
kept the Flem. s, while the Fr. has changed 
it, very irregularly, into the dental d. 

BRODER, va. to embroider. See border, of 
which it is a doublet Der. broderie. 

Bronches, sf. (Med.) the bronchus; from 
Gr. ^p6yxof- — Der. bronckite. 

BRONCHER, vn. to stumble. Origin un- 

+ Bronze, sm. bronze; introd. in i6th 
cent, from It. bronzo. — Der. bronzer. 

BROSSE, sf. a brush. This word, now a 
piece of wood stuck with bristles, and for- 
merly with couch-grass or heather, is an 
example of restriction of meaning, see 
§ 12. Brosse, Low L. brustia, from 
O. H. G. brustia, signified at the beginning 
of the Fr. language, heather, broom, and 
only slowly was taken to mean a branch 
of broom used to sweep away dust. This 
original sense of the word ( = broussailles, 
brush-wood) remains in some phrases and 
usages. Speaking of woodland, brushwood 
is still called une brosse ; to beat a thicket 
is still called brosser in hunting- speech; cp. 
*to brush the covers': so Ronsard says, 
// brossa longuement sans trouver nulle 
proie ; and Saint-Simon even uses the word 
in the general sense of passing or crossing, 
Le premier president brossa a trovers la 
compaigne et disparut. This verb brosser, 
to traverse, cross, exists still in the deriv. 
rebrousser, originally rebrosser. Lastly, 
hroussaille, in the 16th .cent, brossaille, is 
the dim. of brosse, and signifies a little 
brosse, a little brush. 

BROUET, sm. caudle, broth. The broth 
which Le Fontaine's fox serves up for the 
stork is brouet. Like It. brodetto, which is 
the dim. of It. brodo, brouet is the dim. 
in et of O. Fr. brou, which answers to Low 
L. brodum and to O. H. G. brod (gravy). 
For change of brodum into brou see affou- 
age ; for the loss of d see accabler. 

BROUETTE, sf. a wheelbarrow; in 12th 
cent, berouaite, Walloon berouette. This 
word signified as late as the 1 8th cent, a 
little two-wheeled truck ; in Louis XIV's 
days it was a chaise-a-porteur on two wheels. 
In the 1 5th cent, it was a cart of considerable 
size, for Andr6 de la Vigne speaks of des 
charrettes e/ brouettes yw« estoient a V entree 

de Charles VIII a Florence. Brouefte or 
rather berouette (the prim, orthography) is a 
dim. of beroue * (for dim. in -el(e see ab- 
lette). Beroue is from L. birota, a two- 
wheeled car. For bi = be see bis ; for 
rota = ro»/tf see roue. The O. Fr. berouette 
is contrd. into brouette by dropping the e, see 
briller ; but in many patois the old form is 
still retained and the word is proncd. 6c- 
BROUILLARD, sm. a fog. See brouiller. 
BROUILLER, va. to mingle, embroil. Origin 
unknown. — Der. brouille (verbal subst.), 
brouillon, debrouiller, embrouiller. 
BROUIR, va. to blight. Origin unknown. 
BROUSSAILLES, sf. brushwood. See brosse. 
BROUT, sm. shoots of young wood. O. Fr. 
broust, originally brost, a word of Germ, 
origin (A. S. brustian, to burgeon, sprout). 
— Der. broutti (to browse, lit. to eat the 
brouts, or shoots), ^rowriller. 
BROYER, va. to grind, crush ; word of Germ. 
origin (Goth, brihan, to break). The Lat. 
bricare* which springs from the Germ, 
word, produces regularly broyer, just as 
plicare produces p/qyer, q. v. 
BRU, sf. a daughter-in-law. O. Fr. brut, from 

O. H. G. prut, a bride. 
+ Brugnon, sm. a nectarine ; introd. in 

1 6th cent, from It. brugna. 
BRUINE, sf. drizzling rain. Origin un- 
BRUIRE, vn. to roar. Origin unknown. — 
Der. bruit, ebruiter, bruissemeat. The 
pres. p. of bruire is bruyant. 
BRUIT, sm. a noise. See bruire. 
BRULE-POURPOINT, sm. originally a gun 
discharged so near as to set fire to the 
pourpoint, doublet. See bruler and pour- 
BRULER, va. to burn ; formerly brusler. It. 
brustolare, from L. pSrustulare*, to bum 
entirely. From ustus, partic. of urere 
came the verb ustare, whence again the 
dim. ustulare (which is to be seen in O. Sp. 
uslar for ust'lar). Just as ustus produced 
ustulare so perustus produced, with in- 
termediate perustare, the form perustu- 
lare (which remains almost unchanged in 
It. brustolare). 

For change of perustulare into brusler, 
— perust(u)lare loses its u ; perus'tlare 
is contri. into p'rust'lare by losing the 
first vowel, see briller ; p becomes b, see 
§11; then brustlare, by assimilation of 
tl into // and reduction of // into / (§ 168), 
becomes bruslar, then O. Fr. brusler, whence 



bruler, by loss of s, see § 148. — Der. hrul- 

ure, briilot. 
Brume, sf. fog, mist; from L. bruma. — 

Der. brumeux. 
BRUN, adj. brown ; from O. H. G. brdn.— 

Der. brune (sf.) ; brunix, 6r««issage, brun- 

atre, embrunix, rexnbrumx. 
+ Brusque, adj. brusque, sharp, short (in 

manner) ; introd. in 1 6th cent, from It. 

brusco. — Der. brusqutr, brusqueue. 
Brut, adj. raw, unwrought, uncultivated ; 

from L. brutus. — Der. 6r«^al, bruUlh^, 

BRUYANT, adj. noisy. See brmre.—Der. 

bruyamment for bruyantment ; see abon- 

BRUYERE, sf. heather. O. Fr. bruiere, from 

L. brugaria, used for heather in several 

Lat. texts of the early middle ages. The word 

comes from Celt., a dim. of Breton briig. 

For the passage from brugaria to bruyere, 

for loss of g see allier ; for -aria = -lire see 

BUANDIER, sf. a bleacher. See buee. 
Bubon, sm. a tumour (in the groin) ; from 

Gr. Pov^cuv. 
Buccal, adj. buccal, relating to the mouth ; 

from L. buccalis. 
BtJCHE, sf. a log of wood. O. Fr. busche, 

Prov. busca, from L. bosca*, fem. form 

of boscum ; see bois. For -ca = -che see 

acharner; for o = m see curee. — Der. buchtr, 

Bucolique, adj. bucolic ; from Gr. ^ovko- 

+ Budget, sm.a. budget; introd. at the fall 

of the Empire (1814) from Engl, budget. 
BUEE, sf. lye. Origm unknown. — Der. 6wan- 

dier, Jwanderie. 
BUFFET, sm. a cupboard, sideboard, buffet. 

Origin unknown. 
I BUFFLE, sm. a buffalo ; from L. bufalus, 

used by Fortunatus, a secondary form of 

bubalus. — Der. buffietin, buffieterie. 
BUIS, sm. a box-tree; from L. buxus 

For x = s see ajouter; accented u becomes 

ui, see § 96. — Der. buison. (For the ex- 
tension of sense see § 1 2.) 
BUISSON, sm. a bush. See buis. 
Bulbe, sm. a bulb ; from L. bulbus. 
Bulle,s/. a bubble; from L. bulla. Bulle 

is also the little ball of metal appended to 

the seal of letters-patent, whence the name 

of bull, given to papal letters-patent. Bulle 

is a doublet of bill, q. v. 
t Bulletin, sm. a bulletin ; introd. in i6th 

cent, from It. bulletina. 

BURE, sf. drugget, coarse woollen cloth ; from 
L. burra*. 'Nobilis horribili jungatur 
purpura burrae,' says an epigram attributed 
to Eucerias. — Der. fewreau (woollen stuff: 
vetu de simple bureau, says Boileau) ; then a 
table covered with baize. 

BUREAU, sm. a writing table. See bure. — 
Der. 6wraliste,6wreawcra tie (from bureau and 
cratie ; see aristocratie, dSmocraiie), bureau- 

BURETTE, sf. a cruet ; dim. of O. Fr. bure 
(a bottle). Origin unknown. 

+ Bur grave, sm. a burgrave ; introd. from 
Germ, burggraf. 

+ Burin, sm. a graver; introd. (see § 25) 
from It. borino. 

+ Burlesque, adj. burlesque, ludicrous; 
introd. in 1 6th cent, from It. burlesco. 

+ Burnous, sm. a burnous, cloak; introd. 
by travellers from Africa. Ar. bornos. 

+ Busc, sm. a busk, bust (for stays) ; also 
written busque and buste in i6th cent., a 
corruption of It. busto. See buste. 

BUSE, sf. a buzzard ; from L. buteo, a 
sparrowhawk in Pliny. For change of -teo 
into -se, through -tio, see agencer. — Der. 

+ Buste, sm. a bust ; introd. in 1 6th cent, 
from It. busto. Buste is a doublet of boite, 
q. v. 

BUT, sm. aim, mark. See buter. 

BUTER, va. to strike, in O. Fr. ; but in 
mod. Fr. restricted to certain special mean- 
ings. Etymologically buter is a dialectial 
variant of bouter, q. v. — Der. but (verbal 
subst. ; properly the point one aims at, where 
one wishes to end), bouter, lebuter, rebut, 
debut, debuter. 

BUTIN, sm. booty ; of Germ, origin, M. H.G. 
bitten. — Der. butinex. 

BUTOR, sm. a bittern. Origin unknown. 
The stupidity of this bird is proverbial, and 
butor is metaph. used for a stupid fellow 
just as buse (a bird of prey which cannot 
be tamed for hawking, q. v.) is used. 

BUTTE, sf. a butt, rising ground, knoll. 
O. Fr. bute, fem. 'form of but, q. v. These 
two words had the same primitive meaning, 
as is seen 'mXh.tT^h.xzsGetreenbuttea = servir 
de but a. The but being usually placed 
on a rising knoll, the word presently came to 
be used for the knoll itself; and then the 
original meaning perished. 

BUVEUR, sm. a drinker. O. Fr. beuveur, 
older still beveur, originally beveor, from L. 
bibitorem (in Isidore of Seville). Bibi- 
(t)orem produced beveor by loss of medial 



t, see § 1 1 7 ; and the two atonic i's became 
e, see mettre. Beveor became beveur by 
changing eo into eu, see ateul ; then beu- 
veur by changing the first vowel e into eu ; 
and finally buveur by change of eu into u, 
see jumeau. The Sp. bevedor, It. bevitore, 

confirm this derivation. By a transforma- 
tion like the above, bibentem becomes 
buvant (for the changes see above), whence 
buvahle, buvette, etc. 
BysBUS, sm. byssus, a kind of fine linen; 
from L. byssus. 

^A, adv, here; from L. ecc'ao * (compd. of 
ecce-hac, like ecciste, eccille, for ecce- 
iste, ecce-ille). For loss of the h see 
atelier. Eooe means • here,' in several 7th 
and 8th cent, documents, e.g. 'Parentes 
, ecce habeo multos,' * I have here many re- 
lations.' The phrase ecce-hac is therefore 
pleonastic. For ecc'ac = fa see ce. 

+ Cabale, sf. cabala, cabal; a word of 
Heb. origin, meaning properly the Jewish 
traditional interpretation of the O. Test., 
from Heb. habala, traditional teaching. 
This word in the middle ages signified (i) 
a secret interpretation, (2) a mysterious 
science of commerce with supernatural 
beings. It has produced the adj. caba- 
listique. From the sense of occult measures, 
secret efforts to attain one's end, comes the 
modern signification of cabal, whence the 
verb cabaler. Cabale is a doublet of 
frabelle, q. v. 

•f-Caban, sm. a hooded cloak; introd. in 
1 6th cent, from Sp. gahan. 

CABANE, sf. a cabin; from L. capanna (in 
Isidore of Seville : ' Tugurium parva casa 
est; hoc rustici capanna vocant.* The 
form cabanna is to be seen in the 8th 
cent, in the Glosses of Reichenau). For 
p = 6 see dbeille. Cabane is a doublet of 
cabine, q. v. — Der. cabanon. 

CABARET, sm. a public-house, tavern. Ori- 
gin unknown. — Dfer. cabaretitr. 

CABAS, sm. a frail, basket of rushes. Origin 

+ Cabestan, sm. a capstan ; in 17th cent. 
capestan, introd. from Eng. capstan. 

+ Cabine, sf. a cabin; introd. from Eng. 
cabin. Cabine is a doublet of cabane, q. v. 

+ Cabinet, sm. a cabinet; introd. in l6th 
^cent. from It. gabinetto. 

CABLE, sm. a cable ; from L. caplum (found 
in sense of a cord in Isidore of Seville beside 
the form capuliun). For p = 6 see § ill. 

CABOCHE, sf. head, pate, noddle ; dim. of L. 

caput by suffix oceus = oche, which is to be 
seen in Spinoche, pinoche, etc. For p = 6 
(caput is cabo in the Salic Law) see 
§ III. 
+ Cabot er, vn. to coast. Cabotage, 

sm. coasting ; introd. from It. cabotaggio. 
— Der. cabotcax, cabot'm (a strolling come- 
dian, who goes from village to village, just 
as the coasters go from port to port). 

Cabotin, sm. a strolling player. See' ea- 

t Cabrer, vpr. to rear, prance, like a goat 
on its hind legs; introd. in l6th cent, from 
Sp. cabra. 

t Cabri, sm. a kid. O. Fr. cabrit, from 
Prov. cabrit, which from L. capritum * (a 
goat in the Germanic Laws), from capra. 

+ Cabriole, sf. a caper ; in Montaigne ca- 
priole; introd. in i6th cent, from It. capriola 
(properly the leap of a kid). Cabriole is a 
doublet of chevreuil, q. v. — Der. cabrioler, 
cabriolet (a two-wheeled carriage which 
leaps ; from its lightness). 

Cabriolet, sm. a cabriolet, cab. See ca- 

CABUS, sm. cabbage, cauliflower ; der. in- 
directly from L. caput (properly = a cabbage 
without a head). For p = i see § 1 1 1 . For 
chou-cabus the Germ, is kopfkohl (lit. head- 
cabbage). It. capuccio (lit. little head), forms 
which show what the origin of the word is. 

t Cacao, sm. cacao, cocoa ; introd. at end 
of 1 6th cent, from America. — Der. cacao- 

•\ Cachalot, sm. the sperm-whale; introd. 
from Engl, cachalot. 

+ Cachemire, sm. cashmere, a kind of 
stuff originally worn in Cashmere. 

CACHER, va. to hide, conceal ; from L. 
coactare, to be pressed together, whence 
by extension comes se cacher, i.e. to crouch 
down, to hide oneself. Cacher was used 
in Fr. in the active sense of ' to press under 
foot,* in the line of Ronsard, A pieds 



desckaux cache le vin noveau, ' Barefoot he 
presses out the grape,' which proves the 
origin of the word without doubt. Similarly 
It. quatto signifies both concealed and com- 

Coactare produces cacher (l) by chang- 
ing ct into ch, see Hist. Gram. p. 60 ; (2) 
by suppressing the o before a (cp. c o a g 1 a r e , 
d. Fr. coailler, cailler). — Der. cache (verbal 
subst.), cncAette, cachtX (rightly that which 
serves to hide the contents of a letter), 
cacAotter (whence cachot, verbal subst.), 

CACHET, sm. a seal, stamp. See cacher. — 
Der. cacheter, decacheier. 

CACHOT, sm. a dungeon. This word, ori- 
ginally meaning ( = cachette) a hiding-place 
(Ambroise Pare speaks' of cachots des betes 
sauvages), is the verbal subst. of cachotter. 
See cacher. 

Cacochyme, adj. ' cacochymic,' peevish ; 
from Gr. Kanoxv/xos. 

Cacographie, s/.'cacography,' bad-spelling; 
from Gr. KaKoypacpia. 

Cacologie, sf. ' cacology,' bad choice of 
words ; from Gr. KaKoKoyia. 

Cacophonie, sf. 'cacophony,' jarring 
sounds ; from' Gr. KaKO<pcovia. 

Cactus, sm. a cactus ; from Gr. kAktos. 

CADASTRE, sm. a 'cadastre,' official report 
on real property. O. Fr. capdastre, It. 
catastro, from L. capitastrum* (a register 
serving to regulate incidence of taxation), 
der. from caput, which in Class. Lat. is 
used for the capital-sum of a contribution. 
The Sp. similarly has cabezon for cabeza 
(the head). 

Cap(i)tdstrum loses its i according to 
rule, see § 52 ; and becomes cadastre by 
changing pt into d, as in male-aptus, 
malade ; captellum *, ca^/e/. 

Cadavre, sm. a corpse; from L. cadaver. 
— Der, cadaveri(\vie, cadavereux. 

CADEAU, sm. a gift, present; properly the 
feather-flourishes with which writing-masters 
adorn their specimens of skill : in this sense 
it is found in 1 6th cent., then it came to 
mean trifles, agreeable pastimes of no value. 
Faire des cadeaux was used for ' to amuse 
oneself with trifles ' ; then cadeau was used 
for amusement, entertainment, fete: thus 
Moli<-re, in the Mariage force, has J'aimeles 
visifes, les cadeaux, les promenades, en un 

. mot toutes les choses de plaisir. The word 
is especially used of entertainments given to 
women ; in the I yth cent, the phrase don- 
ner auxfemmes k« cadeau off musique etde 

dance was used. From this phrase donner 
un cadeau comes the modern sense of a 
present. The word is a good example of 
the way in which words drift away from 
their original sense. In its signification 
of the feather-flourishes of the writing- 
master, a sort of calligraphic ' chain,* ca- 
deau, O. Fr. (i2th cent.), cadel (in Gerard 
de Roussillon) comes, through the Prov., 
from L. catellus (a little catena, chain). 

tCadenas, sm. a padlock, in Rabelais 
catenas. Introd. in 16th cent, from It. 
catenaccio Der. cadenasser. 

+ Cadence, sf. a cadence, measure ; introd. 
in 16th cent, from It. cadenza. Cadence is 
a doublet of chance, q. v Der. cadenctx. 

+ Caddne, sf. a chain ; from Prov. cadena, 
which from L. catena. Cadene is a 
doublet of chaine, q. v. 

Cadenette, sf. plaited hair (as worn by 
men) ; a word of hist, origin (see § 33) ; 
a kind of coiffure brought into fashion in 
the time of Louis XIII by Honor^ d'Albret, 
brother of the Duke de Luynes, the Lord of 

\ Cadet, adj. younger ; from Prov. capdef, 
which from L. cap'tettum *, capitet- 
ttim, dim. of caput, head ; the eldest son 
being regarded as the first head of the 
family, the second son the cadet, or little 

Cadran, sm. a dial-plate, clock-face. O. Fr. 
quadrant, from L. quadrantem (a sundial, 
surface on which the hours are traced). 

t Cadre, sm. a frame; introd. in l6th 
cent, from It. quadra. — Der. cadrer, en- 

Caduc, adj. decrepit, decayed; from L. 
caducus. — Der. caducite. 

Caduc6e, sm. a caduceus, herald's staff : 
from L. caduceum. 

Cafard, sm. a hypocrite. Origin unknown. 

+ Caf6, sm. coffee ; introd. from the East by 
travellers at beginning of 17th cent.; it is 
the Turkish kahveh, — Der. ca/ier, ca/etier, 

CAGE, sf. a cage ; from L. cavea. For 
-ea, = -ge see § 243 ; for loss of v see § 141. 
Cage is a doublet of gabie, q.v. — Der, 
cfl/oler (for cageoler), which in O.Fr. bore 
sense of to sing like a caged bird, but by 
a natural transition has come to mean to 
seduce by flattering words. 

tCagneux, adj. knock-kneed (like a 
beagle), dim. of cagne, from It. cagna, a 

Cagot, sm. a bigot. Origin unknown. 



CAHIER. sm. a writing-book, copy-book. 
O. Fr. cayer, originally quayer, from L. qua- 
temum* (a book of four leaves, then a 
writing-book). For loss of medial t, 
qua(t)em\im, see § 117; for rn = r see 
aubour; for qua = ca see car; for the in- 
tercalation of an h see Hist. Gram. p. 79. 
The It. quaderno. Cat. cuern, both confirm 
this derivation. Cahier is a doublet of 
caserne, and quaterne, q. v. 

Cahin-caha, adj. so-so, indifferently ; from 
L. qua hinc, — qua hac (hither-thither). 

CAHOTER, va. to jolt. Origin unknown. — 
Der. cahot (verbal subst.). 

tCahute, sf. a hut; prop, ship's cabin: 
sailors say cajute. From Du. kajuit. 

CAIEU, sm. a clove. Origin unknown. 

CAILLE, sf. a quail. O.Fr. quaille. It. quaglia, 
from medieval Lat. Quaquila, regularly 
contrd. (§51) into quaq'la, becomes caille, 
(l) by changing qtia into ca, see car; (2) 
cl into iU see abeille. The form quaquila 
is of Germ, origin, answering to O. Neth. 

CAILLER, va. to curdle. O. Fr. coailler, from 
L. coagiilare. Coag(u)lare, contrd, re- 
gularly (§52) into coag'lare, produced the 
O. Fr. coailler by changing gl into il, as 
in vigl'are, veiller; see Hist. Gram. p. 71. 
For loss of o see cacher. Cailler is a 
doublet of coaguler, q. v. — Der. caillot. 

CAILLOU, sm. a flint, pebble. Origin un- 
known Der. cailloutSLge. 

f Caiman, sm. cayman, alligator ; introd. 
from American colonies through the Sp. 

+ Caisse, sf. a case, chest, box; from L. 
capsa, through Prov; caissa. For a. = ai 
see aigle. ps becomes ss by assimilation ; 
a phenomenon visible in Lat.: we find issa 
scrisi, for ipsa scripsi, in an 8th-cent. 
document ; and this change of ps into ss 
was accomplished ages before in popular 
Lat., for Suetonius tells us that the Emperor 
Claudius punished a senator for saying isse 
instead of ipse, pt is similarly assimi- 
lated, as in recepta, recette, see § 168; 
and pm becomes m, as in sept i man a, 
setnaine. Caisse is a doublet of casse, chasse, 
q. v. 

CAJOLER, va. to cajole. See cage. — Der. 

Cal, sm. a callosity ; from L. callus. 

Calamity, sf. a calamity; from L. calami- 

Calandre, sf. (Ornith.) • calandra,' a kind 
of lark ; from Gr. Kapadpios, through L. 

caradrion, used in the Vulgate. For r = / 
see autel and § 154; for intercalation of 
an n see concombre. 

CALANDRE, sf. a calender, mangle ; from 
L. oylindrus. For y = a see balance ; for 
in = a« see § 72, note 4. Calandre is a 
doublet of cylindre, q. v. 

Calcaire, adj, calcareous, chalky ; from L. 

Calciner, calcine ; from L.calcinare*, 
which from calcem. 

Calcul, sm. a reckoning; from L. calculus 
(properly a pebble, used to count with). — 
Der. calculex, ca/cw/ateur, inca/cw/able, cal- 

+ Cale, sf. stocks (in a ship); from It. 

+ Cale, sf. a wedge, to support, steady 
(caler) anything ; from Germ. keil. 

+ Calebasse, sf. a calabash; introd. in 
l6th cent, from Sp. calabaza. 

tCaleche, sf a barouche; introd. from 
Sclav, languages (Polish holasha, holassa) 
through Germ, kalesche. 

't'Cale^On, sm. drawers; introd. in l6th 
cent, from It. calzone. Calepon is a double? 
of chausson, q. v. 

Calembour, sm. a pun. Origin unknown. 

Calendes, sf. pi. the calends; from L. ca- 

CALENDRIER, sm. a calendar. O. Fr. calen- 
dier, from L. calendarium. For -arium 
= -ier see §198; for insertion of r see 

Calepin, sm. a Latin dictionary, note-book, 
a word of hist, origin, see § 33. This 
word, which now only signifies a little agenda 
book, meant in the 1 7th cent, a vast collec- 
tion of notes, as we see in Boileau : Qui de 
ses revenus ecrils par alphabet Pent fournir 
aisement un calepin complet. Originally 
the word signified a huge dictionary in six 
languages, very famous in early 1 6th cent., 
by Ambrosius Calepinus, an Augustin monk, 
who died a.d. 151 1. 

CALER, va. to wedge up, steady. See cale. 

t Calfater, va. to caulk; in Rabelais ca- j 
lafter; introd in i6th cent, from It. cala- 
fatare. — Der. calf at (verbal subst). After ] 
the 1 6th cent, calfater was corrupted into | 
calfeutrer {calfeutrer un navire is not rare in j 
i6th-cent. authors). 

Calfeutrer, va. to caulk. See calfater. 

+ Calibre, sm. calibre; introd. in l6thcent. 
from It. calibro. 

CALICE, sf. (i) Bot. a calix; (2) a chalice, 
cup ; from L. calicem. 



Calicot, sm. calico; a word of hist, origin 
(see § 33), from the city of Calicut, the seat 
of this manufacture. 

t Calife, SOT. a khalif ; from Ar. Khalifa, 
the successor of the Prophet (§ 30). 

CALIFOURCHON, adv. a-straddle, a-stride. 
Origin unknown. 

CALIN, sm. a cajoler, wheedler. Origin un- 
known. — Der. cdlifier, calinene. 

Calleux, adj. callous; from L. callosus. 
For -osus = -«/«! see § 229. Calleux is a 
doublet o{ galeux. — Der. callosite. 

Calligraphe, sm. a calligraphist ; from Gr. 
k6.\\os and ypdcpdv. — Der. calligraphie. 

"f-Calme, sot. tranquillity, quiet; from It. 
calma. — Der. calmer, which is a doublet of 
chfJmer, q. v. 

Calomnie, sf. calumny; from L. calum- 
nia. Calomnie is a doublet of chalenge, 
q. V. — Der. calomnicLteur, calomiiier. 

Calorif^re, sm. a stove ; a word made up 
of L. calor and fero. 

CALOTTE, sf. a skullcap. Origin unknown. 

fCalquer, va. to trace, draw on tracing 
paper; introd. in i6th cent., with many 
other terms of art, from It. calcare. 
Calquer is a doublet of cocher, q. v. — Der. 
calqiie (verbal subst.), decalquer. 

Calvitie, s/. baldness; from L. calvities. 

CAMAIEU, SOT. a cameo. See camee. 

•f Cam ail, S7n. camail ; originally a coat of 
mail, covering the head and shoulders; now 
a clerical vestment covering head and 
shoulders, down to the waist: introd. in 
middle age from Prov. capmail, from L. 
caput and macula, properly therefore 
mail-armour for the head. For etymology of 
maille, see that word. 

fCaraarade, SOT. a comrade; introd. in 
1 6th cent, from Sp. camarada, properly 
one who shares the same chamber (camera), 
originally a military term. Camarade is a 
doublet of chambree, q. v. — Der. camarad- 

CAMARD, adj. flat-nosed. Origin unknown. 
See camns. 

+ Cambouis, sm. cartgrease. O. Fr. cam- 
bois, from Prov. camois, dirt. Origin un- 
CAMBRER, va. to arch, bend, vault ; from 
L. camerare. For loss of e see §52; 
for ra.'v = mbr see absoudre. Cambrer 
is a doublet of chambrer, q. v. — Der. cam- 
f Cambuse, sf. steward's room, cook's 
room (on board ship) ; introd. from Engl. 

+ Carafe, sf. a cameo; introd. in i6th 

cent, from It. cameo. — Der. caOTaieu. 
Cam^leon, sm. a chameleon; from Gr. 

Cainelot, sm. camlet ; originally stuff made 
of camel's hair. The word, in medieval 
Lat. documents written camelotum, is a 
deriv. of L. camelus. 
t Cani6rier, SOT, a chamberlain ; introd. 
from It. cameriere. Camerier is a doublet 
of chambrier, q. v. 

fCam^riste, sf. a waiting-woman; in- 
trod. from It. camerista. 

Camion, sot. a dray. Origin unknown, 

+ Cam.isole, sf. a short night-dress, morn- 
ing jacket ; introd. in i6th cent, from It. 
camiciuola., sf. camomile; introd. in 
16th cent, from It. camomilla. 

Cam.ouflet, sm. a puff of smoke in a sleeper's 
face, an aflfiront. Origin unknown, 

Cam^p, SOT. a camp; from L. campus, pro- 
perly field of battle, hence the place where 
an army encamps before a battle). Camp 
is a doublet of champ, q, v, — Der. camp- 
er, Aecamper. 

CAMPAGNE, sf. country, champaign, plain- 
land ; from L. campania, found in sense of 
a plain in the Roman surveyors. For -ania 
= -agne see moniagne and § 244. — The 
O. Fr. form was champagne, which belongs 
primarily to the Picard dialect (see Hist. 
Gram. p. 21), and came late into Fr. Cam- 
pagne is a doublet of champagne, q.v. — Der. 

f Cam.panile, sot, a campanile; introd, 
from It. campanile. 

t Cam,parLule, sf. a campanula; introd. 
in 1 6th cent, from It, campanula. 

Cam.pech.e, sot. logwood ; a word of hist, 
origin (see § 33), meaning wood from the 
forests which line Campeachy bay. 

CAMPER, va. to encamp. See camp. — Der. 
campement., sm. camphor; from L. c am- 
phora*, which is of Ar. origin (^a/ar). F'or 
loss of o see ancre and § 51, 

CAMUS, adj. flat-nosed. Origin unknown. 

t Canaille, sf. mob. rabble; introd, in 
1 6th cent, from It. canaglia. Canaille is a 
doublet oi chienaille and §51. 

Canal, sot. a pipe; from L. canalis. Canal 
is a doublet of chenal, q. v. — Der. canal- 

+ Canape, sm. a sofa; introd. in i6th 
cent, from It. canape. Rabelais has cono- 



CANARD, sm. a drake. See cane. — Der. 

Canari, sm. a canary-bird. O. Fr. canaries, 

a word of hist, origin (§ 33), a bird 

brought from the Canaries. 
CANCAN, sm. gossip, tittle-tattle. An ono- 
matopoeia (§ 34). — Der. caticantr. 
Cancer, sm. a cancer; from L. cancer. 

Cancer is a doublet of chancre, q. v. — Der. 

CANCRE, sm. a crab, rightly crahe ; from L. 

canc6rem. For loss of e see § 51. This 

word belongs properly to the Picard dialect 

(see Hist. Gram, p. 21), and has come late 

into the Fr. language. 
Candelabra, sm. a candelabrum ; from L. 

Candeur, &f. candour, openness; from L. 

+ Candi, adj. candied; introd. in 1 6th 

cent, from It. candi. 
Candidal, sm. a candidate; from L. can- 

didatus. — Der. candidature. 
Candide,ac?7. candid, fair; fromL.candidus. 
CANE, sf. SL duck. In O. Fr. a boat.— Der. 

canard. This word took its present sense 

late ; the transition of ideas being that of a 

bird floating on the water like a boat. 

Cane is from Germ. kahn. — Der. canard, 

caneton, in sense of 'a boat.' Cane has 

left the dim. canot. 
Can§phore, sf. a basket-bearer ; from Gr. 

+ Canette, s/. a beer-jug; dim. of cane, 

which is the Germ, kanne, a can. — Der. 

canon, the ^ of a litre, 
■f Cane V as, sm. canvas; introd. in i6th 

cent, from It. canavaccio, properly a large 

piece of stuff for embroidery. 
Caniche, sm. a poodle; deriv. of L. canis. 
Canicule, sf. the dog-star; from L. cani- 

CAN IF, sm. a penknife. Of Germ, origin, 

from A, S. cnif. 
Canine, adj. canine; from L. canina. 
CANIVEAU, sm. a sewer, drain. Origin un- 
CANNE, sf, a cane; from L. canna. — Der. 

cannelle, cannele, cannelure, canon. Before 

meaning a piece of artillery it signified the 

gun-barrel, and earlier still the stock of the 

CANON, sm. a cannon. See canne. — Der. 

canonner, -nade, -nier, -niere. 
Canon, sm. a rule, decree; from L. canon. 

— Der. canonique (of which chanoine, q. v., 

is a doublet), canoniser. 

Canonicat, sm. a canonry; from L. can- 

onicatus*, the benefice of a canonicus, 

or canon. 
Canoniser, va. to canonise. See canon. 

— Der. canon/sation. 
CANOT, sm. a canoe. See cane. 
t Cantaloup, sm. (Bot.) a cantalupe ; a 

word of hist, origin, the etymology of which 

is given § 33, 
fCantfete, sf. a cantata; introd. from It. 

cantata. Cantate is a doublet of chantte, 

t Can tat rice, sf. a female singer; introd. 

from It. cantatrice. * 

Cantharide, s/". cantharis; from L. can- 

Cantildne, sf. (Mus.) a cantilene, melody ; 

from L. cantilena. 
+ Cantine, sf. a canteen; introd. in i6th 

cent, from It. cantina. Cantine is a doublet 

of quintaine, q. v. — Der. cantimhxe. 
Cantique, sm. a canticle, hymn ; from L. 

CANTON, sm. a canton. Origin unknown. 

— Der. can/onal, -ner, -nement, -nier. 
t Cantonade, sf. interior of the slips (in 

a theatre) ; from It. cantonata. 
Canule, sf. (Med.) a clyster-pipe ; from L. 

+ Caoutchouc, sm. caoutchouc, india- 
rubber. A word of American origin, cahtit- 

fCap, sm. a cape; introd. in 1 6th cent. 

from It. capo. The It. also signifies ' a 

head,' whence the phrase cap-d-pie, i. e. 

from head to foot. Cap is a doublet of 

chef, q. V. 
Capable, adj. capable; from L. capa- 

bilis. For -abilis — -aWc see o^fc/c. 
Capacity, sf. capacity; from L, capaci- 

+ Capara90n, sm. caparison; introd. in 

1 6th cent, from Sp. caparayon. 
CAPE, sf. a cape, hooded cloak ; from L. 

cappa, found in Isidore of Seville. For 

pp —p see chape. — Der. ca^eline, capoiit. 
CAPELINE, sf. a kind of hood. See cape. 
Capillaire, adj. capillary; from L. capil- 

t Capilotade, sf. a hash. In i6th cent. 

cabirotade, from Sp. cabirotada. 
Capitaine, sm. a captain ; introd. about 

the 14th cent, from capitaneus, a form 

der. by the medieval Lat. from L. caput. 

Capitaine is a doublet of capitan. 
Capital, adj. capital, chief; sm. capital, 

principal; from L. capitalis. Capital is 



a doublet of cheptal, q. v. — Der. capitaliser, 

+ Capitan, sm. a hector, bully; introd. in 

1 6th cent, from Sp. capitan. 
t Capiteux, adj. heady (of wine, &c.) ; 

introd. in i6th cent, from It. capitoso. 
+ Capiton, sm. cappadine, silk flock; 

introd. from It. capitone. — Der. capkonner. 
Capituler, va. to capitulate; from L. 

capitulare*, i. e. to fix the conditions or 

heads of a surrender. Capituler is a doublet 

of chapitrer. — Der. capituhtion, -aire. 
+ Capon, sm. a hypocrite, sneak; from 

It. cappoiie. Capon is a doublet of chapon. 

— Der. caponner. 
"t Caporal, sm. a corporal; introd. in 

1 6th cent, from It. caporale. 
CAPOTE, sf. a great coat, large cape. See 

CAPRE, sf. (Bot.) a caper ; from L. capparis. 

For loss of a see § 51. 
+ Caprice, sm. a whim, freak ; introd. in 

1 6th cent, from It. capriccio. — Der. capric- 

Capricorne, sm. Capricorn ; from L. 

Capsule, sf. a capsule, pod; from L. cap- 

Capter, va. to captivate ; from L. captare. 

— Der. captation, -ateur. 
Captif, adj. a captive; from L. captivus. 

Captif is a doublet of chetif q. v. — Der. 

captiv'ite, -er. 
Capture, sf. capture; from L. captura. — 

Der. capturer. 
tCapuce, sm. a hood; introd. in i6th 

cent, from It. capuccio. — Der. capucin, 

capuc'me (a hood-shaped flower), 
tCaquer, va. to cure, barrel (fish, &c.). 

O. Fr. quaquer, from Dutch kaaken. — Der. 

caque, tncaquer. 
CAQUETER, va. to cackle, cluck; an onoma- 

topoetic word (§ 34). — Der. caquet (verbal 

CAR, conj. for, because ; from L. quare. 

In O. Fr. car kept its etymol. sense ; in the 

13th cent, men said Je ne sais ni car, ni 

comment, where now they would say Je ne 

sais ni p o u r q u o i , «f comment. The change, 

qu = c, is to be seen in many inscriptions 

under the Empire: cotidie, condam,alico, 

etc., for quotidie, quondam, aliquo. qu 

becomes hard c in quare, car; quas- 
, sare, casser; quomodo, comme, etc. 

qu becomes soft c in quinque, cinq; 

quinquaginta, cinquante; querquedula, 

cercelle. qu becomes ch in quercinus, 

chene; quisque-unus, cTiacun. qu be- 
comes s in coquina, cuisine. Certain 
Roman inscriptions of the 3rd cent, give 
us cocere, cinque, for coquere, quin- 

+ Carabine, sf. a rifle, carbine; introd. 
in 1 6th cent, from It. carahina. — Der. 
carabin a 'sawbones,' medical student 
(which in the i6th cent, signified a skir- 
misher armed with a carbine ; thence it 
came to be used for surgeons' appren- 
tices, and originally for those of apothe- 
caries, by way of a nickname, carabin a 
genoux; and thence the present significa- 
tion of the word), carabinier. 

+ Caracole, sf. a caracole, gambol ; introd. 
in 16th cent, from Sp. caracal. — Der. cara- 

CaractSre, sm. character; from L. cha- 
racter. — Der. caracteriser, -istique. 

t Carafe, s/. a decanter; introd. in l6th 
cent, from It. caraffa. — Der. carafon. 

Caramboler, vn. to make a cannon (in 
billiards). Origin unknown. — Der. caram- 

t Caramel, sm. burnt sugar; introd. from 
Sp. caramello. 

t Carapace, s/". carapace (of a tortoise) ; 
introd. from Sp. carapacho. 

+ Carat, sm. carat; introd., with many 
other jewellers' terms, from It. carato. 

f Caravane, sf. a caravan; introd. from 
the East by travellers. Ar. hairavan. — Der. 
caravam^XdW (properly = matsow des cara- 
vanes), Pers. karvan-sarat. 

t Caravelle, sf a caravel (ship); introd. 
from It. caravella. 

Carbone, sm. carbon; from L. carbonem. 
Carbojie is a doublet of charbon, q. v. — Der. 
ca^5owiser, -ique, -ate. 

tCarbonade, sf fried or boiled pork; 
from It. carbonata. Carbonade is a doublet 
o( charbonnee. 

CARCAN, sm. an iron collar, pillory. O. Fr. 
quercant, from O. H. G. querca, the throat. 

t Care ass e, sf a carcass ; introd. in 
1 6th cent, from It. carcassa. 

Carde, sf a chard, teasel-frame; from L. 
carduus. — Der. car don, carder (to comb 
with cardes, i. e. with brushes of iron, 
formed like the teasel), cardtw. 

Cardinal, adj. cardinal; from L. cardina- 
lis, that on which all hinges. — Der. car- 
dinal, sm. 

CAREME, sm. Lent. O. Fr. quaresme, origin- 
ally ywaraesme; lt.quaresima; fromL.quad- 
ragesima. Q,uadrages(i)ma having 
F a 



lost its 1 (see § 51), becomes quadra- 

ges'ma, thence cart'me: (i) by loss of 

medial g, whence O. Fr. quaraesme, see Hist. 

Gram. p. 82 ; (2) by change of dr into r, 

see § 168 ; (3) by change of qua into ca, 

see car ; (4) by loss of s, see Hist. Gram. 

p. 81. Careme is a doublet oi quadragesime. 
Cardne, sf. a keel. In 16th cent, carine, 

from L. carina. 
tCaresse, sf. a caress; introd. in i6th 

cent, from It. carezza. — Der. caresser. 
tCarguer, va. to braii, clew up (sails); 

from Prov. cargar, which from L. carri- 

oare. Carguer is a doublet of charger, q. v. 

— Der. cargue (verbal subst.), carg-aison. 
Cariatide, sf. a caryatide; from Gr. 

+ Caricature, sf. a caricature; introd. in 

1 6th cent, from It. caricatura. — Der. cari- 

Carie, sf. decay; from L. caries. — Der. 

CARILLON, sm. chimes ; from L. quadri- 

lionem, properly the chiming of four bells. 

For qua = <;a see car; for dr = r see § 168 ; 

for 11 = 11 see Hist. Gram. p. 57. — Der. 

Carlin, sm. a pug dog. Origin unknown. 
t Carmagnole, sf. carmagnole, a sort of 

revolutionary dance ; a word of hist, origin 

(see § 33), from the town of Carmagnole 

in Piedmont. 
CARNAGE, sm. carnage, slaughter ; from L. 

carnaticum *, der. from L. caruem. 

For -aticum = -a^e see § 248. 
+ Carnassier, adj. carnivorous; a word 

introd. from Prov. carnaza, whence also 

camassiere, a game-bag. The Prov. carnaza 

is from L. carnacea *, deriv. from carnem. 
Carnation, sf. carnation (colour) ; from L. 

+ Carnaval, sm. carnival ; introd. in i6th 

cent, from It. carnovale. — Der. carnaval- 

CARNET, sm^ a note-book ; from L. quater- 

netum, dim. of quaternum, q. v. 

Q,ua(t)eriietum ; loses its medial t (see 

abbaye and § 117) and changes qua into 

ca (see car). 
Carnivore, adj. carnivorous; from L. car- 

Carotide, adj. carotid (artery) ; from Gr. 

Carotte, sf. a carrot ; from L. carota (used 

by Apicius). 
"tCaroube, sm. the caroub, locust-tree; 

introd. from It. carruba. — Der. caroubicx. 

CARPE, sf. a carp ; from L. carpa, in Cassio- 
dorus, lib. xii. ep. 4 : ' Destinet carpam 
Danubius.' — Der. carpillon. 

t Carquois, sm. a quiver; originally 
tarquois, tarquais, from Low L, tarcasia, 
transcription of Low Gr. ropKaaiov (a 
quiver), introd. from the East by the early 
Crusaders, with many other military terms : 
it answers to the Turk, turkash. 

CARRE, adj. and sm. square. See carrer. 

CARREAU, sm. a tile. O. Fr. carrel, origin- 
ally quarreel, from L. quadratell\iin, dim. 
of quadratus (see carr4). Q,uadra(t)el- 
lum loses its medial t (see abbaye and 
§ 117), softens dr into r (see § 148), changes 
qua into ca, see car; whence O. Fr. carrel 
(which remains in carreler, carrellage, 
decarreler), which has become carreau by 
el = eau, see agneau. 

CARREFOUR, sm. a cross-way (where four 
ways meet). O. Fr, quarrefour, Prov. 
carreforc, from L. quadrifureum. For 
rc = rsee arbalete; for dr = rsee § 148; 
for u = OM see § 90 ; for qua = ca see 

CARRELER, va. to pave with tiles. See 
carreau. — Der. carrelet, -age. 

CARRER, va. to square ; from L. quadrare. 
For qua = ca see car ; for dr = r see § 148. 
Carrer is a doublet of cadrer, q. v. — 
Der. carre, contre-carrer, carruie (which 
is a doublet of quadrature). 

+ Car rick, sm. a top-coat, over-coat ; from 
Engl, carrick. 

CARRIERE, sf. a quarry (stone); from L. 
quadraria * (in this sense used in several 
medieval documents : a quarry is properly 
the spot whence one draws out squared 
stone, quadrata saxa). For qua = ca see 
car ; for dr = r see § 148 ; for -&Tia, = -iere 
see § 198. — Der. carrier. 

Carri^re, sf. a career, a racecourse ; from L, 

f Carriole, sf. a carriole; introd. from 
It. carriuola. 

•j* Carrosse, sm. a coach, carriage; introd. * 
in 16th cent, from It. carrozza. — Der. car- 
rossier, carrossable. 

t Carrousel, sm. a tilt, carousal ; introd. 
from It. carosello. 

Carte, sf. a chart ; from L. charta, carta *. 
¥ox ch. = c see § 126. Carte is a doublet 
of charte, q. v. 

+ Cartel, sm. a challenge ; from It. car- 

Cartilage, sf. cartilage; from L. cartila- 
ginem.— Der. cartilagintMK. 



i* Carton, sm. pasteboard; introd. from It. 
cartone. — Der. car/oranage, cartonmer. 

t Cartouche, 5m. a cartouche, case (Archit. 
and Military) ; introd. in i6th cent, from It. 
cartoccio, which bears both senses, as in the 

Cartulaire, sm. a chartulary ; from L. 
chartularium, a register of title-deeds, 
acts, chartulae of a religious house. Car- 
tulaire is a doublet of chartrier, q. v. 

Cas, sm. a case ; from L. casus. 

Casanier, adj. domestic ; der. through 
casana * from L. casa : properly one who 
stays at home is called casanier. 

+ Casaque, sf. a cassock; introd. in i6th 
cent, from It. casacca. — Der. casaqu'in. 

CASAQUIN, sm. a jacket. See casaque. 

i* Cascade, sf. a cascade; introd. in l6th 
cent, from It. cascata. 

t Case, s/, a little house; from Sp. casa. 
From the sense of little house it comes to 
that of a hut, a compartment, square. — Der. 
crtsier, caser. 

^Casemate, sf. a casemate ; introd. in 
1 6th cent, from It. casamatta. 

t Caserne, s/. barracks; introd. from Sp. 
caserne. Caserne is a doublet of quaterne, 
q. V. — Der. caserntx, casernement. 

Casimir, sm. kerseymere, cashmere; cor- 
ruption of cachemire, q. v. 

'f Casoar, sm. the cassowary, the Malay 
name of the bird. 

'f Casque, sm. a helmet; from It. casco. — 
Der. casquet, a little light casque ; whence 

CASQUETTE, sf. a cap. See casque. 

CASSE, sf. a case; now restricted in sense 
to a printer's case, in compartments, but in 
O. Fr. in the general sense of chest, box 
{ = caisse). Its original meaning survives in 
cassette, a little box. Casse is from L. capsa. 
For ps = S5 see § 168 and caisse, of which 
word it is a doublet. — Der. cassette, cassetin. 

CASSE, §/". a crucible ; from Low L. caza, 
which from O. H. G. kezi, a stove. — Der. 

Casse, sf cassia; from L. casia. — Der. 

CASSE, sf. a breaking, cashiering ; verbal 
subst. of casser, q. v. 

CASSER, va. to break ; from L. quassare. 
For qua = ca see car. — Der. casse, cassuie, 
cassation, concasscr. 
CASSEROLLE, sf a saucepan. See casse. 
CASSETTE, sf. a little box. See casse. 
Cassis, sm. a black-currant bush. Origin 

tCassolette, -s^a scent-box, perfume-pan; 

introd. from Sp. cazoleta. 
t Cassonade, sf moist sugar; introd. 

from Port, cassonada. 
t Castagnettes,s/./)/. castanets; introd. 

from Sp. Castanet as, 
t Caste, sf caste ; from Port, casta^ of pure 

unmixed race ; a word first applied to Hindu 

' castes.' 
f Castel, sm. a castle ; introd. in i6th cent. 

from It. castello. Castel is a doublet of 

chateau, q. v. 
Castor, sm. a beaver; from L. castor. 
Castrat, adj. and sm. castrated, an eunuch ; 

from L. castratus. Caitrat'is a doublet of 

chdtre. — Der. cas/ration. 
Casuel, adj. casual, accidental ; from L. 

fCasuiste, sm. a casuist; introd. from 

Sp. casuista. 
Catachr^se, sf catachresis ; from Gr. 

Cataclysme, sm. a cataclysm, deluge ; from 

Gr. KaraKAvafios. 
t Catacombes,././)/. catacombs; introd. 

from It. catacomba. 
f Catafalque, sm. a catafalque; introd. 

in 1 6th cent, from It. catafalco. Catafalque 

is a doublet of echafaud, q. v. 
Catalepsie, sf. catalepsy; from Gr. Kara- 

XrjipLS. — Der. cataleptique. 
Catalogue, sf a catalogue ; from Gr. Kard- 

\oyos. = Der. cataloguer. 
Cataplasme, sm. a cataplasm, poultice ; 

from Gr. fcaTairXacrfM. 
Catapulte, s/. a catapult; from L. cata- 

Cataracte,s/'. a cataract; fromL.cataracta. 
Catarrhe, sm. a catarrh, cold ; from Gr. 

Karappoos. — Der. catarrhs.], -eux. 
Catastrophe, sf. a catastrophe ; from Gr. 

Catechiser, va. to catechise ; from Gr. 

KaTTjxi-C^LV. Cat^chisme, sm. a cate- 
chism; fr om Gr. KaTTjxicTfios*. Catech- 

iste, sm.a catechist; from Gr. KaTr]xi'0"rr]S*. 

Catechum^ne, sm. a catechumen ; from 

Gr. KaTr]xovfj.(vos. 
Cat6gorie, sf a category ; from Gr. Arariy- 

yopia. — Der. ca^e^orique. 
Cath6drale, sf. a cathedral; from eccles. 

L. cathedralis, sc. ecclesia, a church in 

which is the bishop's seat (cathedra). 
Catholique, adj. catholic ; from Gr, naOo- 

Klkos. — Der. catholicl&me, catholicity. 
CATIMINI, adv. in a corner, stealthily. Ori- 
gin unknown. 



CATIR, va. to press, gloss (cloth) ; from 
cat *, which is from L, coactus. For 
loss of o see cacker; for ct = / see § i68 : 
the It. quatto (from coactus) confirms 
this etymology. — Der. cati (verbal subst.), 
cn//ssage, dccatir. 

CAUCHEMAR, sm. a nightmare, an incubus, 
caused, according to old mythology, by the 
presence of a supernatural being sitting on 
the breast of the sleeper. Cauchemar is 
properly a demon who presses, from the 
two words mar (a demon in the Germ., 
which survives in Engl, night-mare and in 
Germ, nacht-mar), and from cauche, the 
O. Fr, verb caucher, to press. Caucher is 
formed regularly from L. calcare. For 
c = cA see § 126; for al = au see 
agneau. Menage tells us that in his day 
the cauchemar was called cauchevieille in the 
Lyons dialect. Cauche-vieille,ihe old woman 
who presses one down, = la vieille qtiipresse, 
confirms the etymology given above. 

Caudataire, adj. and sm. train-bearing, a 
train-bearer; from L. caudatarius. 

Cause, sf. cause; from L. causa. Cause 
is a doublet of chose, q. v. — Der. causer (to 
be the cause of), causalhe. 

Causer, vn. to talk, chat; from L. causari, 
to defend a cause, then to discuss, lastly to 
talk. Causator is used for a pleader in 
the Lex Salica. — Der. causewr, cawsette. 

Caustique, adj. caustic ; from L.causticus. 

Caut^le, sf. cunning, craft; from L. cautela. 
— Der. cateltMX. 

CatltSre, sm. a cautery, cauterizing iron ; 
from L. cauterium. — Der. cau tenser, cau- 

Caution, sf. a caution ; from L. cautionem. 
— Der. cautionner, cautionnement. 

t Cavalcade, sf. a cavalcade; introd. in 
1 6th cent, from It. cavalcata. Cavalcade 
is a doublet of chevauchee, q. v. 

t Cavalcadour, sm. an equerry; introd. 
in 1 6th cent, from It. cavalcalore. 

i" Cavale, sf. a mare ; introd. in i6th cent, 
from It. cavalla. 

i* Cavalier, sm. a cavalier ; introd. in i6th 
cent, from It. cavaliers. Cavalier is a doublet 
of chevalier, q. v. — Der. cavalierement. 

fCavalerie, sf cavalry; introd. in l6th 
cent, from It; cavalleria. Cavalerie is a 
doublet of chevalerie, q.v. 

i*Cavatine, sf. a cavatina; introd. from 
It. cavatina. 

Cave, sf. a cellar, vault ; from L. cava (used 
in this sense in the Roman land-surveyors). 
— Der. eaveau. 

Cave, adj. hollow ; from L. cavus. 

CAVEAU, sm. a small cellar, vault. See 

t Cavecon, sm. a snaffle-bridle; introd. in 
1 6th cent, from It. cavezzone. 

Caver, va. to hollow ; from L. cavare. 

t Caver, va. to stake; from It. cavare.-^ 
Der. Aicaver. 

Caveme, sf. a cave, cavern ; from L. ca- 
vern a. — Der. caverneviX. 

+ Caviar, sm. caviare ; in i6th cent, cavial, 
from It. caviale. 

Cavit6, sf. a cavity ; from L. cavitatem. 

CE, pron. this. O. Fr. fo, originally if 0, from 
L. ecce-hoc, which has lost its h, see 
atelier, and its final c, see ami and Hist. 
Gram. p. 82 ; and then ecce-o (or ecc'o) 
is changed to /fo by reducing cc into soft 
c, and by changing e into i, see accomplir. 
The O. Fr. igo was afterwards reduced to fo 
(as ici to ci) whence mod. Fr. ce. 

Just as ecce-hoc became ipo, ecce-hic 
became ici (whence the adv. ci) ; ecce-hac 
became 2fa* (whence the adv. fa) ; ecciste 
became O. Fr. icist, later cist ( = celuci-ci in 
O. Fr.), and this became cest (for i = e see 
mettre), whence the mod. Fr. cet (for 
the loss of s see Hist. Gram. p. 81) ; 
eccille became O.Yr. icil, then icel; icel 
(whose fem. icelle survives in some legal 
phrases) is reduced to eel (whose fem. celle 
remains, while the masc. has perished, leav- 
ing behind celui (for details see Hist. 
Gram. p. 113). Eccillos produced O. Fr. 
iceux (for i\\. = eu see agneau), just as illos 
produced eux, and as capillos produced 
cheveux ; iceux finally was reduced to mod. 
Fr. ceux. 

CEANS, adv. within, in this house. O. Fr. 
Qaiens, originally ^aens, compd. of adv. fa 
(q. V.) and ens, which from L. intus. For 
in = 0. Fr. m = mod. Fr. an, see § 68, and 
under andouille. 

CECI, pron. this here ; compd. of ce and ci, 

C6cit§, sf. blindness; from L. caecitatem. 

C6der, va. to yield; from L. cedere. 

fC^dille, sf. a cedilla; introd. from Sp. 

t C6dr at, sm. (Bot.) cedrat ; introd. in i6th 
cent, from It. cedrato. 

Cddre, sm. a cedar; from L. cedrus. 

C6dule, sf. a schedule, note of hand ; from 
L. schedula. 

CEINDRE, va. to encompass, gird ; from L. 
cingere. Cing(e)re having lost the atonic 
penult (see § 51), becomes cin're, whence 



ceindre, by euphonic intercalcation of d 

(n'r = n-d-r), as in astringere, astreindre ; 

pingere, peindre, etc., see Hist. Gram. 

p. 7.:;. (See cem/7/re and absoiidre.) 
CEINTURE,. sf. a girdle, sash; from L. 

cinctura. For ct = / see § 168 ; for i = ei 

cp. sinus, sein ; insignia, enseigne, etc.; 

and all verbs in eindre answering to Lat. 

-ingere, -imere : stringere, etreindre ; 

astringere, astreindre, etc. — Der. cein- 

CELA, pron. that ; compd. of ce and la, q. v. 
Celadon, sm. a sentimental lover; of hist. 

origin, see § 33 ; an allusion to Celadon de 

Cel^bre, adj. celebrated, famous ; from L. 

celebrem. — Der. celebr'ile. 
Celebrer, va. to celebrate ;■ from L. cele- 

brare. — Der. ce7e6ration. 
Celer, va. to conceal; from L. celare. — 

Der. A&celer, receler. 
f C61eri, sm. celery ; introd. from It. seleri, 

a Piedmontese word. 
C616rit6, sf. swiftness; from L. celerita- 

C61este, adj. heavenly; from L. caelestis. 
C61ibat, sm. celibate, celibacy ; from L. 

caelibatus. — Der. celibata.iiQ. 
CELLE, pron.f. that. See ce. 
CELLIER, sm. cellar ; from L. cellarium. 

For -Qxi\xra — -ier see § 198. 
Cellule, sf. a little cell; from L. cellula. 

Cellule is a doublet of ciaule, q. v. — Der. 

celhdeux, celhihixe. 
CELUI, pron. sm. this one. See ce. 
Cement, sm. cement ; from L. caementum. 

Cement is a doublet of ciment, q. v. — Der. 

cementer, cemenUiion. 
C6nacle, sm. a guest-chamber ; from L. 

CENDRE, sf. ashes, cinders. It. cenere, from 

L. cinerem. Cin(e)rem, contrd. after 

the rule. § 51, into cin'rem, becomes 

cendre by change of i into e (see meitre), 

of nr into ndr (see Hist. Gram. p. 73). — 

Der. cendrex, cendrier, cendreux, cendriWon. 
Cdne, sf. the Lord's Supper ; from L. 

C6llobite, sm. a cenobite ; from L. coeno- 

bita, one who Kves in the coenobium, or 

Cenotaphe, sm. a cenotaph; from Gr. 

Cans, sm. census, annual quit-rent ; from L. 

census. — Der. cens'iex, ce/zsitaire, censlve. 
Censer, va. to deem, reckon ; whence partic. 

cense, reputed; from L. censere. 

Censeur, sm. a censor ; from L. censor. 

Censure, sf. censure, blame; from L. c en- 
sura. — Der. censurer. 

CENT, adj. hundred ; from L. centum. — 
Der. centa.ine, cenlennire. 

CENTENIER, sm. a centurion; from L. 
eentenarius. For -arius = -2Vr see § 198. 
Centenier is a doublet of centenaire. 

CENTIEME, adj. hundredth. O. Fr. cen- 
tiesme, from L. centesimus. Centes(i)- 
mus, conlr. into centes'raus after the rule 
(§ 51), becomes centieme by the change of 
e into ie (see arriere), and loss of s (see 
Hist. Gram, p, 81). Centieme is a doublet 
of centime, q. v. 

CENTIME, sm. a centime (^ part of 
a franc) ; from L. centesimus. Oen- 
tes(i)mus, contrd. into centes'mus (see 
§ 51), becomes centime by changing e into i 
(see accomplir), and dropping s (Hist. Gram, 
p. 81). Centime is a doublet of centieme, q.v. 

Centon, sm. a cento ; from L. centonem. 

CENTRE, sm. centre; from L. centrum. 
CENTRAL, from L. centralis.— Der. cen- 
traliser, decentraliser, concentrer, concen- 
trique, excentrique. 

Centrifuge, adj. centrifugal. Centripdte, 
adj. centripetal. Words coined by the 
learned, the first centrum with fugere, 
and the second with petere. 

Centuple, adj. augmented a hundredfold, 
centuple; from L. centuplus. — Der. ceu' 

Centurie, sf. a century; from L. centuria. 

Centurion, sm. a centurion; from L. cen- 

CEP, sm. a tree-stock, vine-stock; from L. 
cippus *. For i = e see mettre ; for 
V'9=P see chape. Cep is a doublet of cippe^ 
q.v. — Der. cepnge. 

CEPENDANT, adv. however, =pendant cela. 
See ce and pendant. 

Cephalalgie, sf. head-ache; from Gr. 

Ceramique, adj. ceramic ; from Gr. «€pa- 
C6raste, sm. the cerastes ; from Gr. Acepa- 


Cerat, sm. cerate ; from L. ceratum, a 
salve whose chief compound is wax, cera. 
Cerat is a doublet of cire, q. v. 

CERCEAU, sm. a hoop. O. Fr. cercel, from L. 
circellus *. For i = e see mettre ; for 
-ellus = -e/ = -eaw , see agneau. 

CERCLE, sm. a circle; from L. circulus. 
Circ(ii)lus, contrd. after rule (see § 51) 
into circ'lus, changes i into e (see 



mettre). — Der. eerchr, of which circuler is a 


CERCUEIL, sm. a coffin. O. Fr. sarcueil, 
originally sarcueu, from L. sarcopha- 
gus. Sarc6pMgus loses (see § 51) 
the two final atonic syllables, and be- 
comes sarmett by changing o into ue ; see 
accueillir. Hence again, by corruption from 
sarcueu, comes the form sarcueil, in which 
the presence of the final / is unexplained. 
Sarcueil has changed a into e, see acheter, 
and s into c, as in salsa, sauce. The 
study of proper names, which usually 
gives us valuable aid in establishing the 
origin of common nouns, here confirms for 
us the above etymology, which connects 
cercueil with sarcophagus : in the arron- 
dissement of Lisieux is a place called Cer- 
cueux, which in medieval documents is called 
' Ecclesia de Sarcophagis.' Cercueil is a 
doublet of sarcophage, q. v. 

C6r6ale, adj. cereal; from L. cerealis. 

C6r6bral, adj. cerebral; from L. cere- 

C§r§inonie, s/. a ceremony; from L. 
caeremonia. — Der. ceremonial, -eux. 

CERF, sm. a stag; from L. cervus. For 
final v=/see § 142. 

CERFEUIL, sm. chervil ; from L. caere- 
folium. For loss of e, cer'folium, see 
§ 52 ; for -6liwoa. = -euil seefeuille. 

CERISE, sf. a cherry ; from L. cerasa, pi. of 
cerastun. For a = t see aimant. — Der. 
cmsier, cemaie. 

CERNE, sm. a ring, circle ; from L. circinus. 
Cir(ci)iius, contrd. according to rule (see 
§ 51) into cir'nus, became cerne by 
changing i into e ; see mettre. — Der. cern- 
eau, cerner. 

CERNER, va. to encircle. See cerne. 

CERTAIN, adj. certain ; from L. certus, by 
the adjunction of the Lat. suffix -anus = 
~ain; see § 194. — Der. certainement. 

CERTES, adv. certainly ; from L. certe. 
For this addition of s see Hist. Gram, 
p. 80. 

Certiiicat, sm. a certificate; from L. cer- 
tificatum*, partic. of verb certificare*, 
whence certifier. 

Certifier, va. to certify. See certificat. 

Certitude, sf. certitude, certainty ; from L. 

C6ruse, sf. white lead; from L. cerussa. 

CERVEAU, sm. the brain. O. Fr. cervel*, 
from L. cerebellum. Cer(§)beUum, 
contrd. according to rule (see § 52) 
into cer'belluin, produced cerveau, by 

b = v, see avant; (2) -ellum into -eau, see 
agneau. Just as cerebellum becomes cer- 
veau, so the fern, form cerebella became 
cervelle. — Der. cerveht, 6cervel^. 

t Cervel as, sm. a saveloy. In 16th cent. 
cervelat ; introd. from It. cervellata. 

CERVELLE, 5/ the brain. See cerveau. 

Cervical, flrf/. cervical ; from L. cervical is. 

CERVOISE, ./. ale, beer ; from L. cervisia 
(in Pliny, who cites it as a word of Gaulish 
origin, see § 19). For i = oi see § 68. 

CESSER, vn. to cease ; from L. cessare. — 
Der. cesse (verbal subst.), incessant, cass- 

Cession, sf. a cession ; from L. cessionem. 
— Der. cesszown aire. 

Ceste, sm. a cestus, girdle ; from L. cestus. 

ensure, sf. caesura ; from L. caesura. 

GET, pron. this. See ce. 

C6tace, ofi?;. cetaceous ; from L. cetaceus*, 
der. from cetus. 

CHABOT, sm. a miller's-thumb, chub (a big- 
headed fish) ; from L. caput, with addition 
of the suffix ot, to be found in Fr. in 
cachot, bntlot, billot, etc. For c = ch see 
achamer ; for p = fe see aheille. This fish 
was called, for a like reason, Kk(f>aKos in 
Gr. and capito in Lat. 

t Chabraque, sf. the cloths on a cavalry 
horse. A word introd. from Germ, scka- 

fChacal, sm. a jackal; introd. from the 
East by travellers. Pers. and Turk, schakal. 

CHACUN, distrib. pron. each one. O. Fr. 
chascun, chasqun, from L. quisque unus. 
Quisque unus or quisq'unus becomes 
cAasc7m by changing qu into ch (see § 126), 
and i into a (see balance). For the loss 
of s see § 148. 

CHAFOUIN, sm. a pitiful-looking person. 
In patois chatfouin, compd. of chat and 

+ Chagrin, sm. shagreen; introd. about 
the 15th cent, from It. Venetian zagrin. 

Chagrin, sm. affliction. Origin unknown. 
— Der. chagriner. 

CHAINE, sf. a chain ; from L. catena. For 
loss of medial t see abbaye and § 1 1 7 ; for 
e = i see accomplir. Chaine is a doublet 
of cadcne. — Der. chainon (of which chignon, 
q. v., is the doublet), chainette, enchainer, 

CHAIR, sf. flesh. O. Fr. char, originally charn, 
from L. carnem. For c = cA see § 126; 
for a = ai see § 54 ; for rn = n see aubonr. 
— Der. charnQ\, charnier, chartiu, charn- 
ure, cAarogne, decAarner, achamer. 



CHAIRE, sf. a pulpit. O. Fr. chaere, from 
L. cathedra, i. e. a raised seat from which 
one speaks. For loss of medial t (th.) see 
abbaye; for G — ch see § 126; for dr = r 
see § 168. Before the 1 6th cent, the 
word chaise did not exist, and chaire, like 
cathedra, had the two meanings, ' a chair, 
and ' a pulpit.' Thus Montaigne says, <S"t'' 
lanpant d'tme chaire (chaise), ok elle esloit 
assise. In the 1 6th cent, the Parisians substi 
tuted s for r (see arroser), and so transformed 
chaire into chaise. Under Louis XIV the 
phrase ran not une chaire de Droit, but U7ie 
chaise de Droit, une chaise de Theologie. 
Moliere says, Les savants ne sont bons que 
pour precher en chaise ; shewing plainly 
that chaise long kept the sense of chaire, 
and is nothing but a slight variation of the 
same word. 

CHAISE, sf. a chair. See chaire. 

CHALAND, sm. a lighter, barge. A word 
of Byzantine origin, like many terms of sea- 
faring and military art of the middle ages ; 
from Low L. chelandium, Gr. x^^'^i'Stoi/. 

Chaland, sm. a customer. Origin un- 
known. — Der. achalander. 

t Chale, sf. a shawl ; introd. from the East 
by travellers. Ar. schdl. 

+ Chalet, sm. a cheese-house, a chalet. A 
Swiss word, from the Grisons patois. 
Chalet is a doublet of chdtelet. 

CHALEUR, sf. heat; from L. calorem. 
For o = ch see § 126; for o = eu see § 79. 
— Der. chaleureux. 

CHALIT, sm. a wooden bedstead. Origin 

CHALOIR, vn. to be important, matter, lit. 
to be hot ; from L. calere. For o = ch see 
§ 126; for e = oz see § 63. For this verb 
see Hist. Gram. p. 147. — Der. uonchaloir 
(to care for nothing), whence the pres. 
partic. nonchalant. 

tChaloupe, sf. a launch, shallop. In 
l6ih cent, chaluppe ; introd. from It. scia- 

CHALUMEAU, sm. straw, blow-pipe. O. Fr. 
chalemel,ixom L. calamellus, dim. of cala- 
mus. For o = ch see § 126; for -ellus 
= -eau see agneau ; for a = u, through e, 
cp. saccharum, Sucre; rhabarbarum, 

" rhubarbe. 

+ Chamade, sf. a parley ; introd. in i6th 
cent, from It. chiamata. 

CHAMAILLER, vn. to scuffle. Origin un- 

+ Chaniarre, ./. lace-work, embroidery; 
from Sp. chamarra. — Der, chamarrex. 

CHAMBELLAN, sm. a chamberlain. O. Fr. 
chambellanc, originally chamberlenc ; It. cam- 
arlittgo, from O, H. G. chamarlinc, an officer 
of the chamber. For the assimilation of 
rl into // see § 168 ; for the dissimilation of 
mm into mb see § 169. 

CHAMBRANLE, sm. a doorcase, window- 
frame. Origin unknown. 

CHAMBRE, sf. a chamber; from L. ca- 
mera*. Cam(e)ra, contrd. regularly (see 
§ 51) into cam'ra, becomes chambre, by 
changing (1) c into ch, see § 126; (2) 
m'r into mbr, see absoudre. — Der. cham- 
brer (whose doublet is cambrer), cham- 
brette, chambree (whose doublet is camer- 
ade), chambritx, chambrieie (whose doublet 
is catnerier). 

CHAMEAU, sm. a camel. Originally chamel, 
from L. camelus. For c = cA see § 126 ; 
for -el = -eau see agneau — Der, cAamelle, 

+ Chamois, sm. a chamois; a word of 
Swiss origin. — Der. chamoisem. 

CHAMP, sm. a field ; from L. campus. For 
c = ch see § 126. Champ is a doublet 
of camp, q. v. — Der. champion, (who fights 
in champ clos). 

CHAMPART, sm. a field-rent; for champ- 
part. A feudal term. See champ and part. 

CHAMPETRE, adj. rural, rustic; from L. 
campestris. Forc=^ch see § 126; for loss 
of s see § 126 and Hist. Gram. p. 81. 

CHAMPIGNON, sm. a mushroom ; from L. 
campinionem.*, i. e. that which grows in 
the fields; deriv. of cam.pus. For G = ch 
see § 126; {orni= gn see Hist. Gram, p. 64. 

CHAMPION, sm. a champion. See champ. 

CHANCE, sf chance, hazard. O. Fr. che- 
ance, It. cadenza, from L. cadentia, that 
which falls out fortunately, from cadere, 
a term used in dice-playing. For loss of 
medial d see accabler and § 120; iox Q = ch 
see § 126 ; for -tia = -ce see § 192. Chance 
is a doublet oi cadence, q. v. — Der. chanceux. 

CHANCEL, sm. a chancel, the grating sepa- 
rating the choir from the nave ; from L. 
cancellus, the grating or bar dividing the 
judgment-seat from the people. The cancel- 
larius was the officer who stood by this 
bar. From cancellarius, first an usher, 
then a scribe, a notary, comes mod. Fr. 
chancelier, by changing (l) c into ch, see 
§ 126; (2) -arius into -ier, see § 198. 
Chajtcel is a doublet of cancel, q. v. 

CHANCELER, vn. to stagger, reel ; from L. 
cancellare, to make zigzags, thence to walk 
unevenly, to stagger. For G = ch see § 126. 



CHANCRE, sm. a canker, cancer; from L. 
cancrum. For o = ch see § 126. 
Chancre is a doublet of cancre, cancer. 

CHANDELLE, sf. a candle; from L. can- 

dela. For c = cA see § 126 Der. 

chandelier, chandehnx, the feast of candles 
(oandelae). Chandeleur represents the 
Lat. candelarum in the phrase ' festa S. 
Mariae candelarum.' 

CHANFREIN, sm. chamfron, armour for a 
horse's head. Origin unknown. 

CHANGER, va. to change, exchange, barter ; 
from L. cambiare*, in the Lex Salica, der. 
from the form cambire, to be found in 
Apuleius). Cambiare becomes changer by 
consonification of ia (see abrSger and Hist. 
Gram. p. 65) and fall of b (see Hist. Gram, 
p. 81). Forc = cAsee § 126. For the change 
of m into n, we find it in Lat. tamdiu or 
tandiu, quandiu or quamdiu, and in in- 
scriptions quen, tan, ren, for quem, 
tarn, rem. This change also takes place 
in Fr. (i) At the beginning of words, as 
in matta, «a//^; ma.p pa., nappe; mespi- 
lum, nPJle. Natta is to be found in Gre- 
gory of Tours, and nespilum in Low Lat. 

(2) In the middle of words, most often 
when m is blunted by being in contact with 
another consonant, as in commjatus*, 
conge; pum'cem, ponce, etc. Also in 
dama, daine; comestabilis*, coufittahle. 

(3) At the end of words, in summum, son ; 
suum, son; meum, man, etc. See also 
imder airain. — Der. change (verbal subst.), 
Techanger, rtchange, echanger, changem, 

CHANOINE, sm. a canon ; from L. canon- 
icus. Thi« word, accented on the o, has, 
according to rule (see § 51), lost its two 
atonic vowels. For c = ck see § 126. 
o becomes oi by the attraction of the i, 
as in historia, histoire, § 84. o also 
becomes o«, as in focarium, /o^er, § 83. 
Chanoine is a doublet of canonique, q. v. — 
Der. chanoine&se. 

CHANSON, sf. a song; from L. cantio- 
nem. For c = cA see § 126; for tiare = 
ser see § 264. — Der. chansonnler, chanson- 

CHANT, sm. a song, chant ; from L. cantus. 
For c = c/t see § 126. 

CHANTEAU, sm. a cantle, hunch. O. Fr. 
chanlel, from L. cantellus*, dim. of can- 
tus* (a corner). For -e\lvis = -eau see 
agneau ; for G = ch see § 1 26. 

CHANTEPLEURE, sf. a long funnel, tap. 
See chanter and pl^urer. 

CHANTER, va. to sing ; from L. cantare. 
For o = ch see § 126. — Der. chanfear 
(whose doublet is chantre), chanttuse, de- 
chanter, chantoimcr , chatitereWe. 

CHANTIER, sm. a yard, timber-yard, &c. ; 
from L. canterium, a beam of strong 
wood. For o = ch see § 126; for e = ie 
see § 56. 

CHANTRE, sm. a singer, chanter ; from L. 
cantorem. This word, coming to be proncd. 
cant(6)rem, was contrd. according to 
rule (§51) into cant'r, changing c into ch ; 
see § 1 26. Chantre is a doublet of chanteur. 

CHANVRE, sm. hemp ; from L. cannabis. 
Cann(a)bis, contrd. according to rule 
(§ 51) into cann'bis, ought to have 
become chanve, by change of c into ch 
(see § 126) and b into v (see § 113). 
This form chanve exists in fact in Picardy in 
patois, and doubtless existed in O. Fr. The 
intercalation of an r, whence chanvre, is to 
be met with in a few words, as in funda, 
fronde; encaustum, encre,8cc. See Hist. 
Gram. p. 80. The form regestrum for re- 
gestum is to be found at a very earlyperiod. 

Chaos, sm. chaos; from L. chaos. — Der. 

CHAPE, sf. a cope ; from L. cappa(a hooded 
cloak, in Isidore of Seville). For G = ch 
see § 126. pp becomes p, as in cuppa, 
coupe; sappa, sape ; pupis, poupe ; 
stuppa*, etottpe. And we also find the 
form capa beside cappa in certain Lat. 
documents. — Der. chaperon, chapezu 
(O. Fr. chapel, properly a little chape). For 
-el = eau see agneau. The O. Fr. form had 
a dim. chapelet, a little head-dress, con- 
sisting usually of a crown of flowers. 
Ronsard, speaking of a maiden watering 
lilies, says Soir et matin les arrose Et a 
ses noces propose De s'en faire un chapelet. 
The chapelet de roses, a chaplet of roses 
placed on the statues of the Virgin, 
shortly called a rosaire, or rosary, came 
later to mean a sort of chain, intended 
for counting prayers, made of threaded 
beads, which at first were made to re- 
semble the chaplets of the Madonna. 
Another deriv. of capa is the dim. ca- 
pella, which from the 7th cent, has had 
the sense of a chapel : originally a ca- 
pella was the sanctuary in which was pre- 
served the cappa, or cope of S. Martin, 
and thence it was expanded to mean any 
sanctuary containing relics. 

CHAPEAU, sm. a hat. See chape.— Dei. 
chapeUei, from O. Fr. chapel'. 



CHAPELAIN, sm. a chaplain. See chapelle. 

CHAPELER, va. to chip, rasp, bread ; from L. 
capulare. For o^ch see § 126. Here 
u = e as in juniperus, genievre. — Der. 

CHAPELET, sm. a chaplet. See chape. 

CHAPELLE, /. a chapel. See chape.— Der. 

CHAPERON, sm. a hood. See chape.— Der. 

CHAPITEAU, sm. a capital, top, cap. O. Fr. 
chapitel, from L. capitellum. For c — ch 
see § 126; for -ellum = -e(37^ seeagrieatt. 

CHAPITRE, sm. a chapter. O. Fr. chapitle, 
from L, capitulum. Capit(u)lum, con- 
tracted by rule (see § 51) into capit'lum, 
becomes chapitre by changing (l) cinto ch, 
see § 126; (2) 1 into r, see § 157. — Der. 
chapitrev (to reprimand in full chapter). 
Chapitrer is a doublet o{ capituler, q. v. 

CHAPON, sm. a capon ; from L. caponem. 
For c = cA see § 126, Chapon is a doublet 
of capon, q. v. 

CHAQUE, adj. each. O. Fr. chasque. For 

its etymology see chacun. 
^HAR, sm. a car, chariot ; from L. carrus. 
For c = ch see § 126. — Der, charner, 
charvoyer, charrette, charron, chariot. 

^ Charade, sf. a charade ; a word of Prov. 
origin (§ 24), introd. during the l8th 
cent. Origin unknown. 

CHARANgON, sm. a weevil. Origin un- 

CHARBON, sm. coal ; from L. carbonem. 
For Q = ch see § 126. Charbon is a 
doublet of carbone. — Der. charbonner, char- 
bonnier, charbonnee (of which carbonade is 
the doublet). 

CHARCUTIER, sm. a pork-butcher. Chair- 
cutier as late as Rousseau ; in the 17th cent. 
chaircuitier; hx\gmA\y chair cuitier, properly 
a seller of cooked meat, as opposed to a 
butcher, who sells it raw. For the etymology 
see chair and cuite. — Der. charcuieiie, char- 

CHARDON, sm. a thistle; from L. cardu- 
onem*, der. from carduus. For c = ch 
see § 126 ; for loss of the u see 
§ 52. — Der. chardonneret, a goldfinch; 
O. Fr. chardonnet, properly a bird which 
frequents the thistle. As a confirmation 
of this origin we may mention the fact 

^that the Latins similarly called the bird car- 
duelis from carduus, and the Greeks 
d/cavBis from aKavOos ; and lastly, the 
Germans call it distelfinh, the thistle-finch. 

It. caricare, from L. carricare, used 
by St. Jerome for ' to load.' Carr(i)Gare 
was soon contrd., according to rule (see 
§ 52), into car'care. The Glosses of 
Reichenau (8th cent.) have 'onerati = 
carcati.' Carcare became charger by 
changing (i) the initial c into ch (see 
§ 126 ; (2) re into rg (see § 129). Charger 
is a doublet of carguer, q.v. — Der. charge 
(verbal subst.), chargemenX., dccharger, sur- 

CHARIOT, sm. a wagon. See char. 

CHARITE, sf. charity ; from L. caritatem. 
For c = cA see § 126 ; for -atem = -e 
see § 230. Charite is a doublet of cherte, 
q. V. — Der. chariiMe. 

CHARIVARI, sm. a mock serenade. Origin 

t Charlatan, sm. charlatan, quack; introd. 
in 1 6th cent, from It. ciarlatano. — Der. 

CHARME, sm. a witch-elm ; in the Berry 
patois charne. It. carpino, from L. carpi- 
nus. Car(pi)nus is contrd. according to 
rule (§ 51) into car'nus, whence charme 
by changing (i) c into ch (see § 126); 
(2) n into m, a change of which this word 
is almost the only example. — Der, charmoie. 

CHARME, sm. a charm, enchantment; from 
L. carmen. For o = ch see § 126. — Der. 
charmer, charmant. 

CHARNEL, adj. carnal. See chair. 

CHARNIER, sm. a larder. See chair. Char- 
nier is a doublet of cornier. 

CHARNU, adj. fleshy, brawnv. See chair. 

CHARNIERE, sf. a hinge;' from L. ear- 
dindria, der. from cardinem. Card- 
(i)ndria, contrd. according to rule (see 
§ 52) into card'naria, becomes charniere 
by changing (l) c into cA (see § 126); 
(2) dn into n (see aller) ; (3) -aria into 
-i?re (see § 198). 

CHAROGNE, sf. carrion. See chair.— Cha- 
rogne is a doublet of carogne. 

CHARPENTIER, sm. a carpenter ; from L. 
carpentarius, which is properly a cart- 
wright or wheelwright = cAarro«, for which 
see § 12. For o — ch see § 126; for 
-arius = -?er see § 198. — Der. charpenter, 
charpente (verbal subst.). 

CHARPIE, sf. lint, a partic. subst. (see 
§ 188) of O. Fr. verb active charpir; from 
L. carpere. For c = ch see § 126; for 
e = i see § 59. 

CHARRETTE, sf. a cart. See c^ar.— Der. 
charretier, charretee. 

CHARRIER, va. to cart, carry. See char. 



CHARROYER, va. to cart, carry. See char. 

— Der. ckarroi (verbal subst.). 
CHARRUE, sf. a plough ; from L. oarruca. 

For c = cA see § 126; for -uca = -we see 


CHARTE, sf. a charter, chartulary ; from 
L. oharta. Charta, being really proncd, 
carta, afterwards became charte by re- 
turning from c to ch (see § 126). Charte 
is a doublet of carte, q. v. 

CHARTRE, sf. a charter ; from L. char- 
tula, dim. of charta (see charte). Char- 
t(ii)la, contrd. according to rule (§ 51) 
into chart'la, changed 1 into r; see § 157. 
— Der. chartriei (of which the doublet is 
cartulaire, q. v.). 

CHARTRE, ./. a prison ; from L. car- 
eer. For o = ch see § 126; c'r (care'r) 
becomes tr by change of c into t, of which 
there is no other example in the modern 
Fr. language. 

CHAS, sm. the eye of a needle. Origin un- 

CHASSE, sf. a shrine, reliquary ; from L. 
capsa. For c = ch see § 126 ; for ps = ss 
see caisse. — Der. chassis, enc^asser. 

CHASSE, sf chase, hunting, verbal subst. of 
chasser, q. v. Chasser is a doublet of 
caisse, q. v, 

CHASSER, va. to hunt, chase ; from L. cap- 
tiare*, deriv. of captare, which has 
taken the sense of 'to chase' in late Lat. In 
Propertius ' captare feras ' is used in the 
sense of ' to hunt wild beasts.' For c = ch 
see § 126 ; for tiare = sser see agencer; for 
assimilation of r see caisse. — Der. chasse, 
chasseur, chasseresse, pomchasser. 

CHASSIE, sf blear -eyedness. Origin un- 
known. — Der. chassieux. 

CHASSIS, sm. a frame, sash, chase. See chasse. 

CHASTE, adj. chaste ; from L. castus. For 
c = ch see § 126. — Der. chastele (of which 
the O. Fr. doublet was chastee). 

CHASUBLE, sf. a chasuble ; from L. casi- 
bula *, dim. of casula, which is used by 
Isidore of Seville for a mantle. Casibula 
or casubula, contrd. regularly (§ 51) 
into casub'la, became chasuble by changing 
c into ch (see § 126). 

CHAT, sm. a cat ; from L. catus (Isidore of 
Seville). For c = ch see § 126. — Der. 
chatoyer (to change colour Hke a cat's eye : 
those precious stones which jewellers call 
cat's eyes are pierres chatoyantes), chatte 
mite (from chatte and mite, L. mitis). 

CHATAIGNE, sf a chestnut. O. Fr. chas- 
taigne, from L. castdnea. For G — ch see 

§ 126 ; for a = a/ see 54; for -nea = -^«c 
see 244; for loss of 8 see Hist. Gram. p. 81. 
— Der. chdtaigmer, chdtaignenie. 

CHATEAU, sm. a castle. O. Fr. chastel, from 
L. castellum. For -ellum = -ea7i see 
agneau ; for c = cA see § 126; for loss of s see 
Hist. Gram. p. 81. Chateau is a doublet of 
O. Fr. castel. — Der. (from O. Fr. chalel) 
chatelime, chdtelenie, chdtelet. 

CHAT-HUANT, sm. the screech-owl ; in 17th 
cent, chahuan in Menage, chnuhan and 
chouhan in the Anjou patois; in the 16th 
cent, chouan in Ronsard. This form chouan 
is the real form of the word (and besides, 
naturalists still give the name of chouan to 
the middle-sized horned owl). Chouan is 
a dim. of O. Fr. choue. Choue is in its turn 
derived from O. H. G. chouch, the owl : the 
Germ, root-word has also a form choue, 
whence Fr. choucas. The O. Fr. choue has 
left two derivations, chouette and chouan, 
whence chat-huant, a word whose present 
spelling would mislead us to imagine a 
deriv. from chat and huer, which is very far 
from being the case. 

CHATIER, va. to chastise. O. Fr. chastier, 
from L. castigdre. For loss of g see 
§ 131 ; for c — ch see § 126; for loss of s 
see Hist. Gram. p. 81. — Der. chdtiment. 

CHATON, sm. a bezel. O. Fr. chaston, 
originally caston, from Germ, hasten. 

CHATOUILLER, va. to tickle; from L. 
cattuliare* (der. from cattvilire = titil- 
lare, to tickle). For c = ch see § 126; 
for u = ou see § 90; for Ui = ill see ail. 
— Der. chatouillement. 

CHATOYER, va. to sparkle, change in hue. 
See chat. 

CHATRER, va. to castrate, geld. O. Fr. 
chastrer, from L. castrare. For c = ch see 
§ 126 ; for loss of s see Hist.feram. p. 81. — 
Der. chdtre (of which the doublet is castrat). 

CHATTEMITE, sf. a demure-looking person. 
See chat. 

CHAUD, adj. warm. O. Fr. chald. It. caldo, 
from L. caldus, which was used in Rome 
in the time of Augustus for calidus, as is 
seen in Quinctilian, i. 6, 'Sed Augustus 
quoque in epistolis ad Caium Caesareni 
scriptis, emendat quod is dicere calidum 
quam caldum malit : non quia illud non sit 
latinum, sed quia sit odiosum.' For c — ch 
see § 126; for al = aM see agneau. — Der. 
6chaudeT, rechaud. 

CHAUDIERE, sf a copper ; from L. calda- 
ria : ' Vasa caldaria' is used by Vitruvius, 
For c = ch see § 126; for al = om see 



agneati ; for -aria = -zVre see § 198. — Der. 
chaudron (O. Fr. chauderon, der. from 
chaudere, another form of chaudiere. Simi- 
larly m'Si^.c alder on is deriv. from caldera). 

CHAUDRON, sm. a caldron, kettle. See 
chaudiere. — Der. chaudronnler. 

CHAUFFER, va. to warm, heat. Prov. cal- 
far. It. calefare, from calefare *, contrd. 
form of calefacere. For loss of e 
(cal'fare) see § 52 ; for c = cA see § 126 ; 
for al = au see agneau. — Der. chauffe 
(verbal subst.), chauffzgt, chattffoir, chauf- 
ferette, chauffeur, ^chauffer, rechauffer. 

CHAULER, va. to lime, steep in. lime-water. 
See chanx. 

CHAUME, sm. a stalk, haulm ; from L. cala- 
mus, which is written calmus in a docu- 
ment dated A. d, 672. Cal(a)raus, contrd. 
regularly (§ 51) into cal'inus, became 
chaume by changing c into ch, see § I26; 
and al into au, see agneau. — Der. chaum- 
iere, chaumme. 

CHAUSSE, sf. a shoulder-knot. See chausser. 

CHAUSSEE, sf. a causeway, embankment. 
Prov. causada, Sp. calzada, from L. cal- 
ciata* (sc. via) properly = i»ozc ma^onnee 
h la chaux (a road made with lime). Cal- 
ciata is from calcem. For Q = ch see 
§ 126; for al = au see agneau; for 
ci = ss see agencer ; for -ata = -e'e see am- 

CHAUSSER, va. to put on (shoes or stock- 
ings) ; from L. calceare. For c = ch see 
§ 126; for al = aw see agneau ; for ce = ss 
see agencer. — Der. chausses (verbal subst.), 
chaussette, chausson (of which the doublet 
is cale^on), chausswve, dechausses, d6chaux, 
chatisse-trape (properly a snare, trap, which 
shoes the foot). 

CHAUSSE-TRAPPE, sf. a caltrop, trap. See 
chausser and trappe. 

CHAUVE, adj. bald ; from L. calvus. For 

, c = c/i see § 126 ; for al = aM see agneau. 
— Der. chajwe-somis (a bat), so called be- 
cause its wings are membranaceous and have 
no feathers. The Glosses of Reichenau (8th 
cent.) give us ' Vespertiliones = calves 
AUVE-SOURIS, sm. a bat. See chauve. 

UX, sf. lime. Prov. calz, It. cake, from 
L. calcem. For c=-ch see § 126; for 
al = aw see agneau. 

AVIRER, vna. to capsize, upset ; from 

chapvirer, properly to be turned upside 

down ; from virer (q. v.) and chap (from L. 

caput). For c = cA see § 126. 

HEF, sm, a head, chief; originally head, as 

in Ze ch e f c?'w« saint, un corwr e-ch.e f : from 
L. caput. For c = ch see § 126; for 
a = e see § 54. p has here become / 
after having gone through all the stages of 
the phonetic scale (p, b, v,f), as is shown 
by Low Lat. cabo (for caput), and loth- 
cent. Fr. cheve. Like chef, the two words 
praesaga, /resarV, mespilum, nefle, have 
also changed p into/. Chef is a doublet of 
cap, q. v. — Der. a.cheveT (q. v.), chevet (the 
' head ' of a bed), chef-lieu. 

CHEMIN, sm. a way, road. Prov. camin. It. 
cammino, from L. carainus *, found in 6th- 
cent. documents for a road. For ca = cAe 
see §§ 126 and 54. — Der. cheminer, 

CHEMINEE, sf. a chimney. It. camminata, 
from L. caminata, deriv. of caminus, 
used by Vitruvius for a chimney. Forca== 
che see §§ 126 and 54; for -ata = -ee 
see § 201. 

CHEMISE, sf a shirt, shift ; from L. camisia. 
Paulus, the abbreviator of Festus, says of 
the word supparus : ' Supparus, vesti- 
mentum lineum quod camisia dicitur.' 
For 00, = che see §§ 126 and 54. 

CHENAL, sm. a channel; from L. cana- 
lis. For 00. = che see §§ 126 and 54. 
Another form of this word is chcneau (for 
l = w see ag?ieau). Chenal is a doublet of 

+ Chenapan, sw. a scamp, blackguard; 
introd. towards end of 17th cent, by the 
Germ, wars, from Germ. sch?iapphahn. 

CHENE, sm. an oak. O. Fr. chesne, from L. 
casnus * ( = an oak in a Chartulary of A. d, 
508). For ca, = che see §§ 126 and 54; 
for loss of s see Hist, Gram. p. 81. The form 
casnus is a transformation of the regular 
quercinus (querc'nus) by changing re 
into rs, s : this rs = s is found in Fr. in 
dorsum, dos, etc. (§ 154), and also in 
Lat. The Romans said dos sum for dor- 
sum, sussum for sursum, prosa for 
prorsa, retrosum for retrorsum. Even 
introsus is found for introrsus in an in- 
scription (Orelli, 14034). For qn = c see 
car. — Der. 

CHENET, sm. a dog, andiron. O. Fr. chien- 
net. See chien. 

CHENEVIS, S7n. hempseed ; from L. canna- 
bisium. *, deriv. of cannabis. Forca = 
che see §§ 126 and 54 ; for b = t/ see avant 
and § 113. — Der. chenevihxe, chenevotte. 

CHENIL, sm. a kennel ; from L. canile *, 
place where dogs are kept. Canile is 
from canis, like equile from equus. 



agnile from agnus, etc. Foroa = cAesee 
§§ 126 and 54. 

CHENILLE, sf. a caterpillar ; from L. canf- 
oiila, a name drawn from the likeness of 
the head of certain caterpillars to that of a 
little dog. This etymology, which at first 
sight seems strange, is confirmed by the 
fact that the caterpillar has in many 
idioms received the name of other animals ; 
as in Milanese cagnon ( = a little dog) : in 
other parts of Italy it it called gattola (a 
little cat). The Portuguese call it lagarta 
(a Uzard). For ca. = che see §§ 120 and 
54 ; for -icula, = -ille see § 257. Chenille 
is a doublet of canicule. — Der. 4cheniller. 

CHENU, adj. hoar-headed ; from L. canutus, 
deriv. ofcanus. ¥oTC& = che see §§ 126 
and 54 ; for -utus = -tt see § 201. 

CHEPTEL, sm. leased-out cattle. Prov. 
capial, from L. capitale. Cap(i)tale, 
contrd, regularly (see § 52) into cap'- 
tale, becomes cheptel by changing ca into 
che (see §§ 126 and 54), and -ale into 
-el (see § 191.) Cheptel is a doublet of 
captel, capitale. 

CHER, acf;. dear ; fromL. carus. For ca = 
che see §§ 126 and 54. — Der. cher'ii, 

CHERCHER, va. to seek. Prov. cercar. It. 
cercare, from L. circare, used by Proper- 
tius for to wander hither and thither. For 
o = ch see § 126; for i = e see mettre ; 
for Q, = e see § 54. — Der. cherchem, re- 
chercher, recherche. 

CHERE, sf. cheer, good fare ; from L. cara, 
a face, countenance, used by Corippus, a 
6th-cent. poet, in his Paneg. ad Justinum : 
' Postquam venere verendam Caesaris ante 
caram.' Faire bonne chere took its present 
sense of 'eating a good dinner' only in 
modern times ; formerly it was —faire bon 
accueil, and originally —faire bon visage, as 
the proper sense of chere is a face, as in 
Patelin's lines. Que ressemblez-vous bien de 
chere Et du tout a vostre feu pere. For 
ca, = che see §§ 126 and 54. 

CHERIR, va. to cherish. See cher. — Der. 
cherissMe, cncherir, rencherir, smencherir. 

CHERTE, sf, dearness, high price; from L. 
.caritatem. Car(i)tatein, contrd. regu- 
larly (see § 52) into car'tatem, be- 
comes cherte by changing (l) ca into 
che, see §§ 126 and 54 ; (2) -atem into -e, 
see § 230. 

Ch^rubin, sm. a cherub; from eccles, L. 
cherubim, introd. into Lat. by St. Jerome 
(§ 30). 

CHETIF, adj. poor, mean, bad; in 13th 
cent. c/jfliV// (Joinville), in nth cent, caitif 
(Chanson de Roland) ; It. cattivo ; from L. 
captivus, a prisoner, in Class. Lat., but 
used in sense of chetif, mean, poor-looking, 
in Imperial times, as we see in the Mathesis 
of Firmicus Maternus, viii. 24, a treatise on 
astrology written by this Christian contro- 
versialist, who was a contemporary of Con- 
stantine, and died about a. d. 436 : ' Vice- 
sima pars Sagittarii, si in horoscopo in- 
venta fuerit, homines facit nanos, gibbosos, 
captivos, ridiculosque.' How then has 
the word passed from its proper Lat. sense of 
* captive ' to that of ' mean ' and * weak ' ? 
A parallel Fr. metaphor will help to explain 
it : the word chartre, which properly means 
a prison, is also said in the Diet, de 
I'Acaddmie Fran9aise to signify the mesen- 
teric phthisis to which children are liable ; 
the phrase un enfant est en chartre being 
used for a child attacked by this malady. 
Popular superstition, in its faith in fairies 
and evil spirits, likened consumption to a 
mysterious prison-house in which the sick 
person is held captive till he dies by an in- 
visible hand : and thus the sick person, 
the chetif, is the ' captive ' of that fatal 
malady. The L. captivus having thus 
this double signification, handed it down to 
the Romance languages : thus It. cattivo is 
both ' captive ' and ' bad.' O. Fr., richer 
and fuller than the modern language, gave 
to the word chetif both, senses ; as we see in 
Joinville that St. Louis delivered les chetifs 
(i. e. the Christian ' captives ' of the Sara- 
cens). As to the form of the word, 
captivus becomes caitif by dropping 
final -us, by final v=/ (§ 142), by pt = ^ 
(§ 168), and by a = cz (§ 54). Caitif 
(introd. into England by the Normans in 
the form caitiff) becomes in the 1 2th cent. 
chaitifhy c = ch (§ 126), in the 13th cent. 
chetif by ai = e (§ 103). Chetif is a 
doublet of captif. 

CHEVAL, sm. a horse; from L. caballus. 
For GO, = che see §§ 126 and 54; for 
h=v see § 113. — Der. cheval'm, chevalet, 
dim. oicheval; similarly the Romans used 
equuleus, the dim. of equus. Cheval is 
a doublet of cavale. 

CHEVALIER, sm. a knight ; from L. cabal- 
larius, used by Isidore of Seville as = alaris 
eques. For ca = che see §§ 126 and 
54; for l) = i/ see § 113; for -arius = 
-ier see § 198. Chevalier is a doublet of 
cavalier, q. v. — Der. chevaltxic (whose 



doublet is cavalerie), chevalihre, chevaler- 
esque (a word formed after It. cavaller- 

CHEVAUCHER, vn. to ride. O. Fr. cheval- 
cker, It. cavalcare, Sp. cabalgar, from L. 
caballicare*. We find in the Salic Law, 
tit. 25, ' Si quis caballum sine permissu 
domini sui ascenderit, et euni caballica- 
verit.' Caball(i)care, contrd. regularly 
(see § 52) into cabal'care, becomes che- 
vaiicher by changing (l) ca into che, see 
§§ 126 and 54; (2) b into v, see 
§ 113; (3) al into au, stt agneau. — Der. 
chevauchee (whose doublet is cavalcade, 
q. v.). 

CHEVELU, adj. long-haired. See cheveu. 

CHEVELURE, sf. head of hair, hair. O. Fr. 
cheveleure. It. capellatura, from L. capilla- 
tura, used by S. Augustine, der. from 
capillum. Capella(t)ura having regu- 
larly lost its medial t (se^ abbnye) becomes 
chevelure by changing (i) ca into che, 
see §§ 126 and 54; (2) p into v, see 
§ III; (3) by contracting eu into u, see 

CHEVET, sm. a bed-head. See chef.— Der. 
cheveder (a choir-master, from chevet, for- 
merly the name for the choir of a church). 

CHEVETRE, sm. a halter. O. Fr. chevestre, 
Sp. cabestro, It. capestro; from L. capis- 
trum. For ca, = che see §§126 and 54; 
for p = u see § 1 1 1 ; for i = « see mettre ; for 
loss of s see Hist. Gram. p. 81. — Der. 
s'enchevetrer, used of a horse which catches 
its leg in the halter (chevetre), whence 
metaph. to get entangled, embarrassed. 

CHEVEU, sm. a hair. O. Fr. chevel, from L. 
capillum. For CQ, = che see §§ 126 and 
54; for p = u see § ill; for i\ = el 
see mettre ; for el = eu see agfteau. — Der. 
(from O. Fr, chevel) cheveln, echeveler 

GHEVILLE, sf. a peg, pin. It. caviglia, from 
L. clavicula * , a wooden peg. For 
-iciila = -27Ze see § 257; for a=e see 
§ 54. Clavicula ought to have given 
cleville; but euphony caused a dissimila- 
tion (§ 169) ; for the reduction of cl 

I into c see able; for c — ch see § 126. 

i Cheville is a doublet of clavictde, q. v. 

CHEVRE, smf. a goat ; from L. capra. For 
ca, = che see §§ 126 and 54; for p = v 
see § III. — Der. chevrea.n, chevreite, 
chevron, chevrier, chevroter, chevrotin, 
chevroiine (buckshot, shot to shoot goats 

L. caprifolium. For the changes here 
see under chevre zfid feuille. 

CHEVREUIL, sm. a roe, roebuck ; from L. 
capreolus. For ca = c/ie see §§ 126 and 
54 ; for p = 1/ see § 1 1 1 ; for -eolus = 
-euil see a'iejil and § 253, Chevreuil is a 
doublet of cabriole. 

CHEVRON, sm. a rafter; from L, caprio- 
nem *. The word capriones is found in 
the Glosses of Cassel (8th cent,). For the 
changes of letters see chevre. As to the 
transition in meaning (§ 13), the like meta- 
phor existed in Lat, The Romans called a 
rafter capreolus (a little goat), 

CHEVROTER, vn. to sing tremulously (like 
a kid's bleating). See chevre. 

CHEVROTINE, sf buckshot. See chevre. 

CHEZ, prep, at the house of; from L. casa. 
For ca = che see §§ 126 and 54; for 
s = z see 7tez. Chez was in very O, Fr, a 
subst, meaning a house. The Grand 
Coutumier speaks of ces maisons et chez 
esquels les marchands mettent leur mar- 
chandise. In the lith cent, people said je 
vais a chez Gautier = ^ ad casaru 
Walterii,' to Walter's cottage ; or je viens 
de chez Gautier. But this distinction 
speedily shifted ; the phrase a chez became 
chez, but de chez remains, and bears witness 
by its form that the word was originally a 
subst. See § 13. Chez is a doublet of case, 
q. V. 

t Chicane, sf. chicanery, sharp practice ; 
another example of those changes of mean- 
ing noticed in § 13, Before being used 
for sharp practice in lawsuits, it meant a 
dispute in games, particularly in the game 
of the mall; and originally it meant the 
game of the mall : in this sense chicane re- 
presents a form zicanum *, which is from 
medieval Gr. r^vKaviov, a word of Byzan- 
tine origin. — Der. chicaner. 

CHICHE, sf. chick-peas; from L, cicer. 
For c = ch see § 126, 

CHICHE, adj. niggardly ; from L, ciccum, 
that which is of little worth. For o = ch 
see § 126; for cc — ch see acheter and 
§ 168, 

Chicor§e, sf chicory ; in 1 6th cent, cichoree, 
from L. cichorium. 

CHIEN, sm. a dog ; from L, canis. For 
o = ch see § 126; for a. = ie see § 54. 
—Der. chienne, che?iet (which in O. Fr, was 
chiennet, a dog, andiron, so called because 
it had a dog's head on its end : in Provence 
it was called formerly un chenet cafuec, — 
chien de feu, a dog which guards the fire ; 




ill Germ, the word feiierbock is used in this 

CHIFFE, sf. a rag. Origin unknown. — Der, 
chiffon, chiffonnier. 

CHIFFRE, sm. a numeral, digit, figure. O. Fr. 
ci/re, which in early O. Fr. meant zero, like 
low Lat. cifra (' cifra, figura nihil! ' says 
the Breviloquus) a word of Ar. origin, 
like so many mathematical terms, represent- 
ing the Ar. ^ifr. Chiffre is a doublet of 
zero, q. v. — Der. chiffrer, dochiffrer. 

CHIGNON, sm, the nape of the neck, cervical 
vertebrae. Buffon often speaks of le chig- 
non du cou (by extension it is used to de- 
signate the back hair of a lady gathered by 
a riband and resting on* the back of the 
neck). Chignon in its proper sense was in 
O. Fr. chaignon, originally chaaignon, from 
L. catenionem *. Ca(t)enionem loses 
its medial t regularly (see ahbaye), and be- 
comes chaignon. For c = cA see § 126 ; for 
Txi = gn see cigogne and § 244. Chignon 
is a doublet of chainon, q. v. 

Chim^re, sf. a chimera ; from L. chimaera. 
— Der. chimerique. 

Chimie, sf. chemistry; from L. chymia *. 
— Der. chimique, chimiste. 

Chiner, va. to colour, dye, stuffs, to resemble 
Chinese silks, etc. ; a word of hist, origin 

(§ 3.^). 

+ Chiourme, sf. the crew of a galley, 
convicts; introd. in l6th cent, from It. 

Chiquenaude, sf. a fillip. Origin un- 

Chiragre, sf. (Med.) chiraga; from Gr. 

Chiromancie, sf. chiromancy; from Gr. 

Chirurgie, sf. surgery ; from Gr. x^i^povpyia. 

— Der. chirurgien (of which the doublet is 

Chlore, sm. chlorine; from Gr. x^'^P^s- — 

Der. chlorique, chlonte, chlorose (a disease 

which gives the skin a greenish-yellow tint), 

chloroforme (compounded of chlorine and 

formic acid ; stt formique). 
'f'Choc, sm. a shock, collision; introd. in 

1 6th cent, from It. cicoco. 
f CAocolat, sm. chocolate; in 17th cent. 

chocolate, introd. in 1 6th cent, from Sp. 

CHCEUR, sm. a chorus, choir ; from L, 

chorus. For o = ceu see cueiller. Choeur 

is a doublet of chorus. 
CHOIR, vn. to fall. O. Fr. chhir, originally 

chaer and coder, from L. cadere by chang- 

ing (1) c into ch, see § 126; (2) g into 
oi, see § 61 ; (3) by losing d, see accO' 
bier; (4) by synaeresis of e-oir into oir. 
Just as ca(d)ere becomes chioir, ca- 
(d)utus* (for partic. in utus see boire) 
produced O. Fr. ch6-ut, then chu, and the 
fem. ca(d)uta, gave che-ute, then chute, 
now a subst., by a change considered under 
absoute. — Der. choir, 4choir, d^choir; chute, 

CHOISIR, va. to choose. At an earlier period 
it signified to see, perceive : in the middle 
ages men said de sa tour le guetteur choisit 
les ennemis. Choisir, O. Fr. coisir, originally 
cosir, Prov. causir, It. causire, is a word of 
Germ, origin, der. from Goth. Jcausjan, 
to see, examine. — Der. choix (verbal 

Chol6ra, sm. cholera, a Lat. word der, 
from Gr. xoAe'pa. Cholera is a doublet of 
colle, coltre. — Der. cholerique. 

CH6MER, vn. to be without work; often 
written chaumer in i6th cent. : it means pro- , 
perly ' to rest.' Prov. chaume is the time ' 
when flocks rest. This word is der. from 
medieval Lat. cauma, heat of the sun, 
the time of day when heat is too great 
for work, a word found in sense of 
great heat in St. Jerome, Isidore of Se- 
ville, and Fortunatus. This Lat. cauma 
represents Gr. x"^^"- Fo'^ au = o see 
§ 106; for o = ch see § 126. Chomer 
is a doublet of calmer, q. v. — Der. chum- 

CHOPE,s/ a beer-glass; from Germ. schoppen. 
— Der. chopme. 

CHOPPER, vn. to stumble ; a word of Germ, 
origin, from Germ, schnpfen. 

fChoquer, va. to strike, knock. Origin 

CHOSE, sf. a thing. It. cosa^ from L. causa, 

- which first meaning ' a cause ' came in the 

^■Xat. of the later Empire to mean 'a thing.' 
\ Hyginus uses causa for res ; Pliny says 
'quam ob causam' for ' quam ob rem'; 
the Reichenau Glosses (8th cent.) give us 
' rerum = causarum.' We find in the Lex 
Longobard ' Quia viri istam causam faciunt, 
non autem mulieres.' Causa becomes chose 
by changing (1) c into ch see § 126; 
(2) au into see § 106. Chose is a doublet 
of cause. 

CHOU, sm. a cabbage. O. Fr. chol, from L. 
caulis. Caulis becomes chol by changing 
(l) c into ch, see § 126; (2) au into 0, 
see § 106. CAo/ becomes cAo7/ by softening 
0/ into ou, see agneau. 




CHOUCAS, sm. a daw, jackdaw. See chat- 

+ Choucroute, sf. sour-crout ; corruption 
of Germ, sauerkraut, introd. through Alsace. 

CHOUETTE, sf. an owl, owlet. See chat- 

CHOYER, va. to pet, cosset. Origin unknown. 

CHREME, stn. chrism ; from eccles. L. 
ehrisma, Gr. XP^'^A'O- F<^r i = * see 
mettre; for loss of s see Hist. Gram. p. 8i. 

Chrestomathie, sf. a chrestomathy, se- 
lection of pieces ; from Gr. xp'?o"''o/id0€£a. 

CHRETIEN, adj. christian; from L. chris- 
tlanus. For -ianus = -ien . see ancien ; 
for i= e see mettre ; for loss of s see 
Hist. Gram. p. 8i. Chretien is the doublet 
of Swiss cretin, q. v. 

CHRETIENTE, sf. Christianity; from L. 
christianitatera, which is contrd. regularly 
(see § 52) into cliristian'tatem, whence 
chreiiente by changing (i) christian into 
Chretien (q. v.) ; (2) -atem into -e see 
§ 230. 

Christianisme, sm. Christianity; fromGr. 

Chrome, sm. chrome ; from Gr. ^pa>ijui. 

Chromatique, adj. chromatic ; from Gr. 


Chronique, sf. a chronicle; from L. 

chronica. — Der. chroniqueur. 
Chronique, adj. chronic ; from L. chron- 

Chronogramme, sm. a chronogram ; from 

Gr. xpoJ'os and ypacpeiv. 
Chronologie, sf chronology; from Gr. 

XpovoKoyia. — Der. chronologique. 
Chronomdtre, sm. a chronometer; from 

Gr. xp6vos and fxirpov. 
Chrysalide, sf. a chrysalis ; from L. chry- 

Chrysocale, sm. pinchbeck ; a word made 

up of two Gr. words xP^^^^s and KaXos. 
CHUCHOTER, vn. to whisper ; an onoma- 
topoeia ; see § 34. — Der. chuchotement. 
! CHUT, interj, hush ! an onomatopoeia ; see 

§ 34- 
CHUTE, sf. fall ; partic. subst. (see absoute and 

§ 188) of choir,q.v. 
iChyle, sm. chyle ; from Gr. xw^<5*. 
jCI, adv. here. See ici. 
plBLE, sf a target. O. Ft. cibe, from O.H.G. 

Ciboire, sm. a ciborium, p)^x; from L. cibo- 

CIBOULE, sf. a shalot ; from L. caepuUa*. 

For p = 6 see abeille and § 1 1 1 ; for u = Ott 

see § 90; for ae=-t see § 104. 

Cicatrice, sf a scar ; from L. cicatricem. 
— Der. cicatrisev. 

tCic^rone, sm. a cicerone; introd. from 
It. cicerone. 

CIDRE, sm. cider. O. Fr. sidre, from L. 
sicera, from Gr. a'lKipa. Sieera, contrd. 
regularly into sic'ra, became sis'ra by 
changing c into s (see amitii) : sis'ra has 
regularly intercalated an euphonic dental 
between s and r (see ancetre), and be- 
comes sisdre, just as lazarus becomes 
ladre (laz'rus), or S. Lusor becomes 
S. Ludre (Lus'r). Sisdre becomes sidre 
(see Hist. Gram. p. 81), then cidre (see 

CIEL, sm. heaven; from L. coelum, written 
celum by the Romans themselves. See 
§ 105. For e = e« see arriere. 

CIERGE, sm. a wax candle ; from L. cereus, 
from cera. For -eua = -ge see § 272 ; for 
e = ie see arriere. 

tCigale, sf a cicala, grasshopper; from 
Prov. cicala, which from L. cicadxila, dim 
of cicada. 

t Cigarre, sm. a cigar ; introd. from Sp. 
cigarro. — Der. cigarette. 

CIGOGNE, sf. a stork; from L. ciconia. 
For 0=^^ see § 129. For the change of ni 
into gn before a vowel see § 244. See 
also under aragne. Cigogne is a doublet 
of O. Fr. soigne. 

CIGUE, sf. hemlock; from L. cicuta. For 
o=g see § 129 ; for -uta= -ue see § 201. 

CIL, sm. an eyelash, hair of eyebrows ; from 
L. cilium. — Der. c//ler (whence O. Fr. d^- 
ciRer, now desszV/er). 

CI ME, sf. a summit, mountain-top. O. Fr. 
cyme, from L. cyma, a summit, in Isidore 
of Seville : ' Cjrma est enim summitas ar- 
borum.' — Der. cimier (an ornament on the 
top of a helmet). 

CIMENT, sm. cement ; from L. caementum. 
Here ae becomes i as in caepuUa, ci- 
boule; caepa, cive ; caepatum*, civet; 
1 a e t a , //« ; p a e o n i a , pivoine. ae reduced 
to e becomes ie, as in saeclum, siecle ; 
graeca, grieche. See § 104. Ciment is 
a doublet of cement. — Der. cimenter. 

tCimeterre, sm. a scimitar. O. Fr. cimt- 
terre, introd. from the East through It. 

CIMETIERE, sm. a cemetery; from L. 
coemeterium. For oe = « see §§ 105, 
64 ; for e = ie see arriere. 

CIMIER, sm. a crest. See eime. 

Cin6raire, arf/. cinerary ; from L. cinera- 
rius. Cineraire is a doublet oi cendriers 



CINGLER, va. to lash, whip; from L. 

oingiil^e, to whip with a cingulum. 

For regular loss of penult, ii see § 52. 
CINGLER, vn. to sail, make sail, O. Fr. 

singler, originally sigler, a word of Germ. 

origin, from O. Scand. sigla, to sail. Cing- 

ler is a doublet of sangler, q. v. 
CINNABRE, sm. cinnabar; from L. cinnfi.- 

b&ris. For loss of penult, a see § 51. 
Cixmaine, sm. cinnamon ; from L. cinna- 

CINQ, num. adj. five; from L. quinque, 

written cinque in a 3rd-cent, inscription. 

For qu = c see car. — Der. cinqmhme. 
CINQUANTE, num. adj. fifty; from L. 

quinquaginta. For change of qu into c 

see car, and for loss of medial g see 

allier. — Der. cinquant'iQxnc, cinquantzine. 
CINTRER, va. to arch ; from L. cincturdre*. 

For regular loss of u see § 52 ; for 

change of ct into t see affete. — Der. cintre 

(verbal subst.), decintrer. 
Cippe, sm. a cippus ; from L. cippus. 

Cippe is a doublet of cep, q, v. 
Circoncire, va. to circumcise ; from L. 

circumcidere. For -cidere = -cire see 

occ'tre. — Der. circoncision. 
Circonf6rence, sf. a circumference ; from 

L. circumferentia. 
Circonflexe, adj. circumflex; from L. cir- 

Circonlocution, sf. circumlocution; from 

L. circumlocutionem. 
Circonscrire, va. to circumscribe; from 

L. circumscribere . — Der. «rco«scnption. 
Circonspect, adj. circumspect, cautious; 

fromL.circumspectus . — Der. circonspec- 

Circonstance, sf. a circumstance ; from L. 

circumstantia. — Der. circonstancier, -iel. 
Circonvallation, sf. circumvallation; from 

L. circumvallationera, der. from cir- 

Circonvenir, va. to circumvent, deceive ; 

from L. circumvenire. 
Circonvoisin, adj. neighbouring, adjacent; 

compd. of voisin and the prefix circon, from 

L. circum. 
Circonvolution, sf. circumvolution ; from 

L. circumvolutionem*, der. from cir- 

Circuit, sm. circuit, compass; from L. cir- 

Circuler, vn. to circulate; from L. circu- 

lari. Circuler is a doublet of cercler, q. v. 

—Der. circuhtion. J 

CIRE, sf. wax; from L. cera. For e = i see 
§ 59. — Der. cirii (which is a doublet 
of cerat, q. v.), c/rer, -age, -ier. 

CIRON, sm. a fleshworm, mite. Origin un- 

Cirque, sm. a circus; from L. circus, 

Cirre, s?«. a curl, lock (of hair) ; from L. 

CISAILLES, sf pi. shears. See ciseau.— 
Der. cisailleT. 

CISEAU, sm. a chisel. Origin unknown. — 
Der. mailles, ciseler (from O. Fr. cisel for 
ciseau. See agneau). 

CISELER, va. to chisel, carve. See ciseau. — 
Der. ciseleuT, -ure. 

tCitadelle, ./. a citadel ; from It. citea- 

+ Citadin, sm. a citizen ; from It. cittadino. 

CITE, sf a city ; from L. citateiu for 
civitatem, so written in several inscrip- 
tions before the 3rd cent. a.d. For loss of 
i (civ'tatem) see §51; for v't = / see 
alleger; tor -ateni = -e' see § 230. 

Citer, va. to cite; from L. citare. — Der. 

Cit6rieur, adj. hither, hithermost ; from L. 

CITERNE, sf a cistern; from L. cisterna. 
For loss of s see Hist. Gram. p. 81. — Der. 
citer nea.u. 

Cithare, sf. a cithara, lyre; from L. ci- 
thara. Cithare is a doublet of guitare and 
O.Fr. cedre. 

CITOYEN, sm. a citizen. Prov. ciptadan, 
from L. civitadanus*, der. from civi- 
tatem. For the change of the first part 
of the word, civita- = «V-, see cite; for loss 
of medial d see accabler; for suffix yen 
see § 194. 

CITRIN, adj. citrine ; from L. citrinus. 
Citrin is a doublet of sSrin, q. v. 

CITRON, sm. a lemon, citron ; from L. 
citrum, through a dim. citronem*. 

CITROUILLE, sf a pumpkin, gourd; dim. 
of O. Fr, citre, which is L. citrum (the 
yellow colour of the gourd resembling that 
of a lemon). 

CIVE, sf a chive ; from L. caepa. For ae 
= e = i see § 104 and ciment. For p = v 
see § III. — Der. civet (in O.Fr. «W, 
properly a stew with chives), civette. 

+ Civette, ./. a civet cat; a word of 
Eastern origin ; Ar. zibed. The word 
came into Fr. through medieval Gr. ^avi- 

CIVI!:RE, sf a handbarrow, litter. Origin 



Civil, adj. civil; from L. civilis. — Der. 
civilite, civiliser, civilisation. 

Civique, adj. civic; from L. civicus. — 
Der. civisme. 

CLABAUD, sm. a babbler, liar. Of Germ, ori- 
gin. Neth. Happen. — Der. clabander, -age. 

CLAIE. sf. a hurdle, screen. O. Fr. cloie, 
Prov. cleda, from L. clida*, found in the 
Lex Bajuwariorum, tit. Ixxvii, ' Si eum in- 
terfecerit, coram testibus in quadrivio in 
clida eum levare debet.' The Lat. 
clida is of Celt, origin, Kymri clwyd, a. 
hurdle. Lat. clida becomes O. Fr. cloie 
by loss of medial d (see alouette), and by 
i =■ oi (see boire) ; oi in turn becomes ai, see 
§ 61, whence claie. — Der. clayon; cloy- 
ere (from O. Fr. cloye). 

CLAIR, adj. clear, bright; from L. clarus. 
For a = az see § 54. — Der. clairet, -iere, 
-on; cZarine, -inette; eclaircr, 6clairciT, 

CLAIRIERE, sf. a glade. See clair. 

CLAIRON, sm. a clarion (clear-sounding 
trumpet). See clair. 

CLAIRVOYANT, adj. clear-seeing. See clair. 
Der. clairvoyance. 

CLAM EUR, sf. clamour, din ; from L. 
clamorem. For 6 = eu see § 79. 

Claudestin, adj. clandestine ; from L. 

+ Clapet, sm. a valve ; from Germ, klappe. 

CLAPIER, sm. a burrow. See clapir. 

CLAPIR (SE), vpr. to squat (of rabbits) ; from 
L, clepere (se clepere = to hide one- 
self). For accented e = i see § 60; for 
atonic e = a see amender. — Der. clapicT. 

CLAPOTER, vn. to clap, chop, splash. Dim. 
of clapper. An onomatopoeia. 

CLAQUE, sf. a slap, smack. An onomatopoeia. 
— Der. claquer (which is a doublet of 
clicker, q. v.), clacquear. 
JCLAQUEMURER, va. to immure. Origin 

CLARIFIER, va. to clarify ; from L. clarifi- 
care. See clair. — Der. c/fln)fcation. 

CLARINETTE, sf. a clarionet; dim. of 
clarine^ See clair. 

CLARTE, sf. clearness ; from L. claritatem, 

J by regular loss of 1 (see § 52), and by 

I -atein = -e' (see § 230). 

IjClasse, sf. a class; from L. class is. — Der. 
classer, classement, declasser, cZassique 
(which is a doublet of glas, q. v.), class- 

ause, sf. a clause, a thing concluded, 
closed up ; from L. clausa, partic. of clau- 
dere. Clause is a doublet of close, q. v. 

Claustral, adj. claustral; from L. claus- 

CLAVEAU, sm. (Archit.) a keystone. O. Fr. 
clavel, from L. clavellus, dim of clavis. 
For -ellu8 = -el = -eaM see § 204. 

CLAVEAU, sm. the rot, sheep rot. O. Fr. cla- 
vel, from L. clavellus ; the lumps formed 
in this disease being thought to be like nail- 
heads (clavis). — Der. clavelee (from O. Fr. 
clavele). . 

+ Clavecin, sm. a harpsichord; from It. 

Clavicule, sf. collar bone; from L. clavi- 
cula. Clavicule is a doublet of cheville, 

Clavier, sm. a key-chain, key-board (of a 
piano) ; from L. claviarius*, from clavis. 
In O.Yr.=porte-clef,i.t. 2. key-ring; ap- 
plied afterwards to a collection of piano- 

CLEF, sf. a key ; from L. clavis. For a = « 
see § 54 ; for v=/see § 142. 

C16inatite, sf. clematis; from L. clema- 

Clement, adj. clement, merciful ; from L. 

clementem Der. cUmt.nct, from L. 


Clepsydre, sf. a clepsydra, water-clock; 
from L. clepsydra. 

CLERC, sm. a clerk, scholar; from L deri- 
cus, Gr. kXtjplkSs, one who belongs to 
the Kkripos, or clergy, as opposed to a lay- 
man. The prim, sense has been expanded 
to that of a man of learning, then a pen- 
man, clerk (in all its senses), agent, as in clerc 
d'avoue, etc. For loss of i see § 51. 

CLERGE, sm. the clerical body; from L. 
clericatus, from clericus. For loss of 
atonic i see § 52; for c=g see § 129; 
for -atus = -e see § 201. 

Clerical, adj. clerical; from L. clericalis. 

CLICHER, va. to stereotype. O. Fr. cliquer, 
a form which shows that clicker is a vari- 
ant of cliquer, q. v. : it is also a doublet of 
claquer. Similarly in Germ, ab-klitschen, 
= clicker, is derived from hlatschen, = cla- 
quer. — Der. clicks, clickzgt. 

Client, sm. a client, dependent; from L. 
client em. — Der. clientele. 

CLIGNER, va. to wink ; from L. clinare. 
n becomes gn, and undergoes the same 
change as nn in grunnire, grogner ; 
pinnonem*, pignon. 

Climat, sm. climate; from climatem. — 
Der. c/tma^erique. 

CLIN, sm. a wink; verbal subst. of cligner, 

G 2 



diniqne, adj. clinical, sf. clinical surgery; 
from L. clinice, a medical lesson given at 
the sick man's bedside. 

CLINQUANT, sm. tinsel, Dutch gold-leaf; 
abbrev. of O. Fr. phrase or clinquant. Clin- 
quer, Neth. klinken, properly means to 
make a clinking noise. A like metaphor 
is found in Germ., which calls this metal 

CLIQUER, see clicker, of which it is another 

CLIQUETER,t; clack, click. Frequent, of 
O. Fr. cliquer. An onotnatop. word. — Der. 
cliquetis. * 

+ Oliver, va. to cleave; from Engl, cleave. 
Der. clivige. 

Cloaque, sf. a sewer; from L. cloaca. 

CLOCHE, sf. a bell ; from Merov. L. clocca. 
Origin unknown. For c = ch see § 126. 
— Der. clocher, -ette, -eton. 

CLOCHER, vn. to halt, limp, hobble. Prov. 
clopchar, Gr. x^w^t^Trovs (lame) gave birth, 
in the first ages after the fall of the Em- 
pire, to a Lat. cloppus. This word is 
found in the Glosses of Philoxenus, * clop- 
pus =x'''^<^5'>* ^nd the Lex Alamannorum 
gives cloppus for claudus, 'ut cloppus 
permaneat.' This adj. cloppus has given 
the Fr. two important words : — 

1. O. Fr. adj. clop (lame), whence the 
vn, eloper, lost in mod. Fr., leaving its 
pres. partic. in the expression clopin- 
clopant, of which the first part is the 
verbal subst. of clopiner, another deriv. of 
eloper. Sclope is also a compd, of eloper. 

2. Through a deriv., cloppicus, came 
the vn. cloppicare, which regularly losing 
i became clop'care, whence on one 
hand the Prov. clopchar, on the other the 
Fr. clocher. For c = ch see § 126. 

CLOISON, sf. a partition ; from L. closi- 
onem*, by transposition of i: see Hist. 
Gram, p, 77. 

CLOfTRE, sm. a cloister, monastery. O. Fr. 
cloistre, from L. claustrum. For au = o 
= ot see ahoyer and § 107; for loss of s 
see Hist. Gram. p. 81. — Der. cloitrer. 

CLOPIN - CLOPANT, adv. loc. haltingly, 
' clop-clop.' See clocher. 

CLOPORTE, sm. a wood-louse. In 17th 
cfent. written clausp6rte, degraded from 
clausporc, which should be its true form, 
from Lat. clausus porcus (lit. ' a shut-up 
pig'). It is hard to say why this name 
should be applied to the wood-louse; still the 
Wood-louse is* almost everywhere called a 
pig. The Lat. called it sometimes asellus, 

sometimes porcellio, the \\. porcellino, the 
Gr. 6vtaK6s. Similarly in the French pro- 
vinces; in Champagne cochon de saint An- 
toine, in Dauphin^ ka'ion (a pig), in Anjou 
tree{ = truie, a sow). These parallels confirm 
the existence of this metaphor, without 
however explaining it, 

CLORE, va. to close, shut; from L. clau- 
d§re. For the regular loss of the penult. 
6 see § 51; for au = see alouette ; for 
dr = r see § 168, — Der. 6clore, enclore, 
enc/os, dMore ; clos, close (whose doublet 
is^clause)f closene, c/osier. 

CL6TURE, ,/. an enclosure, fence, close. 
O, Fr. closture, from L. clausitura*, from 
clausus. For regular loss of i see § 52 ; 
for au = see alouette ; for loss of s see 
Hist, Gram, p. 8i. 

CLOU, sm. a nail, O. Fr, do, from L, 
clavus. For av = au = = om see 
alouette. — Der, clouer, -tier, enclouex, de- 

CLOYERE, sf. an oyster basket. See date. 

+ Club, sm. a club ; from Engl, club. — Der. 

Clyst^re, sm. a clyster; from L, clyster, 

Coactif, adj. coactive; from L, coactivus, 

Coaguler, va. to curdle, coagulate ; from 
L. coagulare. Coaguler is a doublet of 
cailler, q. v. 

Coaliser, vn. to coalesce. An ill-foi'med 
word from L, coalescere, — Der, coaZition, 

Coasser, vn. to croak. In l6th cent, co- 
axer, from L. coaxare. — Der. coassement. 

t Cobalt, sm. cobalt; from Germ, cobalt. 

COCAGNE, sf Cockayne. O. Fr. quaigne, in 
medieval mythology an imaginary land the 
houses of which are made of cakes (cogues 
as they were then called, now couque). 

COCARDE, /. a cockade. O, Fr, coquarde, 
a cock's comb, then a red device in the hat, 
like a cock's comb. See coq. 

COCASSE, adj. ludicrous. Origin unknown. 

COCHE, (i) sf. a boat; from L. concha*, 
which from its proper sense of shell, conch, 
came to that of a little boat. For nc = c see 
coque and Hist. Gram. p. 82. The word 
was early appHed to certain public carriages 
by the common transfer of words relating 
to water-carriage to land-carriage. In Paris 
before 1855 some omnibuses were called 
gondoles, others galires, thus taking their 
names from terms of navigation. Hence 
(2) sf a coach, carriage; see above.— 
Der. cocher, porte-cocAfere. 

COCHE, sf. a tally, notch. Origin unknown. 
— Der. decocAer is to shoot an arrow, 



by freeing it from the notch of the arba- 

COCHE, sf. a sow. Origin unknown. — Der. 

fCochenille, sf. cochineal; introd. in 
16th cent, from Sp. cochinilla. 

COCHER, stn. a coachman. See coche. 

COCHET, sm. a cockerel. See coq. 

COCHEVIS, sm. the crested lark. Origin 

COCHON, sm. a pig. See coche. 

+ Coco, sm cocoa ; introd. from Port, coquo. 
— Der. cocotier. 

COCON, sm. a cocoon. See coque. 

Coction, sf. a coction, boiling; from L. 
coctionem. Coction is a doublet of 
cidsson, q. v. 

Code, sm. a code; from L. codex.— Der. 
corfifier. Code is a doublet of codex. 

Codicille, sm. a codicil; from L. codi- 

CoefiBLCient, sm. a coefEcient ; from co, 
L. cum, and efficient from L. efficientem. 

Coemption, sf. coemption; from L. co- 

Coercition, s/. coercion ; from L. coerci- 
t ion em. — Der. coercitii. 

CCEUR, sm. the heart; from L. cor. For 
O = oeu see cueillir. 

COFFRE, sm. a chest, trunk, coffer; from 
L. cophinus, a basket, but used for a 
coffer in the Capit. de Villis. art. 62 : 
' coflnis id est scriniis.' C6ph(i)lius was 
first regularly contrd. (see § 51) into 
coph'nus ; then ph became /, after a 
general Fr. rule. The Romans proncd. ph 
and f differently, as we see from Priscian : 
•Non tam fixis labris est pronuntianda f, 
quomodo ph,' but this shade of difference 
was soon effaced, and has entirely dis- 
appeared from modern languages. For 
pli=/ cp. phasianus, faison, § 146. 
Cofnus becomes coffre by changing n 

! into r : this permutation of the nasal into 

! a liquid is also to be found in ord'nem, 
ordre, etc., § 163. Coffre is a doublet 
of coffin. — Der. coffrtX, coffrtx, en- 

COGNEE, sf. an axe, hatchet. O. Fr. coignee, 
from L. cvmeata*, a wedge to cleave 

« wood with. First ea became ia (see Hist. 

I Gram. p. 66), then cuniata becomes 
coignee by (i) ni=^ra (see aragne), (2) 
u = o/(see § ioo),(3)-ata = -e'e(see § 201). 

jpOGNER, va. to drive in (a nail, wedge). 
O. Fr. coigner, from L. cuneare. For 
(Hineare = coigner see cognee. 

•Cohabiter, vn. to cohabit; from L. co- 
habitare. — Der. cohabita.tiox\. 

Coh.6rent, a<^'. coherent ; from L. cohae- 

Cohesion, sf. cohesion; from L. cohae- 

Cohorte, sf. a cohort ; from L. cohortem. 
Cokorte is a doublet of cour. 

COHUE, sf. a rout, crowd ; verbal subst. of 
cohuer (to cry, hue and cry together). For 
the etymology see heur. 

COl,fem. coite, quiet, coy, still; from L. quie- 
tus. For loss of t see aigu ; for i = oi see 
§ 68; for qu = c see car. Coi is a doublet 
of quitte, q. v. 

COIFFE, sf a headdress, cap ; from L. cofea, 
used by Fortunatus. First ea became ia (see 
Hist. Gram. p. 66), then cofla becomes 
coiffe by attraction of i, which changes o 
into oi (see Hist. Gram. p. 77). — Der. 
coiffei, -eur, -ure, decoiffer. 

COIN, sm. a corner, nook; from L. cuneus. 
For eus = tMS see Hist. Gram, p. 189; for 
iii= gn see aragne; for \i = oi see § 100, 
— Der. Tecoin. 

Coincider, vn. to coincide; from L. co- 
incidere. — Der. co'incidence, 

GOING, sm. a quince. O. Fr. cooing, Prov. 
codoing. It. cotogna, from L, cotoneus. 
-eus becoming regularly -ius (see Hist. 
Gram. p. 66), cotonius produced O. Fr. 
cooing, (l) by dropping medial t (see § 
117), (2) by changing ui into ng, (3) by 
changing o into oi (see Hist. Gram. p. 77). 
— Der. co^wasse, -assier. 

t Coke, sm. coke ; from Eng. coke. 

COL, sm. a neck, of which cou is the softer 
form, see agneau ; from L. collum. Col is 
a doublet of cou, q. v. — Der. collier, -let, 
-lerette, deco/ler, enco/ure, acco/er. 

tColback, sm. colback; from Turk. 
kolbdk, a furred hat, adopted by certain 
French cavalry regiments on their return 
from the campaign of Egypt. 

Col6optdre, sm. a beetle, adj. coleopterous ; 
from Gr. KoKeoTrrepos, sheath-winged. 

Colore,./, wrath; from L. cholera, Co- 
lere is a doublet of cholera and O. Fr. 

+ Colibri, sm. a humming-bird; introd. 
from the American colonies. 

COLIFICHET, sm. a trinket. Origin un- 

CO LI MACON, sm. a snail. See limapon. 

Colique, sf. colic ; from L. colica. 

t Colis, sm. a package, more correctly 
written coli, from It. collo, the neck. 



Collaborer, va. to work with; from L. 
col labor a re. — Dcr. co//a6orateur, -ation. 

Collateral, adj. collateral; from L. col la- 

Collateur, sm. a collator; from L. colla- 

Collation, sf. a collation ; from L. collatio. 
The sense of a light repast comes from 
convents, in which the monks made a daily 
'collation ' or reading and discussion on Holy 
Writ. This conference was followed by a 
light meal, which accordingly took the name 
of collatio. — Der. collationner. 

Colle, sf. paste, glue ; from Gr. nSWa. — 
Der. collcr, d^co/Ter, encoder. 

Collecte, sf. a collection, collect ; from L. 
coUecta * (partic.of colligere). Collecte 
is a doublet of cueillette, q. v. — Der. col- 

Collectif, adj. collective; from L. collec- 

Collection, sf. a collection; from L. col- 
lect ion em. — Der. collectionner. 

College, sm. a college, high school ; from L. 
collegium. — Der. collegizl, collegien. 

Colldgue, sm. a colleague ; from L. col- 

Coller, va. to stick, glue, paste. See colle. 

COLLERETTE, sf. a collar, frill. See collier. 

COLLET, sm. a collar. See co/.— Der. collet- 
er, se decolletcT. 

COLLIER, sm. a necklace. See cou. — Der. 
collerette, dim. of O. Fr. coller for collier. 

COLLINE, sf. a little hill, hillock ; from L. 
collina, a word used by Roman surveyors. 
Columella uses the form collinum. 

Collision, sf. a collision; from L. collisi- 

Collocation, sf. a collocation; from L. 

Colloque, sm. a colloquy; from L. col- 

Colloquer, va. to class, marshall, place; 
from L. collocare. Colloquer is a doublet 
of coucher, q. v. 

Collusion, sf. collusion ; from L. col- 

Colljrre, sm. collyrium, eye-salve ; from L. 

Colombo, ./. a dove ; from L. columba. — 

Der. colombxQi, colombxn. 
Colon, sm. a husbandman ; from L. col onus. 
—Der. colonie (which is a doublet of O. Fr. 
colonge), colonial, coloniser. 
+ Colonel, sm. a colonel; introd. in i6th 

cent, from It. colonello. 
COLONNE, sf. a column ; from L. columna. 

For u = o see annoncer ; for mn = nn cp. 
Garumna, Garonne, This assimilation 
is to be found in Lat., where we have con- 
necto for cum-necto, etc. (§ i68). — Dei., colonnette. 
Colophane, sf. colophony; in l6th cent. 
colophone, from L. colophonia, rosin of 
Coloquinte, sf colocynth; from L. colo- 

Colorer, va. to colour; from L. colorare. 
Colorer is a doublet of colorier. — Der. 
t Color is, sm. colouring; introd. in 1 6th 
cent, from It. colorito. — Der. colorier, 
Colosse, sm. a colossus ; from L. colossus. 

— Der. colosszX. 
COLPORTER, va. to hawk, peddle; from 
col and porter, q. v. The colporteur was 
rightly a pedlar with a pack on his shoulders. 
— Der. colporteur, colportige. 
Colore, sf. (Astron.) colure ; from Gr. k6\ov- 

pos, sc. ypafxfifi, properly = ligne colure. 
t Colza, sm. colza, rape-seed ; from Flem. 

COMBATTRE, va. to fight, combat ; from 
battre (q. v.) and cum. — Der. combat (verbal 
COMBIEN, adv. how many; from com ( = to 
what point), O. Fr. form of comme (q. v.), 
and bien. See Hist. Gram. p. i6o. 
Combiner, va. to combine; from L. com- 

binare. — Der. cow6maison. 
COMBLE, sm. top, summit, fulfilment ; from 
L. cumulus, which signifies a summit in 
several medieval texts. Cura(u)lus, regu- 
larly contrd. (see § 51) into cum'lus, be- 
comes comble. For u = see annoncer ; for 
nil = w&/ see Hist. Gram. p. 72. Comble is 
a doublet of combrer. 
COMBLER, va. to fill up, fulfil; from L. 
cumulare, regularly contrd. (see accointer) 
into cum'lare, whence combler. For 
letter-changes see comble. Combler is a 
doublet of cumuler, q. v. 
Combustion, sf. combustion; from L. 

combustionem., ^f. a comedy, play ; from L. 

comoedia. — Der. comedien. 
t Comestible, adj. eatable, edible; in- 
trod. in 1 6th cent, from It. comestibile. 
Com^tes, sf pi. a comet; from L. co- 
Comice, comitia; from L. comitia. 
Com.ique, adj. comic; from L. comicus. 
t Comit6, sm. a committee; introd. during 



the Regency from Engl, committee. Comite 
is a doublet of comte, q. v. 

COMMANDER, va. to command; from L. 
commendare (used for 'to order' in the 
late Lat.). — Der. commands (verbal subst.), 
commandtmtx\\., commandant, commendeur, 
commenderie, commandite, rtco^nmander. 

COMMANDITE, sf. a joint-stock company. 
See commander, — Der. commandittx, com- 

COMME, adv. how ; from L. qudmodo. 
For loss of the last two syllables see § § 50, 5 1. 
For qu = c see car. — Der. comment (compd. 
of comme and ent, which is from L. indd). 
For i = e see § 71 ; for d = / § 121 : ent is 
also found in the word souv-ent, from sub- 

Commemoration, sf. commemoration ; 
from L. commemorationem. — Der. com- 

COMMENCER, va. to commence, begin. 
It. cominciare, from L. cominitiare *, 
compd. of cum and initiare. Co- 
min(i)tidre, losing its i regularly (see 
§ 52), becomes comin'tiare, which gives 
commencer. For -tiare = -cer see agencer ; 
for -in = e« see § 72 ; foru = o see annon- 
cer. — Der. commencement. 

Com.m.ensal, sm. a messmate; from L. 
commensalis*, one who lives at the 
same table, mensa. 

Com.m.ensurable, adj. commensurable ; 
from L. cum and mensurabilis. 

COMMENT, adv. why, how. See comme. 

Com m entaire, sm. a commentary, com- 
ment ; from L. commentarius. 

Com.m.enter, va. to comment, annotate ; 
from L. commentari. — Der. comment- 

Com.mdre, sf. a gossip, joint godmother. 
The Church gives to infants at their bap- 
tism a spiritual father and mother, whose 
it is to replace the natural parents should 
they die, the godfather and godmother 
(parrain, marraine) of the child being 
counted as its second father and mother (or, 
-as would now be said, its co-pere and co- 
mere) : eccles. Lat. expressed this double 
idea by the words com-pater, com-mater, 
whence compere and commere, which origin- 
ally signified the two persons who held the 
child at the font. For commater = corn- 
mere see mere. — Der. commer&ge. 

COMMETTRE, va. to commit; from L. 
committere. For mittere = mc//re see 
mettre. — Der. commis, comm/ssaire, com- 

Com.minatoire, adj. comminatory, threat- 
ening; from L. comminatorius * (from 
comminationem, which from commi- 

COMMIS, sm. a clerk. See commettre. 

Com.mis6ration, sf. commiseration, pity ; 
from L. commiserationem. 

COMMISSAIRE, sm. a commissary, com- 
missioner. See commettre. — Der. commis- 

COMMISSION, sf. a commission. See com- 
mettre. — Der. commissionner, commission- 

Com.mode, (i) adj. commodious; from L. 
commodus. (2) sf. a chest of drawers, so 
called from its commodiousness. 

Com.m.otion, sf. a commotion ; from L. 

COMMUER, va. to commute ; from L. com- 
mutare. For loss of t see abbaye. — Der. 

COMMUN, adj. common ; from L. com- 
munis. — Der. commune, communzl, com- 
mwwisme, communiste. 

COMMUNAUT^, sf. a community ; from L. 
commvmalitdtem by regularly dropping 
i (see § 52) and reduction of com- 
m.unal'tatem. into communaute by (i) 
sl = au (see agneau); (2) -atem = -e (see 
§ 230). 

COMMUNIER, va. to communicate ; from L. 
communicare (which in eccles. language 
signified to receive the Eucharist). For loss 
of medial c see affouage. Communier is a 
doublet of cornmuniqtierandO.Fr.comenger, 

Com.munion, sf communion ; from L. 

Com.m.uniquer, va. to communicate; 
from L. communicare. Communiquer 
is a doublet of communier. — Der. commu- 
nication, communicatif. 

Com.mutation, sf commutation ; from L. 

Com.pacte, adj. compact; from L. com- 

COMPAGNE.s/. a companion; fem. of O.Fr. 
compaign. Lat. cum-panis * produced 
in Merov. Lat. a subst. com.pdnio*, whence 
the O. Fr. compaing (for a = ofj see § 54), 
while its accus. com.panionem produced 
the form compagnon (for ni = ^n see ci- 
gogne). Of these two cases, subjective and 
objective, the latter only survives ; see 
Hist. Gram. p. 8g sqq. Compaing has gone, 
but leaves its fem. compagne and the deriv. 
compagnie, and compagnon has taken its 
place. The oldest known occurrence of 



this word is in the Gcrmano-Lat. Glosses of 
the Vatican, which are of the time of Louis 
the Debonair, in the phrase, no longer Lat. 
but Romance, ' ubi (h)abuisti mansionem 
(h)ac nocte, oompagn ?' — Der. compagnie, 
compagnon, Accompagner. 

COMPAGNIE, sf. a company. See com- 

COMPAGNON, sm. a companion. See com- 
pagne. — Der, compagnonnzge. 

COMPARAITRE, vn. to appear; from L. 
comporesoere. For parescero '^paraitre 
see npparaitre. 

Comparer, va. to compare ; from L. com- 
parare. Comparer is a doublet of O. Fr. 

comprer Der. compair^i%oTi, cowiparable, 


COMPAROIR, vn. to ' put in an appearance '; 
from L. comparere. For e = oi see § 62. 

+ Comparse, sf. a figure-dancer; introd. 
from It. comparsa. 

COMPARTIMENT, sm. a compartment, 
panel, division ; from O. Fr. verb compartir, 
which from L, compartiri *. Comparti- 
ment is derived from compartir, like senti- 
ment from sentir. 

Comparution, sf. an appearance; corrupted 
from L. comparitionem. 

COMPAS, sm. a compass, pair of compasses ; 
properly measure, equal distance. In O. Fr. 
it signified pas egal, pas regulier, from L. 
oompassus (see pas). — Der. compasser, 
to measure by compass, whence the wider 
sense to measure one's acts. 

Compassion, sf. compassion ; from L. 

Com.patir, vn. to compassionate, pity ; from 
L. compatiri*.-Der. cowparible, incompat- 
ible (compatibilis*, incompatibilis*). 

Com.patriote, sm. a compatriot ; from L 

+ Compendium., sm. a compendium, 
abridgement ; a Lat. word. 

Compenser, va. to compensate, set off, 
balance; from L. compensare. — Der. 
compensation, recompenser. 

COMPARE, sm. a godfather, gossip. See 

Comp6ter, vn. to be due, in the competency 
of; from L, competere. — Der. competent, 
competence, incompetent, incompetence. 
Com.p6titeur, sm. a competitor ; from L. 

competitor. — Der. compe'/ition. 
Compiler, va. to compile ; from L. com- 

pilare. — Der. com/)?7ation. 
COMPLAINTE, ./. a complaint ; partic. subst. 
of O. Fr. verb complain Jre (see plaindre). 

COMPLAIRE, vn. to please, gratify; from 
L. complacere. See plaire. — Der. com- 
plaisant, complaisznce. 

Com.pl6ment, sm. complement, fulness ; 
from L. complementum. — Der. comple- 

Complet, adj. complete; from L. comple- 
tus. Complete is a doublet of complies, 
q. v. — Der. completer. 

Complexe, adj. complex; from L. com- 

Complexion, sf. complexion; from L. 

Complice, ( i ) adj. privy to, (2) smf. accom- 
plice; from L. compile em. — Der. com- 

COMPLIES, sf. complines; in eccles. Lat. 
completae. For e = i see § 60; for 
loss of t see aigu. In liturgical language 
this part of the divine office is called the 
horae completae, because it completes 
the service, which comprehends prime, tierce, 
sexte, none and complies, or in liturgical Lat. 
prima, tertia, sexta, nona, comple- 
torium. Complies is a doublet of complete. 

t Compliment, sm. a compHment; in- 
trod. in 1 6th cent, from It. complim£nto. — 
Der. complimented. 

Compliquer, va. to complicate ; from L. 
complicare. — Der. complicztion. 

COMPLOT, sm. a plot. Origin unknown. 
— Der. complotet. 

Com.ponction, sf. compunction ; from L. 
compunctionem * (strong sorrow at 
having offended God). 

Comporter, va. to admit of, allow ; from 
L. comportare. 

COMPOSER, va. to compose ; from L. com- 
pausare, compd. of cum and pausare. 
For au = o see § 106. — Der. xecomposer, 
decomposer, compositeur, com/>osition (L. 
compositorem, compositionem). 

Composite, adj. composite ; from L. com- 
pos it us. Composite is a doublet of com- 
pote, q. V. 

COMPOSTEUR,sOT. a composing-stick ; from 
L. composit6rem. For loss of atonic i 
see § 52; for o = eu see § 79. Com- 
pGsteur is a doublet of compositeur. 

COMPOTE, sf. stewed fruit. O. Fr. com- 
poste. It. composta, from L. composita. 
Compote is a doublet of composite. 

COMPRENDRE, va. to comprehend ; from 
L. eomprendere. For the loss of the 
penult, e see § 51. — Der. comprehen- 
sion (straight from L. comprehen- 



COMPRESSE,^/: (Med.) a surgical compress; 

verbal subst. of O. Fr. verb compresser. See 

Comprimer, va. to compress, repress ; from 

L. comprimere. 
COMPROMETTRE, va. to compromise; 

from L. compromittere. For mittere = 

mettre see mettre. — Der. cotnpromis. 
COMPTABLE, adj. accountable, responsible. 

See compter. — Der, comptabilite. 
COMPTER, va. to count, reckon; from L. 

computare, by regular loss of u (see 

§ 51). — Der. compte (verbal subst., which 

is a doublet of compJii), comptMe, compt- 

oir, k-compie, decompler, m^compte (verbal 

subst. of tnecompter). 
Compulser, va. to search, examine ; from 

L. compulsare*, to push, then to collect, 

Comput, sm. a computation ; from L. com- 
putum. Comput is a doublet of compte. 

Der. computet. 
Comte, sm. a count; from L, com it em, 

by regularly losing the 1 (§ 51). — Der. 

com^esse, comte (whose doublet is comiid), 

CONCASSER, va. to pound, crush ; from L. 

conquassare. See casser. 
Concave, ctc^". concave ; from L. concavus. 
Conc6der, va. to concede, grant ; from L. 

Concentrer, va. to concentrate; from con 

( = euin) and centre — Der. concentra.tion, 

Concept, sm. a concept (philosophical term) ; 

from L. conceptus. 
Conception, sf. a conception ; from L. 

Concerner, va. to concern, regard ; from 

L. concernere *. 
+ Concert, sm. a concert; introd. in i6th 

cent, from It. concerto. 
+ Concert er, va. to rehearse, concert ; 

introd. in i6th cent, from It. concertare. — 

Der. deconcerter. 
Concession, sf. a concession; from L. con- 
cession em. — Der. concessionnziie. 
i" Concetto, sm. a conceit; an It. word, 

properly of brilliant and false thoughts. 
CONCEVOIR, va. to conceive ; from L. con- 

cipere. In this verb the accent has been 

displaced in Low Lat. from concipere to 

concip6re ; this -6re has become -oir 

regularly, see § 63. For i = e see mettre; 

for p = v see § lll.^ — Der. inconcevable. 
Conchyliologie, sf. conchology ; from Gr. 

tf07X» and \6yos. 

CONCIERGE, smf. a doorkeeper. Origin 

Concile, sm. a council ; from L. concilium. 

Conciliabule, sm. a conventicle ; from L. 

Concilier, va. to conciliate ; from L. con- 
ciliare. — Der. co««7iation, r^con«7/ation. 

Concis, adj. concise; from L. concisus 

Der. concision. 

CONCITOYEN, sm. a fellow-citizen; from 
con ( = cum) and citoyen, q. v. 

t Conclave, sm. a conclave; from It. 

Conclure, va. to conclude; from L. con- 
cludere. This word, contrd. into con- 
clud're regularly (see § 51), changes dr 
into r; see § 168. 

Conclusion, sf. a conclusion; from L. con- 

CONCOMBRE, sm. a cucumber; from L. 
cucumerem. This word is contrd. regu- 
larly (see § 52) into cucum'rem, and then 
undergoes three changes : (i) it intercalates 
n, as in laterna, lanterne. Hist. Gram. p. 79. 
This intercalation was not uncommon in 
Lat., in which we find pinctor, lanterna, 
rendere, for pictor, laterna, reddere. 
(2) m'r becomes mhr, see absoudre. (3) 
u becomes 0, see § 98. 

Concorde, sf. concord ; from L. con- 
cord i a. — Der. concordeT, concordance, 

CONCOURIR, va. (i) to concur, co-operate, 
(2) to compete; from L. concvirrere. 
See courir. 

CONCOURS, sm. (l) concurrence, (2) com- 
petition ; from L. concursus. See cours. 

Concret, adj. concrete ; from L. concretus. 

Concretion, s/. a concretion; from L. con- 

Concubine, sf. a concubine ; from L, con- 
cub in a. — Der. concubinage. 

Concupiscence, sf concupiscence ; from 
L. concupiscentia. 

Concurrent, sm. a competitor ; from L. 
concurrentem. — Der. concurrence. 

Concussion, sf. a concussion, extortion ; 
from L. concussionem (used in Roman 
Law for peculation, extortion). — Der. con- 

CONDAMNER, va. to condemn ; from L. 
condemnare. — Der. condammtion, con- 

Condenser, va. to condense ; from L. con- 
den s a r e . — Der. co«cfe«sation, co«<i!e«sateur, 

Condescendre, va. to condescend i from 


L. condescendere. See descendre. — Der. 
condescendant, condescendence. 

Condiment, sm. condiment, seasoning ; 
from L. condimentum. 

Condition, sf. condition; from L. condi- 
tion em. — Der. conditionner, conditionnel. 

t Condor, sm. a condor ; a word of Ame- 
rican origin. 

CONDOLEANCE.s/: condolence. See t/o/e'a«ce. 

Conducteur, sm. a conductor, guard, guide ; 
from L. conductorem. 

CONDUIRE, va. to conduct, guide ; from L. 
conducere. Conduc(d)re, contrd. regu- 
larly (see § 51) into conduc're, becomes 
conduire. For u = m» see § 96 ; for cr = r 
see benir — Der. conduite (partic. subst.), 
conduit, Tcconduire, inconduite. 

Cdne, sm. a cone; from L. conus. — Der, 
co«ique, conifere. 

Confection, sf. construction, making ; from 
L. confectionem. — Der. confectionn&x. 

Conf6d6rer, va. to confederate; from L. 
confoederare. — Der. confederi\.\on. 

Confer er, va. to confer, collate ; from L. 
confer re Der. conference. 

CONFESSOR, va. to confess ; from L. con- 
fessari * (frequent, of confiteri ; for its 
formation see Hist. Gram. p. 131). — Der. 
confesse (verbal subst.), confessenr, con- 
fession, cow/essional. 

Confidence, sf. a secret, trust; from L. 
confidentia. Confidence is a doublet of 
confiafice. — Der. confidentiei, confident (L. 

CONFIER, va. to trust, confide ; from L. 
confldare*. For the changes see /?er. — 
Der. co«;?ance (whose doublet is confidence), 

Configuration, sf. configuration, shape; 
from L. configurationem. 

ConfLns, sm. pi. confines, borders ; from L. 

CONFIRE, va. to preserve, pickle; from L. 
conficere, = to preserve fruit. Conficere 
took, especially in medieval Latinity, the 
sense of 'making up' a medicine. Thus 
we read in the Leges Neapolitanae, * Quod 
perveniet ad notitiam suam quod aliquis 
confectionarius minus bene conficiat 
curiae denuntiabit.* Contrd. regularly 
(§ 51) into confic're, it becomes confire 
by cr = r, see henir. — Der. confit, confixme, 
confiseuT, deconfit, deconfitme. 

Confirmer, va. to confirm ; from L. con- 
fir mare. — Der. confirmalion. 

CONFISEUR, sm. a confectioner. See confire. 
■• — Der. confisevie. 

Confisquer, va. to confiscate; from L. 
confiscare. — Der. co«/?scation. 

CONFITURE, sf preserve, jam. See confire. 

Conflagration, sf. a conflagration ; from 
L. conflagrationem. 

CONFLIT, sm. a conflict; from L. con- 
fliotus. For ct = ^ see § 168. 

Confluer, vn. to flow together, be con- 

■ fluent; from L. confluere. — Der. con- 

CONFONDRE, va. to confound; from L. 
confundSre. For loss of § see § 51 ; 
for u = see annoncer. 

Conformation, sf. conformation; from 
L. conformationem. 

Conforme, adj. conformable; from L. 
conform is. — Der. conformex, conformiie. 

tConfort, sm. comfort, Confort- 
able, adj. comfortable; introd. from Engl. 
comfort, comfortable. Confort is a doublet 
of comfort. 

CONFORTER, va. to strengthen ; from L. 
confortare*. — Der. xkconforter. 

Confraternity, sf. a confraternity. See 

CONFRERE, sm. a colleague. See frere.-^ 
Der. confrerie. 

CONFRONTER, va. to confront. See front. 
— Der. co«/ro«/ation. 

Confus, adj. confused; from L. confusus. 
— Der. confusion. 

CONGE, sm. (l) leave, permission ; (2) leave 
of absence ; from L. commeatus = per- 
mission, authorization, written commi- 
atus in 8th-cent. documents, e. g. in Char- 
lemagne's Capitularies, vi. 16 : ' Mulier, si 
sinfe comiato viri sui velum in caput suum 
miserit.' For commeatus = commiatus 
see abreger and agencer. Comiatus 
gives Prov. comjat and Fr. conge. For i 
■=g see Hist. Gram. pp. 65, 66 ; for -atus 
= -e' see § 200; for m=« see changer. — 
Der. con^edier. 

Congeler, va. to congeal; from L. conge- 
lare. — Der. co«^e/ation. 

Cong^ndre, adj. congeneric; from L. con- 

Congestion, sf. congestion: from L. con- 

Congre, sm. a conger-eel ; from L. con- 

Congregation, sf. a congregation; from 
L congregationem. 

Congrds, sm. a congress; from L. con- 

Congru, adj. congruous, suitable; from L., 
congruus. — Der. incongru, incongruiXQ. 



Conjecture, sf. a conjecture; from L. 
conjectura. — Der. conjectural. 

CoDJoindre, va. to conjoin; from L. con- 
jungere. Seejoindre. — Der. conjoint. 

Conjonctif, adj. conjunctive ; from L. 
conjunctivus. — Der, conjonctWe. 

Conjonction, sf. a conjunction ; from L. 

Conjoncture, sf. a conjuncture; from L. 

Conjugal, adj. conjugal; from L. conju- 

Conjuguer, va. to conjugate; from L. 
conjugare. — Der. conjugaison.- 

Conjurer, va. to conjure, conspire ; from 
L. conjurare. — Der. cow/wration. 

CONNAlTRE, va. to know. O. Fr. con- 
oistre, from L. cognoscere. Cognos- 
c(e)re, regularly contrd. (see § 51) into 
cognos're, becomes conoistre. For gn = 
n see assener and § 131; for o = oi see 
§ 83; for sr = str see ancetre. Conoistre 
becomes connaitre. For 11 = nn see en- 
nemi ; for oi = a/ see § 1 1 1 ; for loss of s 
see Hist. Gram. p. 81. — Der. cowwaissant, 
C07i«aissance, co/inaisseur, co««aissement, 
cowraaissable, recowwaissable, rtconnaitre, 
-recowwaissant, reco««aissance, meconnaitre. 

CONNETABLE, sm. the constable. O. Fr. 
conestable. It. conestabile, from L. comes 
stabuli, count of the stable (a dignitary 
of the Roman Empire, transferred to the 
Frankish courts). The comes-stabuli, or 
as he was soon called in one word, the 
commestabiilus, entrusted under the early 
kings with the charge of the cavalry, be- 
came in the 13th cent, the commander of 
the forces generally. Comes-stabuli be- 
coming comestabulus, changed after the 
8th cent, into conestabulus. A docu- 
ment of A. D. 807 has ' stabuli 
quem corrupte conestabulus appellamus.* 
Comestdb(u)lus, regularly contrd. (see 
§ 51) into com.estab'lu8, becomes cone- 
stable by the very irregular change of the 
medial m into n, see changer. For the 
later loss of s see Hist. Gram. p. 81. 

Connexe, adj. connected; from L. con- 

Conniver, vn. to connive, wink at ; from 
L. connivere. — Der. connivence (L. con- 

Conque, sf. a conch, shell; from L. con- 

CONQUERIR, va. to conquer; from L. con- 
quirere. For qvdrere =querir see ac- 
querir. —Der. conquer&nt., conquQte (strong 

partic. subst., for which see absoiite and 

Consacrer, va. to consecrate ; from L. 

Consanguin, adj. a relation, cousin (by 
the father's side); from L. consanguineus. 

Conscience, sf. conscience; from L. con- 
scientia Der. conscienc'xeMX. 

Conscription, sf. a conscription ; from L. 

Conscrit, sm. a conscript; from L. con- 

Consecration, sf a consecration ; from L. 

Cons6cutif, adj. consecutive ; from L. 
consecutivus*, deriv. of consecutum. 

CONSEIL, sm. counsel, advice; from L. con- 
silium. For i = ei see § 70. — Der. 
conseiRer, deco«s«71er. 

CONSENTIR, vn. to consent; from L. con- 
sent ire. — Der. consenttment. 

Consequence, sf. consequence ; from L. 
consequentia. — Der. consequent (conse- 
quentem), consequemment {for consequent- 
ment ; see abondamment), inconsequent, in- 

CON SERVER, va. to preserve; from L. con- 
servare. — Der. conservation, -atoire, con- 
serve (verbal subst.), conservatenx . 

Consid6rer, va. to consider; from L. 
considerare. — Der. considtnCiion, -able, 
mconsidere, d6consider6. 

Consigner, va. to consign ; from L. con- 
signare. — Der. consigne (verbal subst.), 
consignation, consignatake. 

Consister, vn. to consist (of) ; from L. 
consistere. — Der. consistent, -ance. 

Consistoire, sm. a consistory ; from L. 

CONSOLE, sf a bracket, console. Origin 

Consoler, va. to console; from L. conso- 
lari. — Der, conso/ation, consohh\e, consol- 

Consolider,va, to consolidate; fromL. con- 
solidare. — Der. conso//a?ation, 

Consommer, va. to complete, consum- 
mate; from L. consummare. — Der. co«- 
sommation, consomme, consommatem. 

Consomption, sf. a consumption ; from L. 

Consonne, sf. a consonant; from L. con- 

Consonnance, sf a consonance ; from L. 

Consorts, sm. pi. associates; from L, con-* 



CONSOUDE, sf. (Bot.) consound, comfrey. 

O. Fr. consolde, It. consoUda, from L. con- 

solida. For changes see soude. 
Conspirer, t/«. to conspire ; from L. con- 

spirare. — Der, conspimtion, conspirzttur. 
Conspuer, va. to scoff at, spit at ; from L. 

Constant, adj. constant; from L. con- 

stantem. — Der. Constance, cons/amment. 
Constater, va, to ascertain, verify, state ; 

formed from L. status. Constater is pro- 
perly to describe the actual state of any- 
Constell^, adj. made under influence of 

some constellation; from L. constellatus. 
Constellation, sf. a constellation; from 

L. constellationem. 
Consterner, va. to dismay, strike terror; 

from L. consternare. — Der. constern- 

Constiper, va. to constipate ; from L. 

constipare — Der. constipa.tion. 
Constituer, va. to constitute; from L. 

const ituere. — Der. constitution, constitu- 

tionnel, cons/Z/wtionalit^, constituent, consti- 

Constricteur, adj. constrictive ; from L. 

constrictor. — Der. constriction. 
Construction, sf. a construction ; from L. 

Construire, va. to construct; from L. 

Consul, sm. a consul; from L. consul. — 

Der. consuht, consuhive. 
Consulter, va. to consult; from L. con- 

sultare. — Der. consulte (verbal subst.), 

consultant, consulta.tion, consultztii. 
Consumer, va. to consume ; from L. 

Contact, sm. contact; from L. contactus. 
Contagion, sf. contagion; from L. con- 

tagionem. — Der. contagieux (L. conta- 

CONTE, sm. a tale, narrative. See conter. 
Contempler, va. to contemplate ; from L. 

contemplari. — Der. contemplation, con- 

temphteuT, contemphtif. 
Contemporain, adj. contemporary ; from 

L. contemporaneus. 
Contempteur, sm. a contemner, scorner ; 

from L. contemptor. 
Contenance, sf. capacity, extent, bearing. 

See contenir. 
Contenir, va. to contain, hold; from L. 
contenire. For i = e see mettre ; for e 
= i see § 58. — Der. contemnt, conten&nce, 

Content, adj. content ; 'from L. contentus. 

— Der. contentCT, m&contenter, content- 

Contentieux, adj. contentious; from L. 

Contention, sf. a contention ; from L. 

CONTER, va. to tell, narrate. Prov. contar, 

from L. cozaputaxe, which meant first to 

compute, count, then to enumerate, lastly 

to relate, recount. The correctness of this 

etymology is proved by the fact that It. con- 

tare and Sp. contar, mean both to count 

and to recount ; so also Germ, erzahlen (to 

relate) is derived from zaklen (to count). 

Comp(u)t^e, contrd. regularly (see 

§ 52) into compt'are, becomes conter. 

For va. = n see changer ; for pt = / see 

§ 168. Co«/«r is a doublet of compter, q. v. 

— Der. conte (verbal subst.), conteai, ra- 

Contester, va. to contest, dispute ; from L. 

contestari. — Der. conteste (verbal subst.), 

coM^cs/ation, contestsble. 
Contexte,s;«. context; from L. contextus. 
Contigu, adj. contiguous; from L. con- 

Continent, adj. continent; sm. a continent; 

from L. continentem. — Der. continence. 
Contingent, adj. contingent; from L. 

contingent em. — Der. contingence. 
Continu, adj. continuous ; from L. con- 

tinuus. — Der. continuity, co«/j«ttellement, 

cotitinuex, continuation, discontinue!. 
Contondant, adj. contusing, blunt; frpm 

L. contundentem. 
Contorsion, sf. contortion, twist ; from L. 

Contoumer, va. to give a contour to, to 

twist. See tourner. — Der. contour (verbal 

subst. ; see tour.) 
Contractor, va. to contract; from L. con- 

tractare*. — Der. contraction. 
Contradicteur, sm. a contradicter, legal 

adversary; from L. contradictorem.— ■ 

Der. contradiction (L. contradictionem);i 

contradictioie (L. contradictorius), 
CONTRAINDRE, va. to constrain ; from 

constringere. For loss of s see abh 

for -iagere = -eindre see astreindre; 

eindre = aindre see § 63. — Der. contrain\ 

(partic. subst.). 
Contraire, adj. contrary ; from L. contra 

rius. — Der. contrarier, contrariety. 

tContraste, sm. a contrast; introd. in 

1 6th cent, from It. contrasto. — Der. con- 




Contrat, sm. a contract, agreement. O. Fr. 
contract, from L, contractus.- — Contrat is 
a doublet of contracte. 

Contravention, sf. contravention; from 
L. contraventionem*. 

Contre, prep, against; from L. contra. — 
Der. encontre. 

tContrebande, sf. smuggling, contra- 
band ; introd. in i6th cent, from It. contra- 
bando. — Der. contrebandier. 

CONTRECARRER, va. to thwart, cross. See 
'contre and carrer. 

CONTRE-DANSE, sf. a quadrille, country- 
dance. See danse. 

CONTREDIRE, va. to contradict. See con- 
tre ind dire. 

CONTRSe, sf. a country. It. contrada, from 
L. contrata*, properly the country before, 
or against you, contra. We find the 
word in the Leges Sicil. 3. 38, a medieval 
document : ' Statuimus, ut in utraque con- 
trata, tam in terris domanii nostri quam 
in baronum,' etc. Just as contrata is 
from contra, so the Germ, gegend is 
from the prep, gegen. For ata = ee see 
§ 201. 

CONTREFACON, sf. counterfeit, forgery. 
See contre and fa f on. 

CONTREFAIRE, va. to counterfeit, forge. 
See contre zndfaire. — Der. contrefah. 

CONTREMANDER, va. to countermand. 
See contre and mander. 

CONTRE-PARTIE, sf. a counterpart. See 

CONTRE-PIED, sm. a back-scent (in hunting), 
the contrary. See pied. 

CONTRE-POIDS, sm. a counterpoise. See 
contre and poids. 

CONTRE-POINT, sm. counterpoint. See 
contre and point. 

CONTRE-TEMPS, sm. a contretemps, mis- 
chance. See contre and temps. 

CONTREVENIR, vn. to offend, transgress. 
See contre and venir. 

CONTREVENT, sm. an outside shutter. See 
contre and vent. 

Contribuer, va. to contribute; from L. 
contribuere . — Der. contribu2\At, contribu- 
tion (L. contributionem). 

Contrister, va. to sadden; from L. con- 

Contrit, adj. contrite; from L. contritus. 
— Der.^con/nVion. 

CONTROLE, sm. a register, counter-roll. 

10. Fr. contre-role is a duplicate register, used 
to verify the official or first roll. — Der. 
controkr, contrdkni. 

CONTROUVER, va. to invent, fabricate. 

See trouver. 
Controverse, sf. a controversy ; from L. 

controversia. — Der. controversiste. 
Contumax, adj. contumacious; from L. 

contumax.- — Der. contumace. 
Contus, adj. bruised; from L. contusus. 
Contusion, sf. a contusion; from L. con- 

CONVAINCRE, va. to convince; from L. 

convincere. For the permutations in 

this -word see vaincre. 
Convalescent, adj. convalescent ; from 

L. convalescentem. — Der. convalesce7ice. 
CONVENIR, vn. to agree; from L. con- 
venire. — Der. convenu, -able,-ance(L.con- 

venientia), deconvenue. 
Convention, ./. a convention, agreement; 

from L. conventionem. — Der. conven- 

Conventuel, adj. conventual; from L. 

conventualis from conventus. 
Converger, va. to converge ; from L. con- 

vergere*. — Der. convergent, convergence. 
Convers, adj. lay, serving (of monastic ser- 
vants) ; from L. conversus. 
Converser, vn. to discourse, converse ; from 

L. conversari, to live with one, thence to 

converse. — Der. conversation. 
Conversion, sf. a conversion ; from L. 

CONVERTIR, va. to convert ; from L. con- 

vertere. For the displacement of the Lat. 

accent see accourir and concevoir ; for e = t 

see § 59. — Der. convertible. 
Convexe, adj. convex, from L. convexus. 

— Der. convexWe. 
Conviction, sf. " a conviction ; from L. 

CONVIER, va. to invite. It. convitare, from 

L. convitare*, formed from con and a 

radical vitare*, found also in invitare. 

For loss of t see § 1 1 7. 
Convive, smf. a guest ; from L. conviva. 
Convocation, ^. convocation ; from L. 

CONVOI, sm. a funeral procession, convoy. 

See convoyer. 
CONVOITER, va. to covet. O. Fr. covoiter. 

It. cupitare, from L. cupiditare, deriv. of 

cupitum, partie. of cupere, by the ordinary 

formation of freq. verbs. Cupitare be- 
comes O. Fr. covoiter, thence mod, Fr. 

convoiter. For u = see annoncer ; for 

insertion of n see concombre ; for p = 6 

see § III; fori = 01 see § 68. 
CONVOITISE, sf. covetousness, lust. O.Fr. 



covoitise. Cat. cobdicia, It. cupidizia, from 
L. oupiditia*, a Low Lat. form for cupi- 
ditas. ' Qui cupiditia aestuant,' says Rathe- 
riijs Vero : whence covoitise, then convoitise. 
For u = see annoncer ; for addition of n 
see concombre ; for p = 6 see § III; for 
the unusual hardening of d into t see § I2i; 
for ti = soft s see agencer; for i = oi see 
§ 68. 

Convoler, 't^i. to marry again; from L. 

Convoquer, va. to convoke; from L. 

COiNVOYER, va. to escort, convoy. O. Fr. 
voier, from L. conviare*. For i = oi see 
§ 68. — Der. convoi (verbal subst.) 

Convulsion, sf. a convulsion; from L. 
convulsionem. — Der. convulsif, convul- 

Cooperer, va. to cooperate, concur; from 
L. cooperari. — Der. cooperation, -ateur, 

Coordonner, va. to arrange, dispose. See 

COPEAU, sm. a chip. Origin unknown. 

Copie, sf. a copy; from L. copia, properly 
abundance, reproduction ; to multiply a 
MS. (facere copiam) by frequently writ- 
ing it out. Hence the restricted sense of 
copia, for the reproduction or copying of a 
document. — Der. copiste, copier. 

Copieux, adj, copious; from L. copiosus. 

Copnle, sf. a copula; from L. copula. — 
Der. copuhtiL 

COQ, sm. a cock. O. Fr. coc, from L. 
coccvun*, a cock, in the Germ. Laws. 
*Si quis coccum aut gallinam furaverit,' 
says the Lex Salica (vii. i6). Coccum 
is onomatop. from the crowing of the bird. 
— Der. cochet, cocarde (coxscomb), coquet 
(formerly a little cock, whence the adj. 
coquet, meaning as vain as a little cock), 
coyuelicot (in O. Fr. co juelicoq = cog : this 
word now means the corn-poppy, the flower 
of which is red like a cock's comb. The origin 
of the word coquelicot, is onomatop,, from 
the crowing of the cock.) 

COQUE, sf. a shell ; from L. concha. Con- 
clia becomes coque, as conchylium, 
coquille. This change of nc into c may be 
seen in carbunculus, escarboucle ; of nc 
into s in domincella, demoiselle ; domin- 
cellus, damoiseau. For ch. — c = q see 
Hist. Gram. p. 63. Coque is a doublet of 
conque, coche. 

COQyECIGRUE, sf fiddle-faddle, idle tales. 
Origin unknown. 

COQUELICOT, sm. the wild poppy. See coq. 

COQUELUCHE, sf. a hood. Origin un- 

COQUET, adj. coquettish. See coq. — Der. co- 
quetex, -terie. 

COQUILLE, sf a shell; from L. conchylixim. 
For the changes of the letters see coqtie. — 
Der. coquilhge, -ier. 

COQUIN, sm. a scoundrel, rogue. Origin un- 
known. — Der. coyj^merie. 

COR, sm. (i) a corn (on the feet, etc.); 
(1) a horn, bugle ; from L. comu. 
For m = r see § 163. — Der. comer, comet 
(a little horn, then a horn-shaped roll of j 

CORAIL, sm. coral ; from L. corallium. 
For the changes of letters see ail. — Der, 

CORBEAU, sm. a raven, corbie. ©. Fr. cor- 
bel, from L. corvellus, dim. of corvus. 
For the extension of sense see § 13. 
For v = b see § 140; for -e\hx& — -eau 
see agneau. — Der. encor6e/lement (from 
O. Fr, corbel). 

CORBEILLE, sf. a basket ; from L, corbi- 
cula. For -icula = -«7/e see § 257, — Der. 

Corbillard, sm. a coach, hearse ; a word 1 
of hist, origin (§ 33), Corbillard, O, Fr. ' 
corbeillard was used in the 17th cent, for 
the coach which, plied between Paris and 
Corbeil; Menage speaks of it as of a word 
much used in his day : ' Corbillart. On 
appelle ainsi le coche de Corbeil a Paris; 
duquel lieu de Corbeil il a ete appele Cor- 
billart, comme le Melunois de Melun.' Cor- 
billard towards the end of the 1 7th cent, 
took the sense of a great show carriage, a 
wedding coach ; its present sense dates 
only from the i8th cent. 

CORDE, sf. a cord ; from L. chorda. For 
ch = c see Hist, Gram. p. 63. — Der. corrfeau 
(O. Fr. cordel, which in the older form has 
given the deriv. cor^elle, corrfclier, cordeler, j 
cordeWere), cor der, cordage, cordon, cordier, ^ 

Cordial, adj. cordial; from L, cordiale*, 
deriv, from cordis, cor. — Der. cordiality, 

CORDON, sm. a string, twist. See corde. — 
Der, corrfonnerie, cordonnet. 

CORDONNIER, sm. a shoemaker, cordwainer. ' 
O. Fr. cordouanier, properly one who works ' 
with cordouan {Cordovan leather for shoes). 
Cp, the word maroquin, which means Mo- 
rocco leather, etc. Similarly It. cordovaniere 
is from Cordova. 



Coriace, adj. tough, leathery ; from L. cor- 
iaceus*, from corium. 

Coriandre, sf. coriander ; from L. corian- 

CORME, sf. the service-apple. Origin un- 
known. — Der. Cormier. 

CORMORAN, sm. a cormorant; corruption 
of cormaran, which form, the more regular 
one, is still used by fishermen. Catal. corb- 
mari. Port, corvomarinho, from L. corvns- 
marinus. The Reichenau Glosses (8th 
cent.) have ' Mergulus = corvus marinus.' 
As for the transformation of corvus mari- 
nus into cor-maran by changing in into 
an, as in sine, sans, lingua, langue, etc., 
see amande. 

+ Cornac, sm. an elephant-driver, a Hindu 

+ Cornaline, sf. a corneHan ; introd. from 
It. cornalina. 

CORNE, sf. a horn ; from L. cornua, plural 
of cornu, whence cor, q. v. — Der. come, 
cornee, corwouille, cornemuse (see muse), 
ecorner, racor«ir, corwichon. 

CORNEILLE, sf. a rook, crow ; from L. cor- 
nicula, dim. of comicem. For -icula = 
-eille see § 257. 

CORNEMUSE, sf a bagpipe. See come and 

CORNET, sm. a horn, cornet. See cor. — 
Der. cor«ette. 

•f Corniche, sf. a cornice. O. Fr. cornice, 
introd. from It, corniccio. 

CORNICHON, sm. prep, a little horn, then a 
little horn-shaped cucumber, gherkin. See 

CORNOUILLE, sf. a cornel-berry. See corne. 
— Der. cornouilltx. 

CORNU, adj. horned ; from L. comutus. 
For -utus = -u see § 201. — Der. cornue, bis- 

Corollaire, sm. a corollary; from L. co- 
rollarium, lit. a little crown, i.e. a mark 
indicating the deduction from the proposition. 

CoroUe, sf. a corolla ; from L. corolla. 

Corporation, sf. a corporation ; from L. 
corporationem* (from corporatus*, 
which from corpus). 

Corporel, flc?/. corporal ; from L. corporalis. 

CORPS, sm. a body ; from L. corpus. — Der. 
corset (q. v.), corsage, corselet. 

Corpulence, sf corpulence; from L. cor- 

Correct, adj. correct; from L, correctus. 
— Der. correc^eur, correction, corrects. 

Corr61atif, adj. correlative. See relatif 

Correlation, sf. correlation. See relation. 

CORRESPONDRE, va. to correspond, answer; 
from L. correspondere *, for correspon- 
dere (from cum and respondere). For 
loss of penult, e see § 51. — Der. corre- 
spondant, correspondence. 

t Corridor, sm. a corridor; introd. in 
16th cent, from It. corridore. 

Corriger, va. to correct; from L, cor- 
rigere. — Der. corrigible, incorWg-ible. 

Corroborer, va. to corroborate, confirm ; 
from L. corroborare. — Der. corroftoratif, 

Corroder, va. to corrode; from L. corro- 

CORROMPRE, va. to corrupt ; from L. cor- 
rumpere. — For the changes see rompre. 

Corrosif, adj. corrosive; from L. corro- 

Corrosion, sf. corrosion; from L. corro- 

CORROYER, va. to curry (leather) , deriv. of 
prepared skin. Corroi, O. Fr. conroi, Low 
L. conredum is compd, of cum and 
redum (arrangement, preparation), a word 
of Germ, origin, Flem. reden, Goth, raidjan. 
— Der. corrqyeur. 

Corrupteur, sm. a corrupter ; from L. cor- 

Corruption, sf. corruption ; from L. cor- 

Corruptible, adj. corruptible ; from L. 
cor ruptib ills — Der. incorruptible. 

CORSAGE, sm. bust, shape, waist. See corps. 

tCorsaire, sm. a corsair; from Prov. 
corsari, one who makes the corsa, the 
course. See course. Corsaire is a doublet 
of coursier. 

CORSELET, sm. a corset. See corps. 

CORSET, sm. a corset, stays. See corps : 
also for the change of sense see § 15. 

+ Cort6ge, sm. a procession, cortege ; in- 
trod. from It. corteggio. 

CORVEE, sf. statute-labour, fatigue-duty, 
drudgery ; in 8th cent, corvada, in Charle- 
magne's Capitularies, from L. corrogata*, 
lit. work done by command. — Der. corve- 
able. The most interesting philological pheno- 
menon presented by this word is the inter- 
calation of a V which had no existence in 
Latin. This intercalation was thus effected : 
the medial g disappeared (see allier), and 
the word became corro-ata, whence a 
hiatus between the o and the a. Now in 
this case the Lat. often intercalates v, as 
from plu-ere comes plu-v-ia and not 
plu-ia ; from apyuos, argi-v-us, not 
argi-us; from viduus, vidu-v-ium, not 



vidu-ium; from fluere, flu-v-ius, not 
flu-ius. This tendency is carried on in 
Fr. : thus from pluere comes not //^w-o/r, 
but pleu-v-oir ; from paeonia comes pi-v- 
oine, not pi-oine; and this intercalation is 
even extended to words which originally had 
no hiatus, but in which the medial consonant 
has been ejected, thus making room for an 
euphonic v: thus from gra(d)ire comes 
gra-ire,gra-v-ir; from gla(d)ius, gla-ius, 
glai-v-e; from imbla(d)are*, embla-are, 
embla-v-er ; from ipo(t)eTe, po-ere, pou-v- 
oir ; from par a(d) i su s, ^ara-«s, />ar-i/-is; 
from corro(g)ata, corro-ata, corro-v- 
ata, which leads us to the Carlovingian 
form cofrvada, Fr. corv6e. For the changes 
from corrSvata to corvada, by the loss 
of 6, see § 52; for -ata = -a(/a=-^e see 
4 201. 

The Fr. has even applied this intercala- 
tion to a foreign word, croate, in order to 
destroy the hiatus : the 1 6th and 1 7th cen- 
turies did not S3.y croate hut cra-v-ate ; — Un 
cheval cravate ; S'enroler dans une coni- 
pagnie de cravates: La crainte des 
embuches des Cravates (says Voiture) leur 
donne Valarme. Hence the name of the 
regiment Royal-cravate, which simply = 
Royal-croate. Hence also the common 
subst. cravate, a piece of light material 
worn round the neck originally by the first 
Croatians who entered the French service, 
came to be called by the name of those 
who wore it. 

^Corvette, sf. a corvette; introd. from 
Port, corveia. 

Coryph6e, sm. a corypheus, leader ; from 
Gr. KopvcpaTos, 

Cosin6tique, adj. cosmetic; from Gr. 

Cosmogonie, sf. a cosmogony; from Gr. 

Cosmographie, sf. cosmography ; from 
Gr. KOGfxoypa(pla. 

Cosmologie, sf. cosmology ; from Gr. ko<t- 

Cosmopolite, am. a cosmopolitan; from 
Gr. KocrfioTroXlrrjs. 

COSSE, sf, a pod, shell, husk. Origin un- 
known.-^— Der. ecosser. 

+ Costume, sm. dress, garb, costume; from 
It. costume. Costume is a doublet of cou- 
tume, q. V. 

COTE, sf. a quota, share. See coter. — Der. 
coriser, corisation. 

COTE, s/". a rib, slope (of a hill), shore, coast. 
O. Fr. coste, from L. costa. For loss of 8 

see Hist. Gram. p. 81. — Der. c(5/oyer, c«/ier, 
co/eau ; co/elette (deriv. of cotelle, a little 
cote, rib). 

COTE, sm. a side. O. Fr. cost4. It. costato, 
from L. costatvun, used in medieval Lat. 
For -atum = -e see § 201 ; for loss of s 
see Hist. Gram, p. 81. 

COTEAU, sm. a slope, hill-side. See cdte. 

COTELETTE, sf. a cutlet. See cote. 

COTER, va. to number, quote; from L. 
quotare* (to note the price of a thing, 
deriv. of quotum). For qu = c see car. 
— Der. cote (verbal subst.). 

COTERIE, sf. a coterie, set. Origin un- 

Cothume, sm. a buskin ; from L. cothur- 

COTIER, adj. coasting. See cote. 

COTILLON, sm. a cotillon, petticoat. See 

COTIR, va. to bruise. Origin unknown. 

COTISER, va. to assess, rate. See cote, 

+ Co ton, sm. cotton, a word of Oriental 
origin, Ar. qoton. — Der. co/o«neux, coton- 
nade, cotonniei. 

COTOYER, va. to coast, go by the side 
(of one). See cote. 

COTRET, sm. a short fagot. Origin un- 

COTTE, sf. a coat, petticoat. O.Fr. cote, 
a word of Germ, origin, O. H. G. kott. — 
Der. corillon (a little cotille, deriv. oi cotte). 

Cotyledon, sm. a cotyledon; from L. 

COU, sm. a neck. See col, whose doublet it is. 

COUARD, adj. cowardly, properly one who 
drops his tail ; from O. Fr. coue. In heraldic 
language a lion couard is one with his 
tail between his legs. Animals which, 
when afraid, drop their tails are called 
couards, whence the word takes the sense 
of timid, cowardly. O. Fr. coue is from 
L. Cauda. For au = 0M, and for loss of 
medial d, see alouette. The It. codardo, 
deriv. of coda, confirms this derivation. — 
Der. couardise. 

COUCHER, vn. to lie down. O. Fr. colcher. 
It. colcare, from L. coUocare (so used in 
Suetonius, Caligula, 24). Coll(6)ctoe 
regularly losing its o (see § 52), becomes 
colcare, a form found in the Lex Salica 
(tit. 60) : ' Et si tunc . . . legem distulerint, 
sole colcato' ( = du soleil couche). Col- 
care becomes coucher. For ol = o« see 
agneau; for c = ch see § 126. Coucher 
is a doublet of colloquer, q. v. — Der. 
couche (verbal subst.), coucher, couch- 



ette, couch&nt, zccoucJier (q. v.), de- 

COUCOU, sm. the cuckoo ; from L. cucii- 
lus. For u = OM see § 90; for \il = ow 
see agneau. Coucou is a doublet of cocu. 

COUDE, SOT. the elbow; from L.' cubitus. 
Ciibitus becomes cub'tus by the re- 
gular loss of i (see § 51), then changes bt 
into d, see accouder, and u into ou, see 
§ 90. — Der. cotidee, coudoyer. 

COUDRE, sm. a nut-tree. O. Fr. coldre, 
from L. corylus. Corylus, regularly 
contrd. (§51) into cor'lus, has had its 1 
transposed (see sangloter), arud becomes 
col'rus. (The word colrina is to be seen in 
a 9th-cent. document.) Col'rus becomes 
O. Fr. coldre by regularly changing Ir into 
Idr, see Hist. Gram. p. 73, whence coudre 
by softening ol into ou, see agneau. — Der. 
cowcfraie, coudr'itr. 

COUDRE, va. to sew. O. Fr. cousdre, from 
L. consuere ; written cosere as early 
as the 8th cent. By the very regular 
transformation of ns into s, consuere 
became cosuere, see aim ; then the diph- 
thong ue was simplified into e, a change 
not rare in Lat., Cicero using mortus for 
mortuus, and the Appendix ad Probum 
having febrarius for februarius. Ada- 
mantinus Martyr says expressly ' batuali 
quae vulgo batalia dicuntur.' 

Cosere, accented on the first syllable, 
becomes cos're (see § 51). Now s and r 
cannot stand together (see under ancetre), 
and consequently when they come together 
by the dropping of a Lat. vowel, an eu- 
phonic letter is intercalated, sometimes t 
sometimes d : thus cos're become cos-d-re, 
and the o becoming a diphthong ou (see 
affouage) the word becomes cousdre; this 
loses its s (see Hist. Gram. p. 81), and then 
presents its modern form coudre. 

COUENNE, s/. rind, skin. It. cotenna, from 
L. cutenna*, der. from cutis. For loss 
of t see § 117; for u = OM see § 90. 

COUETTE, sf. a feather bed. O. Fr. coute, 
originally coulte, from L. culcita. Culcita, 
contrd. regularly (§ 51) into culc'ta, then 
into cul'ta (see affete), becomes couette, 
by changing u into ou, see § 90. 

POULER, vn. to run, flow ; from L. colare 
properly to filter, then to run. For o = ow 
see affouage. — Der, couhge, coulee, couloir, 
ecouler, decotder. 

OULEUR, sf. colour; from L. colorem 
For accented o = eu see § 79 ; for 
atonic o = om see § 76. 

COULEUVRE, sf. an adder; from L.coltlbra. 
For o = OM see § 76 ; for u = eu see beugler; 
for b = f see avant and §11 3. — Der. couleu- 
irine (a long and slender piece of ordnance). 

COULIS, adj. drafty (of wind) ; now re- 
stricted to a few special phrases, as vent coulis, 
etc., but in O. Fr. signifying generally run- 
ning, gliding. O. Fr. colels, Prov. cola- 
ditz, represents L. colaticus*, deriv. of 
colare. For loss of t see § 117. — Der. 
coulis (sm.), coulisse. 

COULISSE, sf. a groove, slide. See couler. 

COULOIR,sm. a strainer, a passage. See couler. 

COUP, sm. a blow, stroke. O.Fr. colp. It. colpo, 
from L. colpus, found in the Germanic 
Laws : ' Si quis voluerit alterum occidere et 
colpus ei fallerit.' (Lex Salica, tit. 19.) 
Colpus is a contrd, form of colapus, 
found in the Lex Alamannorum, For the 
regular loss of penult, a see § 5.1. Col- 
apus in its turn is a secondary form of 
Lat. colapbus, by a change not unusual 
in popular Lat, of ph. into p: thus at 
Rome men said stropa, ampora, for 
stropha, amphora, as an old Lat. gram- 
marian tells us. For change of O. Fr. colp 
into coup see agneau. — "Dex.coupex (properly 
to give a blow with a cutting instrument). 

COUP ABLE, adj. culpable ; from L. culpa- 
bilis. For ul = om see agneau ; for -abilis 
= -able see affable. 

COUPE, sf cutting, felling. Verbal subst. 
of couper. 

COUPE, sf. a cup, vase; from L. cuppa. 
For u = OM see § 90, — Der. soncoupe (for 
sous-coupe), coupeWe. 

COUPER, va. to cut. See coup.— Der. coupe, 
coupe, coupeuT, couperet, coupxxxe, coupon, 
decouper, entrecouper. 

+ Couperose, (l) ac^", blotched, pimpled; 
introd. from It. copparosa. — Der. cou- 
peros6. (2) sf. copperas. 

COUPLE, sf a couple ; from L. c6piila, by 
the regular loss of penult. u(§ 51), and by 
change of o into ou, see § 76. Couple 
is a doublet of copule, q. v. — Der. coupler, 
decoupler, couplet (that which is united, 
coupled, a verse). 

COUPLET, sm. a couplet (of lines), verse. 
See couple. 

tCoupole, s/". a cupola; from It. cupola. 
Coupole is a doublet of cuptde. 

COUR, sf a court, yard. O. Fr . court, originally 
cort, from L, cobortem, a yard, thence a 
farm, in Palladius ; also in Varro, who tells 
us that the Roman peasants said cortem : 
' Nam cortes quidem audimus vulgo, sed 


barbare dici.' This oortem was succeeded 
by the form ourtem, used of the country- 
house of a Prankish lord, also of his house- 
hold (officers, friends, servants), and lastly 
his court of justice holden in his name. 
The Lex Alamannorum has anlong its 

, headings the following : • De eo qui in 
curte Regis hominem occiderit,' an ex- 
ample of the word in the sense of a prince's 
court. Synesius Confl. gives us an instance 
of it in the sense of a judicial court : 
♦Ad placitum sive ad curtem veniens.' 
Curtem becomes court by change of u 
into ou (see § 90). — Der. courtois (from 
O.Fr. court). 

COURAGE, sm. courage. O.Fr. corage, 
Prov. coratge, from L. coraticum*, deriv. 
of cor. For -aticwod'^-age see § 248 ; for 
o = ou see § 76. — Der. couragenx, d^- 
couragGT, encourager. 

GOURDE, sf. a curve, adj. crooked; from 
L. ctorvus. For vl = ou see § 90; for 
v = 6 see § 140. — Der. courber, courhxxxt 
(whose doublet is courbature), courbette, 

COURGE, sf. a gourd. Origin unknown. 

COURIR, vn, to run; from L. currere. 
For the changes see accourir. Courir is a 
doublet of O. Fr. courre. — Der. cowrant, 
courenr, courrier. 

COURONNE, sf. a crown ; from L. c6r6na. 
For o = ou see § 76 ; for n = nn see 
ennetni. — Der. couronner, couronnement. 

COURRE, va. to hunt. See accourir. — Der. 

COURRIER, sm. a courier. See courre. 

COURROIE, sf. a strap. It. corregia, from 
L. corrigia. For loss of medial g see 
allier ; for i = oi see boire. 

COURROUX, sm. wrath. Besides this word, 
O. Fr. had a form corrot, answering to the 
Prov. corroptz. It. corrotto, which from L. 
corruptum*, properly ruin, overthrow, 
dejection, then indignation, lastly wrath. 
For 11 = ou see § 90; for pt = /see Hist. 
Gram. p. 76. The modern form courroux 
is derived from courroucer, which in turn 
is from L. corruptiare*, deriv. of cor- 
ruptus. For o = ou see § 76 ; for u = ou 
see § 90; for pt = / see Hist. Gram. p. 76; 
for -tiaxe = -cer see agencer. The Prov. 
corropt and It. corrotto (in It. tt always = 
pt, as in ca///fO = captivus,scf///o = scrip- 
tus) confirms this etymology. 

COURS, sm. course ; from L. cursus. For 
u = 0K see § 90. 

COURSE, sf running, coursing ; from L. cursa. 


— Der. coursiCT (whose doublet is corsaire, 
q. v.). 

COURT, adj. short ; from L. ctirtus. For 
\i = ou see § 90. — Der. ^courttt, court- 
aud, Accourcn, Tuccourcir. 

COURTAGE, sm. brokerage. See courtier. 

COURTE-POINTE, sf a counterpane, quilt. 
O.Fr, coulte ' pointe, from L. ciolcita 
puncta. For culcita = coulte see couette ; 
for ■p\uxc\iB,= pointe see poindre. Coulte- 
pointe becomes courte-pointe by change of 
/ into r, see apntre. 

COURTIER, sm. a broker. O. Fr. couretier, 
originally couratier. It. curattiere, from L. 
curatarius* (one who looks after buying 
and selling), der. from curatus. For loss of 
a in cur(a)t£rius see § 52; for -arius 
= -ier see § 198. — Der. courtage (through a 
verb courter*, L. curatare*). 

COURTINE, sf. a curtain (in fortification), a 
bed-curtain; from L. cortlna, which in 
medieval Lat. means a wall between two 
bastions. For o = ou see § 76. 

fCourtiaan, sm. a courtier; introd. in 
16th cent, from It. cortigiano. 

t Courtiser, va. to pay court to; introd. 
towards end of the middle ages from Prov. 
cortezar, deriv. of cort. 

COURTOIS, adj. courteous. See cowr.— Der. 

COUSIN, sm. a cousin. Prov. cosin, 
Grisons patois cusrin, from L. cosinus*, 
found in the 7th cent, in the St. Gall 
Vocabulary. Cosinus is from conso- 
brinus by the regular change of ns into 
s (cossobrinus), see aine; then by loss 
of o (cos*rinus), see § 52. The r is 
weakened into s (see arroser) in a very 
unusual way, whence cosinus, found in a 
Merov. document. Cosinus becomes 
cousin by changing o into ou, see § 76. 
— Der. cousinage. 

COUSIN, sm. a gnat ; from L. culicinus*, 
dim. of cvilicem. Ctaliclnus, contrd. 
regularly (see § 52) into cvil'cinus, 
becomes cousin. For ti1 = om see agneau; 
for c = s see amitie. 

COUSSIN, sm. a cushion; from L. culciti- 
num*, dim. of culcita, properly a little 
mattress. Culcitinum first loses its 
medial t (see § 117), then becomes coussin. 
For c = ss see agencer and amitie; for ul 
= ou, see agneau. — Der. coussinet. 

COUT, sm. cost, charge. See couter. 

COUTEAU, sm. a knife. O. Fr. coutel, ori- 
ginally coltel, It. cultello, from L. cultellus. 
For ul = 0M, and -ellus = eaw, see agneau. 



■ — Der. coutelitr (from O. Fr, coutel), coutel- 
lerie, coulela.s. 

CO0TER, vn. to cost. O, Fr. conster, ori- 
ginally coster, It. costare, from L. constare. 
For ns = s (costare) see aine ; for o = ou 
see § 76 ; for loss of s see Hist. Gram. p. 81. 
— Der. coitt (verbal subst.), coiitewx. 

COUTIL, sm. bed-ticking, duck; deriv. of 
coute. See couette. 

COUTRE, sm. a coulter. It. coltro, from 
L. cultrum. For ul = om see agneau. 

COUTUME, sf. custom. O. Fr. comhime, ori- 
ginally costume', in medieval Lat. costuma 
(Chartulary of 705), from L. consuetu- 
dinem. Cons(ue)tudineni, contrd. (see 
§ 52) into cons'tudinem, becomes cos- 
tudinem. by regular change of ns into s, 
see aine', thence costume by -udinem = 
-ume, see amertume ; thence coutume by o = 
ou, see § 76 ; and by loss of s, see Hist. 
Gram. p. 81. Coutume is a doublet of cos- 
tiime. — Der. coutumiei, zccoutumer. 

COUTURE, sf. a seam. O. Fr. cousture, ori- 
ginally costure, Sp. costura, from L. con- 
sutura*, deriv. of consuere. Cons(u)- 
tiira, contrd. (see § 52) into cons'tura, 
became costura by ns = s, see aine; 
thence cousture by o = ou, see § 76 ; thence 
couture by loss of s, see Hist. Gram. p. 81. 
— Der. couturier, coutnrieie. 

COUVENT, sm. a convent; from L. con- 
ventum. For nv = v see Hist. Gram. p. 
81 ; for o = 0M see § 76. 

COUVER, va. to hatch, sit ; from L. cubare. 
For b=v see § 113 ; for u = om see § 96. 
— Der. couv6e, couvense, couvaison. 

COUVERCLE, sm. a lid, cover; from L. 
coop^rculum, contrd. regularly (§ 51) 
into cooperc'lum, whence couvercle. For 
o = oz/ see § 76; for p = v see § III. 

COUVERT, sm. a cover. See couvrir. 

COUVRIR, va. to wrap up, cover; from 
L. cooperire. Cooperire, contrd. re- 
gularly (see § 51) into coop'rire, be- 
comes couvrir. For o = ou see § 76 ; 
for p=i/ see § ill. — Der. convert, couv- 
erte, cowverture, couvrtxxr, recouvrir, dd- 

CRABE, sm. a crab; from Germ, krabhe. — 
Der. crevette, dim. of crabe, through the 
following steps ; first crdbette, then cravette. 
For the regular change of b into 1/ see § 113. 

DRAG, inter] . (an onomatopoetic word), crack ! 
(§ 34)- — Der. craquer. 

3RACHER, va. to spit. O. Fr. racher, a word 
of Germ, origin, Norse hraki, saliva. — 
Der. crachemtnX., crachzt, crachoix. J 

■ CRAIE, sf. chalk. O. Fr. croie, It. creta 
from L. creta. For loss of t see aigu ; for 
e = oi = ai see § 61. — Der. croyeux, 

CRAINDRE, va. to fear ; from L. tremere, 
by the ordinary change of -emere into 
-eindre (see geindre), and by the unusual 
change of tr into cr. — Der. crainte (partic. 
subst., see absoudre), craintii. 

CRAMOISI, sm. crimson ; a word of Oriental 
origin (Ar. karmesi), whence Low L. car- 
raesinus ; whence Fr. cramoisi, by trans- 
position of r, see aprete, and change of e 
into oi, see § 61. 

CRAMPE, sf. cramp ; a word of Germ, origin 
(Engl, cramp). 

CRAMPON, sm. a cramp-iron; dim. of O.Fr. 
crampe, which is Germ, krampe. — Der. 

CRAN, sm. a notch ; from L. crena, by the 
unusual change of e into a. — Der. creweau 
(O. Fr. crenel, from crenellum, dim. of 
crena), cre«ele. 

Cr&ne, sm. a skull; from Gr. Kpaviov. — 
Der. crdnerle. 

CRAPAUD, sm. a toad ; deriv. of O. Fr. verb 
craper. Crapaud properly signifies the 
crawler, creeper. Craper is of Germ, origin, 
Icel. krjupa, to creep. — Der. crapaud'me. 

Crapule, sf. crapulency; from L. crapula. 
— Der. crapuhux. 

CRAQUER, vn. to crack (onomatop.). See 
crac. Craquer is a doublet of croquer. — 
Der. craquement. craqueter. 

Crase, sf. crasis ; from Gr. Kpdffis. 

Crasse, adj. gross, thick; from L. crassus. 
Crasse is a doublet of gras, q. v. — Der. 
crasse (sf.), crasseux, decrasser, encrasser. 

CratSre, sm. a crater; from L. crater. 

fCravache, sf a riding-whip; introd. 
by Germ, soldiers from Germ, karbatsche ; 
a word of Sclav, origin. 

Cravate, sm. a Croat, sf. a cravat ; a word 
of hist, origin, see § 33. Under corvee 
we have explained the origin etc. of this 
word. Manage, who lived when ' cravats ' 
were first brought into France, confirms 
this etymology : he says — Cravate, on 
appelle ainsi ce linge blanc qu^on entortille 
a Ventour du cou, dont les deux bouts pen- 
dent par devant; lequel linge tient lieu de 
collet. Et on I'appelle de la sorte, a cause 
que nous avons emprunte, cette sorte d'orne- 
ment des Croates, qu'on appelle ordinaire- 
ment Cravates. Et ce fut en 1636 que 
nous prismes cette sorte de collet des Cra- 
vates, par le commtrce que nous eusmes en 



ct tans-la en AUemagne au sujet de la 
guerre que nous avians avec VEmpereur. 
Cravate is a doublet of the proper name 

CRAYON, sm. a lead pencil. See craie. — 
Der. crayonxitx. 

CR^ANCE, 5/. credit ; properly = croyance 
in the phrases lettres de creance, donner 
creance a tine chose ; from L. oredentia*, 
der. from credere. For loss of medial 
t see abbaye; for -iia, = -ce see agencer. 
Creance is a doublet of croyance and cre- 
dence. — Der. creancitx. 

Cr6ateur, sm. a creator ; from L. crea- 

Creation, s/. creation; from L.creationem. 

Creature, sf. a creature; from L. creatura. 

CRECELLE, sf. a rattle.' Origin unknown. 

CRfeCHE, sf. a manger, crib. Prov. crepcha, 
It. greppia,z word of Germ, origin, O. Sax. 
cribbia. For -pia = -pja = -pcha = -che see 
Hist. Gram. p. 65. 

Credibility, sf. credibility; from credi- 

Credit, sm. credit; from L. creditum. — 
Der. credittx, creditcux, accrediiex, discredit- 
ex, decreditex. 

Cr6dule, adj. credulous ; from L. 
— Der. creduhte, incr6dule. 

CREER, va. to create ; from L. creare. 

CREMAILLfiRE, sf. a pothook ; from O. Fr. 
cremaille, which from L. cramaculus*, 
found (8th cent.) in the Capitul. de Villis, 
part 41 ; ' catenas cramaculos.' For 
-aculus = -az7Ze see § 255; for a = e see 
§ 54. Cramaculus is of Germ, origin, 
a dim. of Neth. kram. 

Cr^me, sf cream; from L. crema (used 
by Fortunatus). — Der. ecremtx. 

CR^NEAU, sm. an embrasure, battlement. 
See cran. — Der. creneler. 

+ Creole, sm. a Creole; introd. from Sp. 

CREPER, va. to crisp, crimp (hair) ; from 
L. crispare. For i = e see mettre; for 
loss of s see Hist. Gram. p. 81. Creper is 
a doublet of crepir (used in the phrase 
crepir du crin, to crisp horsehair), crisper, 
q.v. — Der. (l) crepe (crape, stuff lightly 
crisped), (2) crepe (a thin cake like crape), 
crepu, crepme. 

CREPIR, va. to crisp. See creper. — Der. 
crept (panic, subst.), (Te/>issure. 

Crepitation, sf crackling; from L. cre- 

Cr6puseule, sm. twilight, dawn ; from L. 
crepusculum. — Der. crepuscuhixe. 

+ Crescendo, adv. (Mus.) crescendo; an 
It. word, = Fr. croissant. 

CRESSON, sm. cress. It. crescione, from L. 
crescionem *, from crescere, lit, a plant 
which grows quickly. sc is assimilated 
into ss before e and i, as in crescentem, 
croisi^nnt; nascentem, naissant, etc. 

CRftTE, sf a crest, cock's comb. O. Fr. creste, 
from L. crista. For i = e see mettre; 
for loss of s see Hist. Gram. p. 81. 

f Cretin, sm. a cretin, idiot ; a Swiss word, 
from the Grisons patois. Cretin is a doublet 
of Chretien, q. v. — Der. cre'/misme. 

Cretonne, sf. linen cloth, stout calico. 
Origin unknown. 

CREUSER, va. to dig a pit. See creux. 

CREUSET, sm. a crucible, melting-pot. 
Origin unknown. 

CREUX, adj. hollow. Prov. cros, Low L. 
crosuin, contrd. from L. corrosum. For 
'08\mx = -eux see § 229; for contrac- 
tion of corrosus into c'rosus see briller. 
— Der. cr^Mser. 

CREVER, vn. to burst. Prov. crebar. It. 
crepare, from L. erepare. For p = v see 
§ III. — Der. crevasse, creve-coeur. 

CREVETTE, sf a shrimp, prawn. See crabe. 

CRIAILLER, vn. to bawl, squall. See crier. 
— Der. criailler'ie. 

CRIBLE, sm. a sieve, riddle ; from L. cri- 
brum. For dissimilation of r into / see 
§ 169 and autel. — Der. criblex. 

CRIC, sm. a screw-jack (an onomatopoetic 
word). See § 34. 

CRIER, vn. to cry. Prov. cridar, Sp. gritar, 
from L. quiritare. For contraction of 
q(\u)ritare into q'ritare see briller ; for 
q = e see car ; for loss of medial t see 
abbaye and §11 7. — Der. cri (verbal subst.), 
crzeur, mard, criee,decrier, s'^crier, cria.i\lex. 

Crime, sm. a crime ; from L. crimen. 

Criminel, adj. criminal; from L. crimi- 
nalis. — Der. criminality, criminalisex, cri- 

CRIN, sm. horsehair ; from L. crinis. For 
the restriction of sense see § 12. — Der. 
cnVziere, crmoline. 

CRI QUE, sf a creek; a word of Germ, 
origin, Neth. hreeli. 

CRIQUET, sm. a field-cricket, grasshopper; 
der. from eric, an onomatopoetic word. The 
cricket is similarly called cri-cri. 

Crise, sf a crisis ; from L. crisis. 

Crisper, vn. to shrivel; from L. crispare. 
— Der. cr/spation. 

Cristal, sm.a crystal; fromL.crystallum. — 
Der. cristal\xxi, crisiallistx, cns/a/lisation. 



Criterium, sm. a criterion; a Lat. word, 
from Gr. KpiT-qpiov. 

Critique, adj. critical, sf. criticism, sm. 
a critic; from Gr. Kpirifcos. — Der. cri- 
tiquex, critiquahle. 

CROASSER, vn. to croak, caw (an onoma- 
topoetic word), — Der. croassement. 

CROC, sm. a hook ; of Germ, origin, Neth. 
krok. — Der. crochet, crochu, crochi, ac- 
crocher, decrocher. 

CROCHET, sm. a little hook. See croc— 
Der. crochettx, crochetem. 

CROCHU, adj. hooked, crooked. See croc. 

Crocodile, sm. a crocodile; from L. cro- 

CROIRE, va. to believe ; from L. credere. 
For the changes see under accroire. — Der. 
crqyant, cro>'ance, cro^able, Accroire, me- 

tCroisade, /, a crusade; from Pro v. 
crozada, which from cro2, which from L. 
crucem. Croisade is a doublet of croisee. 

CROISER, va. to cross. See croix. — Der. 
croise, crofsement, croisee (primitively =/c- 
nctre croisee, i.e. divided into four compart- 
ments by mullion and transom), cro/siere. 

CROISSANT, sm. a crescent. See croitre. 
Croissant is a doublet of It. crescendo. 

CROITRE, vn. to grow, increase ; from L. 
cr^scere. For the changes see under ac- 
croitre. — Der. croit (verbal subst.), cru, crue, 
accroitre, d4croitre, lecroitre, surcroitre. 
The partic. croissant is from L.creseentem. 
For e = oi see §§ 61,62; for sc = ss see 
cxesson : hence the two subst. croissant and 

CROIX, sf. a cross ; from L. crucem. For 
u = oi see angoisse ; for c = « see amitie. 
— Der. croiser. 

CROQUER, va. to crunch (an onomatopoetic 
word). Croqner is a doublet of craquer. — 
Der. croywette, croquh, croyj/ignole. 

CROQUIS, sm. a sketch. See croquer. 

CROSSE, sf. a crozier. O. Fr. croce. It. 
croccia, medieval L. crucea, deriv. of cru- 
cem. Crucea signifies properly a cross- 
shaped crutch ; the exclusive sense of 
crozier is modern. In some provinces the 
phrase marcher aiix crosses, is still used of 
infirm persons who walk with crutches. 

CROTTE, sf. dirt, mud. Origin unknown. 
— Der. crotler, decrotter, crottin. 

CROULER, vn. to fall down, sink down. 
O. Fr. croller, originally crodler, Prov. 
crotlar, from L, corotulfire*, to roll toge- 
ther. It loses its atonic u regularly (see 
§ 52) and becomes corot'lare, and thence 

c'rot'laa-e by losing the first o (see hriller). 
Crotlare assimilates tl into // (see § 168), 
and becomes O. Fr. croller, whence crouler, 
by resolution of ol into ou (see agneau). — 
Der. ecrouler. 

t Croup, sm. croup; an Engl, word introd. 
into Fr. about 181 5. 

CROUPE, sf. crupper, rump. O. Fr. crope. 
The original sense is a protuberance, as in 
croupe d'une montagne, etc. ; of Germ, 
origin, Norse^ro/>pr, hryppa. — Der. crow/>ion, 
crow/iere, croup'n (which in O. Fr. meant 
to cover, s'accro«//>ir, croupier (properly one's 
associate in the game, metaph. from one 
who rides on one's crupper). 

CROUPIER, sm. a croupier. See croupe. 

CROUPION, sm. a rump. See croupe. 

CROUPIR, vn. to stagnate. See croupe. 

CROCtTE, sf. a crust. O. Fr. crouste, from 
L. crusta. For u = om see § 90 ; for loss 
of s see Hist. Gram. p. 81,' — Der. crouton, 
encroiiter, crowstiller. 

CROYABLE, adj. credible. See croire. 

CROYANCE, /. belief. See croire. Croyance 
is a doublet of credence, creance, q. v. 

CRU, sm. growth. See croitre. 

CRU, adj. crude; from L. crudus, by loss 
of d, see alouette. 

CRUAUTE, sf. cruelty. O. Fr. crualte, 
originally cruelte, from L. crudelitdtem, 
which, contrd. regularly (see § 52) into 
orudel'tatem, becomes O. Fr. crualtet by 
loss of medial d, see § 120; and then 
cruaute, by softening 1 into u, see agneau ; 
and by -atem = e/=e, see § 230. 

CRUCHE, sf. a pitcher, jug, cruse. Of Celtic 
origin, Kymri cruc, crwc. — Der. cruchon. 

Cnicifere, adj. (Bot.) cruciferous ; from 
L. crucifer. 

Crucifier, va. to crucify; from L. cruci- 
ficare*. For loss of c see affouage. — 
Der. criicifiemen\. 

Crucifix, sm. a crucifix; from L. cruci- 

Crudit6, sf. crudity, rawness ; from L. cru- 

CRUE, sf. rising, increase. See croitre. 

CRUEL, adj. cruel ; from L. crudelis, by 
loss of medial d, see § 1 20. 

Crustac6, adj. crustaceous; from L. crus- 
ta ce us*, clothed in a crust, crusta. 

Crypte, sf. a crypt; from L. crypta. 
Crypte is a doublet oi grotte, q. v. 

Cryptogame, adj. cryptogamous ; from 
Gr. KpvnTos and yafieiy. 

Cryptographic, sf cryptography; from 
Gr. Kpvnros, and ypd^eiv. 



Cube, sw. a cube; from L. cubus. — Der. 
cubtr, cubige, cj/6ique, 

t Cubitus, sm. a cubit; from L. cubitus. 

CUEILLIR, va. to collect ; from L. oolligere. 
For the changes see accueillir. Cueillir is 
a doublet of colliger. — Der. cueillette (L. 
collecta, of which the doublet is collecte ; 
for ct = // see assiette and § i68), ^iCcueilUr, 

CUIDER, va. to think; from L. cogitare. 
Cogit^e is contrd. regularly (see § 52) 
into cog'tare. o becomes ui as in co- 
quina, cuisine, etc., § 84. In some words 
the o has become ui by attraction of the i, 
as in i n-o d i o, ennui. For gt = c? see aider. 
— Der. outrecwicfance. 

CUILLER, ff. a spoon ; from L. cochleare 
(found in Pliny and Martial), written co- 
cleare in the last ages of the Empire. For 
o = ui see cuider ; for cl = il see Hist. Gram, 
p. 71. — Der. cuillere, cuiller6e. 

CUIR, sm. hide, skin, leather; from L. ce- 
rium. For o = ui see chanoine. 

+ Cuirasse, sf. a cuirass; introd. from It. 
corazza. — Der. cuirasser, cuirassieT. 

CUIRE, va. to cook, dress ; from L, coquere, 
written cocere in a 3rd-cent. inscription: 
see car. CocSre, contrd. regularly (see 
§ 51) into coc*re becomes cuire by change 
of o into ui through the influence of the cr 
(see cuider), which cr is reduced to r, see 

CUISINE, sf. a kitchen. It. cucina, Sp. coci- 
na, from L. coquina, used by Palladius 
and Isidore of Seville. Coquina, written 
cocina in the Glosses (see car), becomes 
cuisine. For o = ui see cuider ; for c = s 
seeamitie. — Der. cuisineT,cuisinieT,cmsinihTe. 

CUISSE, sf. a thigh, leg; from L. coxa, a 
word written cossa by the Romans. For 
7i = ss see aisselle ; for o = ui see cuider. — 
Der. cuissot, cuiss^rd. 

CUISSON, sf. cooking, baking ; from L. coc- 
tionem. For o = ui under influence of c 
see cuider and attrait ; for ti = ss see 
agencer. Cuisspn is a doublet of coction, 

CUISTRE, sm. originally a cook, then a 
college-servant, then a pedant; from L. 
cocistro*, used by Isidore of Seville, a 
form of L. coquaster*, deriv. of coquus. 
For loss of medial c of co(c)istro see 
affouage ; for o = ui see cuider. 

CUIVRE, sm. copper ; from L. cuprum. 
For p=v see § ill ; for u = ttj see buis. — 
Der. cuivrer. 

CUL, sm. a bottom ; from L. cuius. — Der. 

cuhsse, accw/er, 6culer, rectt/er, culie, cul- 
otte; cw/buter {ieebuter), c«/-de-sac. 

Culinaire, adj. culinary; from L. cuH- 

Culminer, vti. to culminate ; from L. cul- 

Culpabilit6, sf. culpability ; from L. cul- 

Culte, sm. worship; from L. cultus. 

Cultiver, va. to cultivate ; from L. culti- 
vare*, used in Low Lat. 

Culture, sf. culture; from L. cultura. 

Cumin, sm. cumin; from L. cuminum. 

Cumuler, va. to accumulate ; from L. cu- 
mulare. — Der. cumul (verbal subst.). 

Cun^iforme.flfl?/. cuneiform, wedge-shaped; 
from L. cuneus. 

Cupide, ac?/. greedy; from L. cupidus.— 
Der. cupidiie. 

't'Cura9ao, sm. cura5oa, a liqueur imported 
from the Island of Curagao. 

Curateur, sm. a guardian, curator ; from L. 
curatorem, deriv. of curare. — Der. curat- 

Cure, (i) sf. cure, doctoring; (2) cure (of 
souls) ; from L. cura, in eccles. Lat. the cure 
of souls. Cura took the sense of the duty of 
a curate, then by extension (3) a parsonage, 
vicarage. — Der. cure (one who holds a cure), 

CUREE, sf. a quarry (^hunting term); from 
L. corata*, the entrails etc. of an animal, 
from cor ; cur^e being properly the en- 
entrails etc. of the stag, thrown to the 
dogs. For -ata = -ee see § 201. o here 
becomes u, as in forum, fur. 

CURER, va. to cleanse, clean, prune; from 
L. curare. — Der. c^^rage, cwreur, recurer, 
cure-dent, cwre-oreille. 

Curieux, adj. curious; from L. cur iosus. 
For -osus = -eux see § 229. 

Curiosity, s/^. curiosity ; from L. curiosi- 

Cursive, adj. cursive; from L. cursiva*, 
which from cu'rsum, supine of currere. 

Cutan6, adj. cutaneous; from L. cuta- 
neus*, deriv. of cutis. 

t Cutter, sm. a cutter; sea-term, from 
Engl, cutter. 

CUVE, sf. a vat, tub ; from L. cupa. For 
p = v see § III. — Der. cuviev, cuv6e, cuv- 
ette, cuvex. 

Cycle, sm. a cycle ; from Gr. kvkXos. — Der. 

Cyclope, sm, a cyclop ; from Gr. KvK\ai\p. 
— Der. cyclopeen. 

Cygne. sm. a swan; from L. cygnus. 

Cylindre, sm. a cylinder; from L. cylin- 



drus. Cylindre is a doublet of calandre. 

— Der. cylindr'i(]\ie. 
f Cymaise, sf. (Archit.) an ogee; introd. 

in 1 6th cent, from It. cimasa. 
Cjrmbale, sf. a cymbal; from L. cymbal- 

um. Cymbale is a doublet of cymble. — 

Der. cymbaliev. 

Cynique, adj. cynical; from L. cynicus. 

— Der. cynisme. 
Cyprus, sm. a cypress; from L. cu- 

Cytise, sm. a cytisus ; from Gr. kvthtos. 
t Czar, sm. the Czar; from Russ. tzar. 


DA, inter}, truly, indeed ! O. Fr. dea, dia, 
originally diva, compd. of the two im- 
peratives di (dis) and va. See dire and aller. 
We even find the interjection diva followed 
by di. Ruteboeuf (13th cent.), in his 
Miracle de Theophile, has diva di, lit. ' say- 
go-say ' showing clearly the presence of the 
imperative dis in the word. 

Dactyle, sm. a dactyl; from L. dactylus. 
Dactyle is a doublet of datte. 

DAGUE, sf. a dagger. Origin unknown. — 
Der. daguet (a young stag, with straight 
horns like daggers). 

Dahlia, sf. a dahlia ; a word of hist, origin, 
see § 33. A plant named after Dahl by 

DAIGNER, vn. to deign ; from L. dignari. 
For i = ai see marraine. — Der. didaigner. 

DAIM, sm. a deer ; from L. damus*, secon- 
dary form of dama. For a = a« see aigle. 
— Der, daine. As O. Fr. wrote dain for 
dai7n, the corresponding fem. is daine. 

DAIS, sm. a canopy. O. Fr. dois, It. desco, 
from L. discus. Dais in O. Fr. always 
meant a dinner-table, but specially a state- 
table with a canopy ; gradually the sense of 
table has been lost and that of canopy 
prevails, whereas in Eng. the sense of 
canopy is lost, while that of a state-table 
remains. Discus gives O. Fr, dois, as 
meniscus, menois, by change of i into oi, 
see hois. Dois becomes dais by change of 
oi into ai, see § 61. Dais is a doublet of 

DALLE, sf. a flagstone. Origin unknown. — 
Der. dalhx. 

DAM, cost, loss ; from L, damnum. For 
inn = m see allumer and § 168, 

Damas, sm. Damascus, damask ; a word of 
hist, origin (§ 33), from Damascus, where 
damask was first made, — Der, damas^tx. 

t Damasquiner, va. to inlay with gold 

and silver ; from damasquin. Introd. in 
1 6th cent, from It. damaschino, a Damas- 
cus blade. 

DAME, sf. a lady ; from L. domina, written in the inscriptions. Domna be- 
comes dame by changing m.11 into m (see 
allumer and § 168) and o into a, the only 
instance of this change for accented o, 
though there are several examples of atonic 
o being changed to a, as domicellus*, 
damoiseau; dominiarium*, danger; lo- 
cust a, langouste. Dame is a doublet of 
dom, masc, and of duegne, fem. — Der. 
t/aweret, damtx, damiex. 

DAME, interj. why 1 indeed ! This word is 
all that remains of the medieval exclama- 
tion Dame-Dieu! (from L. domine Deus ! 
i. e. Seigneur Dieu !) The right sense of 
dame ! is therefore Lord ! 

D6m.mus was reduced to domnus by 
the Romans themselves : the form is found 
in several inscriptions under the Empire, see 
§ 51. Dom.ine similarly becomes, 
whence dame (interj.), just as be- 
came dame (sf.). For details of these 
changes see above, under dame (l), 

f Dame, sf. a dam ; from Germ. damm. 

DAMER, va. to crown a man (at draughts). 
See dame (1). 

DAMERET, sm. a ladies' man. See dame (i). 

DAMIER, sm. a draught-board. See dame (i). 

Damner, va. to damn, condemn ; from L. 
damnare Der. cfamwation, damnMe. 

DAMOISEAU, sm. a page (a gentleman who 
is not yet knighted), O. Fr, damoisel, from 
L. dom.inicellus*, dim. of dominus. 
Dominicellus, contrd, regularly (see 
§ 52) to domin'cellus, drops the n 
(see coque) and becomes domicellus, the 
form used in medieval Lat. : ' Non habeant 



domicellos,' in the Statutes of Cluni. 
From domicellus comes straight the 
O. Fr. datnoisel. For o=»a see datne (l) ; 
for i = oi see boire; for c = s see amitie. 
Datnoisel afterwards became datnoiseau, by 
resolution of -el into -eau ; see agneau. — 
Der. demoisdh (O. Fr. t/amoiselle, fem. of 
O. Fr. datnoisel). 

DANDINER, vn. to walk awkwardly, like a 
dandin, an O. Fr. adj. meaning clumsy, 
boobyish. This adj. is personified in such 
names as Perrin Dandin, Georges Dandin, 
etc. Origin unknown. 

+ Dandy, sm. a <^ndy; introd. from Engl, 
during the Restoration period. 

DANGER, sm. danger, peril. The original 
sense of this word is 'power.* Eire en dan- 
ger rfe Vennemi signified in the middle ages 
to be in one's enemy's power, at his 
mercy. From this signification it passed 
by natural transition to the sense of peril, 
danger ; it is perilous to be in the enemy's 
•danger.* This sense of power remained 
up to the middle of the l6th cent. Danger, 
O. Fr. dongier (for o = a see dame l), 
comes from L. dominiarium*, deriv. of 
dominium, used in sense of 'sovereignty' 
by Cicero. Just as dominus had become 
doxonus in Roman days (see dame 2), so 
dominiarium became domniarium, 
which consonified the ia (see the rule under 
ahreger and Hist. Gram. p. 65) ; whence 
domnjaritmi, whence O. Fr. dongier 
For m = « see changer; for -arium = -fer 
see § 198. — Der. dangereux. 

DANS, prep. in. O. Fr. dens {d'ens contrd. 
from de and ens) ; ens is L. intus. For 
intus = ens see mettre ; for dens = dans see 
§ 65, note I. — Der. derfaws. 

DANSER, vn. to dance ; a word of Germ, 
origin, O.H.G. danson. — Dei.danse (verbal 
subst.), dansem, coniTedatts. 

DARD, sm. a dart. It. dardo, a word of 
Germ, origin, A. S. dara^. — Der. darder. 

DARNE, sf. a slice ; a word of Celtic origin, 
Kymri darn, a slice, piece. 

+ Darse, sf. a floating wet-dock; introd, 
from It. darsena. 

Dartre, sf. (Med.) shingles, rash. Origin 
unknown. — Der. dartreux. 

Date, sf. a date. It. data, from L. data, 
rightly meaning • given,' in the expression 
• datum Romae.' — Der. datei, zntidatei, 

Datif, sm. a dative; from L. dativus. 

DATTE, sf. a date ; also written dacte. Port. 
datil, from L. dactyUis. For ct=//see 

§ 168; for loss of the two last syllables, 
-ylus, see §§ 50, 51. Daile is a doublet 
of dactyle, q.v. — Der. dattier. 

Daube, sf a stew. Origin unknown. 

DAUBER, va. properly to beat, cuff. A word 
of Germ, origin ; O. G. dubban, to dab, 

DAUPHIN, sm. a dolphin. Prov. dalfin, from 
L. delphinus. The eldest son of the King 
of France began to bear the name of the 
Dauphin in the year 1343, the date of the 
absorption of Dauphine into the kingdom. 
Dauphin^, or rather the Viennois, had had 
several lords named Dauphin, a proper 
name which is simply the L. delphinus. 
For el = aM see agneau; for ph.=/ see 
coffre and § 146. 

DA VANTAGE, adv. more. O.Ft. d'avant- 
age ; see de and vantage. 

Davier, sm. (Med.) the forceps. Origin un- 

DE, prep, of; from L. de. 

DE-. A prefix which answers (i) to L. de ; 
(2) to L, dis (in the latter case the 
original Fr. form was des: calceare, 
chausser; dis-calceare, des-chausser, then 
dechausser. For dis = des = de see mettre 
and Hist. Gram. p. 81. We have in the 
double form decrediter, discrediter a strik- 
ing example of the opposition of the popular 
and learned forms) ; (3) to L. de-ex in a 
few words, devier, deduire, etc., which in 
O. Fr. were desvier (de-ex-viare), desduire 
J^de-exducere), etc. 

DE, sm. a thimble. O. Fr. del, originally deel, 
Sp. dedal, It. ditale; from L. digitale*. 
Digitdle, contrd. regularly (see § 52) 
into dig'tale, loses its medial t, di-t-ale 
(see abbaye), whence O. Fr. deel. For -ale 
= -el see § 191; for i = g see mettre. 
De is a doublet of doigt, q.v. 

DE, sm. a die, pi. dice ; from L. datum, i. e. 
what is thrown on the table, from dare, 
to throw, as in such phrases as * Dare 
ad terram.' etc. For -atum = -e see am- 

DEBACLE, sf. a break-up (of ice). See 

d£bALLER, va. to unpack. See balle. — Der. 

DEBANDER. va. to disband. See bande (2). 
— Der. debandade. 

DEBARDER, DEBARDEUR, va. to unlade ; 
sm. lighterman. See bard. 

DEBARQUER, va. to unship (goods); vn. 
to land. See barque. — Der. debarcudhve 
(cp. Sp. sembarcddero). 

d£ba rrasser — dScharger . 


DSBARRASSER, va. to clear up, rid. See 
embarrasser. — Der. debarras (verbal subst.). 

D^BATTRE, va. to argue, debate. See 
battre. — Der debat (verbal subst.). 

DEBAUCHER, va. to debauch, entice aw^ay 
from one's duty, i. e. from bauche, O. Fr. 
for a workshop. The origin of bauche is 
unknown. — Der. debauche (properly cessa- 
tion of work, then idleness, then debauch). 

fD^het, sm. a debit; a Lat. word, debet. 

D§bile, a(i;. weak ; from L. debilis. Debile 
is a doublet of O. Fr. dieble. — Der. debilitei, 

D6bit, sm. a sale, shop; from L. debitum. 
Debit is a doublet of dette. — Der. debitor, 

D6blat6rer, w. to rail at; from L. debla- 

DEBLAYER, va. to clear away; from L. 
debladare*. In medieval Lat. this word 
kept its original sense of carrying corn from 
a field, then of carrying off, clearing away 
generally. In a Chartulary of 1272 we 
read, ' Similiter in pratis ipsorum de dicto 
loco, postquam fuerint debladata.' De- 
bladare is a deriv. of bladura*, q. v. 
Debladare becomes deblayer by loss of 
medial d ; see accabler. — Der. deblai 
(verbal subst.), 

DEBLOQUER, va. to raise a blockade. See 

DEBOIRE, sm. an after-taste, disappointment. 
See boire. 

DEBOITER, va. to dislocate. See hotte. 

DEBONNAIRE, adj. meek, goodnatured. 
O. Fr. de bon aire. See air (in sense of 
jiatural disposition). 

DEBORDER, vn. to overflow, run over. See 
bord. — Der. debord, debordement (verbal 

DEBOUCHER, va. to uncork ; vn. to emerge. 
See boucher. — Der. debouche. 

DEBOURSER, va. to disburse. See bourse. — 
Der. debours (verbal subst.). 

DEBOUT, adv. on end. See bout. 

DEBOUTER, va. to nonsuit. See bouter. 

DEBRAILLER, va. to uncover the breast. 
See braie. 

DEBRIS, sm. pi. remains, fragments. See 

DEBUCHER, vn. to break cover (hunting). 
See buche and bois. 

tP6busquer, va. to drive out. See 
embusquer and de-. 

DEBUT, sm. a beginning, first stroke, outset. 

. See but. — Der. debuter, debutant. 

•jDEQA, prep, on this side of. See de and fa. 

Decade, sf. a decade ; from Gr. Sifcas, -6.S0S. 
Decadence, sf. decadence; from L. deca- 
de nti a*, from decadere*. Decadence is 

a doublet of decheance, q. v. 
D6cadi, sm. the tenth and last day of the 

decade in the calendar of the first French 

republic ; from Gr. Se'/fo and L. dies. 
Decagone, sm. a decagon ; from Gr. 56«a- 

Decagramme, sm. a decagram; from 

Gr. Sifca, and gramme, q. v. 
Decalitre, sm. a measure of ten litres ; 

from Gr. Siita, and litre, q. v. 
Decalogue, sm. the decalogue; from Gr. 

DECAMPER, vn. to decamp. See camper. 
D6eanat, sm. a deanery; from L. deca- 

natus, from decanus. Decanat is a 

doublet of doyenne. 
Decanter, va. to decant. It. decantare, 

from L. decanthare*, to pour wine out 

gently, which from L. canthus, the angle 

o( a wine-jar. 
DECAPER, va. to clean (properly to scrape 

off the crust of dirt or rust on a metallic 

surface), deriv. of cape, a cloak, q. v. 

Thus decaper would mean to uncloak the 

metal, strip it naked. — Der. decapage. 
D6capiter, va. to behead ; from L. deca- 

p it are*, deriv. oi caput. 
Deceder, vn. to depart this life, die ; from 

L. decedere. 
DECELER, va. to disclose. See celer. 
DECEMBRE, sm. December; from L. de- 

Deceimal, adj. decennial; from L. decen- 

Decent, adj. decent; from L. decentem. — 

Der. decence. 
Deception, sf. deception; from L. decep- 

D^cerner, va. to award (honours, etc.) ; 

from L. decernere. 
D6cds, sm. decease, death; fromL.decessus. 
DECEVOIR, va. to deceive ; from L. deci- 

pere. For -cipere = -cevoir see concevoir. 

— Der. decevable. 
DECHAINER, va. to let loose (a dog). 

O. Fr. deschainer, from L. dis-catenare*. 

For the changes see de- and chaine. — Der. 

dechainement. * 

DECHANTER, vn. to change one's note. 

O. Fr. deachanter. See de- and chanter. 
DECHARGER, va. to unload, discharge. 

O. Fr. descharger. See de- and charger. — 

Der. decharge (verbal subst.), decharge- 




DECHARNER, va. to strip the flesh off. 
O. Fr. descharner, Sp. descarnar, from L. 
discamare'*'. To take off the flesh, car- 
nem. For o = ch see § 126. For dxH = de 
see de-. 

DfiCHAUSSER, va. to pull off boots, shoes, 
etc, O. Fr. desckausser, from L. discal- 
ceare. For the changes see chausser and 
de-. — Der. ddchaux (the barefooted friars, 

DfiCHEANCE, sf. forfeiture ; from L. deca- 
dentia, from decadere. For loss of 
medial d see accabler; for ca, — che see 
§§ 126 and 54; iox-tia, = -ce stt agencer. 
Decheance is a doublet of decadence, 

DECHET, sm. waste, loss. See dechoir. 
Dechet is a doublet of dcchoit. 

DECHIFFRER, va. to decipher. See chiffre. 
J— Der. deckiffrahle, indeckiffrzhle. 

DECHIQUETER, va. to cut up, slash, chop 
into ; a word which seems to be a dim. of 
chiqidet, from L. ciccum (an insignificant 
thing, trifle). 

DECHIRER, va. to tear up. O. Fr. des- 
chirer, compd. of O. Fr. eschirer, Prov. 
esqnirar; a word of Germ, origin, O. H. G. 
skerran. — Der. dechirement, dechirure. 

DECHOIR, vn. to fall (from), sink, decline. 
See de andchoir. — Der. cfecAet (another form 
of dechoit). See § 187. 

Decider, va. to decide (a case), settle ; vn. 
to decide,- judge; from L. decidere. — 
Der. indecis (from in and decisus), decisis 
(from decisivus*, deriv. of decisus). 

D^cime, sm. a tenth, tithe; from L. de- 
cima. Decime is a doublet of dixieme 
and dime, q. v. — Der. decimtx, decitmXion, 

D^cimdtre, sm. a decimeter ; from L. 
prefix deci- and metre, q. v. The prefix 
deci- denotes ten, so that the word is ill- 
formed, as it rightly means ' ten metres,' 
not ' a tenth of a metre ' ; for the Lat. 
deci- multiplies, not divides. 

Decisif, adj. decisive. See decider. 

Decision, sf. a decision; from L. de- 

D6clamer, va. to declaim, recite ; from L. 
dec lam are. — Der. declamation, declam- 

Declarer, va. to declare ; from L. de- 
ci ar are. — Der. declamation. 

!D6clmer, vn. to wane, decline ; va. to de- 
cline (an invitation, etc.); from L. de- 
clinare — Der. declin (verbal subst.), de- 
c/mable, declinzison. 

D6clive, adj. sloping; from L. declivus. — 
Der. d(^clivit6. 

DECLORE, va. to unclose. See d4- and clore. 

DECLOUER, va. to unnail, unfasten. See 
de- and clouer. 

DECOCHER, va. to discharge, shoot. See 
de- and coche, 

D6coction, sf. a decoction ; from L. 

DECOIFFER, va. to take off a coif, head- 
dress. See coiffer. 

D6collation, sf. a beheading; from L. de- 

DECOLLER, va. to behead. See col. 

DECOLLER, va. to unpaste, unglue. See 

DECOLLETER, va. to bare neck and shoul- 
ders. See collet. 

DECOLORER, va. to discolour. See de- 
and colorer. 

DECOMBRES, sm. pi. rubbish. See en- 

Decomposer, va. to decompose. See 
composer. — Der. decomposition. 

DECONFIRE, va. to discomfit, rout. Mal- 
herbe writes that la France a deconfit 
I'Espagne. Deconjire, O. Fr. desconjire, 
is from L. disconficere (compd. of con- 
ficere). For changes see de- and confire. 
—Der. deconjitme. 

DECONTENANCER, va. to abash. See 

DECONVENUE, sf mishap, ill-luck. See 
de- and convenir. 

D6corer, va. to decorate; from L. deco- 
ra re. — Der. decor (verbal subst.), decora- 
tion, decorat&nx, decoratif. 

D6coruin, sm. decorum, propriety; from 
L. decorum. 

DECOUCHER, vn. to sleep out. See de- 
and coucher. 

DECOUDRE, va. to unsew. See de- and 

DECOULER, vn. to flow down. See de- and 
couler. ' 

DECOUPER, va. to carve, cut out. See de- 
and couper. — Der. decotipnre. 

DECOUVRIR, va. to uncover, discover. See 
de- and couvrir. — Der. decouv&rtt (partic, 

DECRASSER, va. to cleanse. See crasse. 

DECREDITER, va. to discredit. See de- 
and crediter. , 

D6cr6pit, adj. decrepit; from L. decre- 
pitus. — Der. decrepitude. 

D6cret, sm. a decree; from L. decretum. 
— Der. decrettx, decretalt. 



DECRIER, va. to decry. See de- and crier. 

— Der. decri (verbal subst.). 
DECRIRE, va. to describe. O. Fr. descrire, 

from L. describere. For changes see 

DECROCHER, va. to unhook, take down. 

See croc. 
DECROITRE, vn. to shorten, decrease. See 

croitre. — Der. t/ecroissant, cfeVroissance, 

DECROTTER, va. to clean, brush. See 

crotte. — Der. decrotieur, decrottovc. 
Decuple, adj. tenfold; from L. decuplus. 

— Der. dectipler. 
D^DAIGNER, va. to scorn, disdain. O. Fr. 

desdaigner. It. disdegnare, from L. dis 

(see de-) and dignari (see daigner). — Der. 

dedain (verbal subst.), dedaigtieux. 
Dedale, sm. a maze, labyrinth; from Gr. 

Aaida\os (who made the Cretan labyrinth). 
DEDANS, adv. insist, within. See de and dans. 
Dedicace, 5/". dedication; from L. dedicatio. 
DEDIER, va. to dedicate ; from L. dedicare. 

For loss of medial c see affouage. 
DEDIRE, va. to contradict. See de- and 

dire. — Der. dediX.. 
Deduction, sf. a deduction; from L. de- 

DEDUIRE, va. to deduct; from L. de- 

ducere. Dediicere, contrd. regularly, 

by the rule of the Lat. accent, into de- 

duc're, becomes deduire by changing cr 

into ir, for which see benir. 
DEESSE, sf. a goddess. O. Fr. deuesse, formed 

from O. Fr. deu (which from L. deus), 

and the fem. sufBx -esse. See abbesse. 
DEFAILLIR, vn. to fail. See de- and faillir. 

J— Der. defaithncQ. 
DEFAIRE, va. to undo, unmake. O. Fr. 

desfaire. See de- and /aire. — Der. defaite 

(partic. subst.). 
DEFALQUER, va. to deduct, subtract. It. 

diffalcare, compd. of de- (q. v.) and the 

radical falquer, a word of Germ, origin, 

O. H. G.falcan. — Der. defalcuXion. 
DEFAUT, sm. a defect, blemish. Seefaute. 
DEFAVEUR, sf. disfavour, disgrace. See de- 

andfaveiir. — Der. defavoxa.h[e. 
Defectif, adj. defective; from L. defec- 

Defection, sf. defection; from L. defec- 

D6fectueux, adj. defective; from L. de- 

DEFENDRE, va. to defend; from L. de- 

fendere. For loss of penult, e see § 51. 

— Der. defendMe, defendem, dtfenderesss. 

DEFENSE, sf. defence ; from L. defensa *, a 

word found in TertuUian. 
D6fenseur, sm. a defender; from L. de- 

fD^fensif, adj. defensive; introd. in i6th 

cent, from It. defensivo. 
D§ferer, va. to confer, bestow ; from L. de- 
fer re. — Der. defer QWCQ. 
DfiFERLER, va. to unfurl. ?>Qeferler. 
DEFERRER, va. to unshoe, take the tires off 

a wheel. See fer. 
DEFIANCE, sf distrust, diffidence. See defter. 
t Deficit, s/n. a deficit; aLat. word. 
DEFIER, va. to defy. O. Fr. desfier. It. dis- 

fidare. For the etymology see de- and_/?er. 

— Der. deft (verbal subst.), diftunce. 
D6figurer, va. to disfigure. See figure. 
DEFILE, sm. a pass, defile. See deftler (2). 
DEFILER, va. to unthread. Seefil. 
DEFILER, vn. to file off, defile. See file.— 

Der. defile (a narrow way, through which 

one must pass in file). 
D§finer, va. to define; from L. definire. 

— Der. deftnif indefini, definissdihle, iudefin- 

D6finitif, adj. definitive; from L. defini- 

D6finition, sf. a definition ; from L. defi- 

DEFLEURIR, vn. to shed blossoms ; va. to 

blight. See fleur. 
D6florer, va. to deflower; fromL. deflo- 

DEFONCER, va. to stave in, dig up. See 

fond. — Der. defoncement. 
DEFORMER, va. to deform. See forme. — 

Der. deforma.t\on. 
DEFRAYER, va. to defray. Seefrais. 
DEFRICHER, va. to clear (of ground). See 

friche. — Der. defrichement. 
DEFROQUER, va. to unfrock.— Der. de- 

froque (verbal subst.). 
D6funt, adj. dead, defunct ; from L. de- 

DEGAGER, va. to redeem a pledge. See 

jgager. — Der. degagement. 
DEGAINER, va. to unsheath. See game. — 

Der. degaine (verbal subst.). 
DEGARNIR, va. to unfurnish, unrig, strip. 

DEGAT, sm. damage, depredation; verbal 

subst. of O. Fr. degater. See gater. 
DEGELER, va. to thaw. See geler. — Der. 

degel (verbal subst.). 
Degen^rer, va. to degenerate; from L. de- 

generare. — Der. degener^Xion. 
Degenerescence, s/". degeneracy; from 



d^g^nirescent, from L. degenerescen- 

tem* (degenerescere*) from degene- 

Deglutition, sf. deglutition; from L. de- 

glutitionem, from deglutire. 
DEGOISER, va. to chirp, chatter. See 

DEGORGER, va. to disgorge, vomit. See 

DEGOURDIR, va. to take off the stiffness, 

sharpen, brighten. See gourd. 
DEGOOT, sm. disgust. O. Fr. desgoust, It. 

disgusto. See de- and gout. — Der. de- 

DEGO UTTER, vn. to drop, trickle. See 

D6grader, va. to degrade; from L. degra- 

dare. — Der. degrad&\.ion. 
DEGRAFER, va. to unhook. See agrafer. 
DEGRAISSER, va. to skim off the fat, scour, 

fleece. See graisse. — Der. degraisseur, de- 

DEGRE, sm. a step. Prov. degrat. This 

word answers to a type degradus*, compd. 

of de- and gradus. For loss of d see 

alouette ; for & = e see § 54. 
DEGREVER, va. to reduce (a tax). See 

^rever. — Der. degrevement, 
DEGRINGOLER, vn. to tumble down. Origin 

DEGRISER, va. to sober. See griser. 
DEGROSSIR, va. to rough-hew. See 

DEGUENILLE, adj. tattered. See guenille. 
DEGUERPIR, va. to give up, quit ; vn. to 

pack off; compd, of de- and O. Fr. verb 

guerpir to abandon, which is in medieval 

Lat. -werpire, a word of Germ, origin, 

Scand. verpa. For yr = gu see gaine. — 

Der. deguerpissement. 
DEGUISER, va. to disguise. See guise.' — 

Der. deguisement. 
D6guster, va. to taste; from L. degus- 

tare. — Der. degusta.tion, degustateur. 
Dehiscence, sf. (Bot.) dehiscence ; from L. 

^dehiscentia* (dehiscere). 
DEHONTE, adj. shameless. See honte. 
DEHORS, adj. outside, without. See hors. 
Deicide.sra. deicide(used of the Jews); from 

L. deicida*. 
D6ifier, va. to deify ; from L. deificare. — 

Der. cfe'//?cation. 
Deisme, sm. deism; from L. Deus, with 

suffix -isme. — Der. deiste. 
D6it6, sf. a deity ; from L. deitatem. 
DEJA, adv. already. O. Fr. desja. See des 

and ja. 

Dejection, sf. dejection; from L. dejec- 

DEJETER, va. to warp, make crooked ; from 
L. dejectare. For ct=»/ see § 168. 

DEJEONER, vn. to breakfast. O. Fr. des- 
jeuner. See d6- and jeiiner, lit. to break 
one's fast. For the contraction in mean- 
ing see § 12. — Der. dejeuner {sm.). 

DEJOINDRE, va. to disjoin. Seejoindre. 

DEJOUER, va. to baffle, frustrate. Seejouer. 

DEJUCHER, vn. to leave the roost. Seejucher. 

DELA, prep, beyond, on the other side. 
See la. 

f Deiabrer, va. to dilapidate, destroy, ruin. 
O. Fr. deslabrer, from It., Milanese disla- 
brare. — Der. delabrement. 

DELAI, sm. delay. See delayer. 

DELAISSER, va. to abandon, forsake. See 
laisser. — Der. delaissement. 

DELASSER, va. to refresh, relax. See las. 
— Der. delassement. ^'"^ 

Deiateur, sm. an informer; from L. de- 

Delation, sf. delation, information ; from L. 

DELAYER, va. to dilute ; from L. dilatare. 
For loss of medial t see abbaye; for i = e 
see mettre. The change of sense from 
dilatare, to dilate, broaden, to that of 
delayer is seen in the phrase delayer un 
discours. Delayer is a doublet of dilater, 
q. v.— Der. delai (verbal subst. of delayer, 
in its sense of extension ; delai being an 
extension of time granted). 

Deiecter, va. to delight ; from L, delectare. 
— Der. delectation, delectable. 

Deieguer, va. to delegate, commission; 
from L. delegare. — Der. delegation. 

Deleter©, adj. deleterious; from Gr. SrjXij- 


Deiiberer, vn. to deliberate; from L. de- 
liberare. — Der. deliberation, deliberatxf. 

Delicat, adj. delicate; from L. delicatus. 
Delicat is a doublet of delie, q. v. — Der. in- 
delicat, delicatesse. 

Deiices, sf. pi. delights, pleasures ; from L. 
deljciae. — Der, delicieux. 

DELIE, adj. fine, slender, delicate, as in un 
fX delie, un style delie, etc, ; from L. deli- 
catus. For loss of medial c see affouage ; 
for -atus = e see § 201. Delie is a 
doublet of delicat, q. v. 

DELIE, partic of delier, unbound. 

DELIER, va. to unbind. O. Fr. deslier. See 
de- and Her. 

Delimiter, va. to fix boundaries ; from L. 
delimitare. — Der. delimitation. 



Delineation, sf. delineation; from L, de- 
lineationem, from delineare. 

Delinquant, sm. a delinquent ; from L. 

D6lire, sm. delirium; from L. delirium. 
Der. delirer. 

Delit, sm. a crime, offence; from L. de- 

DELIVRER, va. to deliver, free; from £. 
deliberare*, compd. of liberare. De- 
liber^re, regularly contrd. (see § 52) 
into delib'rare, becomes delivrer (see 
avant and § 113). — Der. delivriLnce. 

DELOGER, vn to remove, get away ; va. to 
dislodge. See loger. 

DELOYAL, adj. disloyal, false. O. Fr. des- 
loyal. It. disleale, from de- (q. v.) and loyal. 
Der. cfe/qyaut^ (see de- and loyaute). 

DELUGE, sm. a deluge, flood. It. diluvio, 
from L. diluvium. For consonification 
of iu into ge (diluyjum) and for vj ^7 
see Hist. Gram. p. 65 ; for i = e see mettre. 

DELURE, adj. disenchanted. See § 8 and 

Demagogue, sm. a demagogue ; from Gr. 
Srjimy or/OS. — Der. demagogic, demagog- 

DEMAIN, adv. to-morrow. Prov. demon. It. 
dimane; from L. de-mane*, compd. of 
mand. For a = m see aigle. — Der. len- 
demain (in O. Fr. Vendemain, as in It. it is 
Vindomani ; a form compd. of en and de- 
main). In the 14th cent, the article le by a 
singular misunderstanding became attached 
to the body of the word (see lierre) and 
produced the sm. lendemain, which in its 
turn is again preceded by the article (le len- 

DEMANDER, va. to ask ; from L. deman- 
dare. — Der. demands (verbal subst.), de- 
mandewT, demanderesse. 

DEMANGER, vn. to itch. See manger.— 
Der. demangeaison. 

DEMANTELER, va. to dismantle, i.e. to take 
off the mantle, then to strip a town of its 
protection by destroying its walls. — Der. 
demantel ement. 

D^mantibuler, va. to break. O. Fr, de- 
mandibuler, properly to break the jaw ; 
/rom de- (q. v.) and mandibula. 

DEMARCATION, sf. demarcation. See mar- 

DEMARCHE, sf. gait, bearing, step. See 

DEMARIER, va. to unmarry. See marier. 

DEMARQUER, va. to unmark, take out a 
mark. See marquer. 

DEMARRER, va. to unmoor. See amarrer. 
DEMASQUER, va. to unmask. See masque. 
DEMELER, va. to disentangle. See de- and 

meler. — Der. demel, demeloix. 
DEMEMBRER, va. to dismember. See mem- 

bre.—DeT. detnembrement. 
DEMENAGER, va. to remove. See menage. 

— Der. demenagement. 
D6nience, s/". madness; from L. dementia. 
DEMENER, va. to kick, struggle. See mener. 
DEMENTIR, va. to contradict, deny. O. Fr. 

desmentir. See de- and mentir. — Der. de- 
Dein6riter, vn. to do amiss. See meriter. 

_;— Der. demerile (verbal subst.). 
DEMESURE, adj. unmeasured, huge. See 

DEMETTRE, va. to dislocate, dismiss. See 

DEMEURER, vn. to dwell, live. It. dimo- 

rare, from L. demorari, found in sense of 

tarrying, dwelling, in the Theodosian Code. 

— Der. demeure (verbal subst.), au demeur- 

DEMI, adj. half; from L. dimidius. For 

loss of medial d see alouette ; for atonic 

i = e see mettre. 
Demission, sf. resignation (of an ofBce,etc.); 

introd. in 1 6th cent, from L. demis- 
sion em. — Der. demissionna.ire. 
D^mocratie, sf. democracy ; from Gr. 

SrjfjLOKpaTia. — Der. democrate, democrat- 

DEMOISELLE, sf. a damsel, young lady. See 

damoiseau. Demoiselle is a doublet of 

D6niolir, va. to demolish; from L. de- 

moliri. — Der. c?emo/isseur, demolition, (L. 

D^mon, sm. a demon ; from L. daemonem. 

— Der. Je'mowiaque. 
D6nionetiser, va. to alter the value of a 

coin, call it in ; from de- and mo net a. 
D6monstratif, adj. demonstrative ; from 

L. demonstrativus. 
Demonstration, sf a demonstration, 

proof; from L. demonstrationem. 
Demonstrateur, sm. a demonstrator ; 

from L. demonstratorem. 
DEMONTER, va. to unhorse, dismount (a 

rider). See de- and monter. 
DEMONTRER, va. to demonstrate. O. Fr. 

demonstrer, from L. dem,onstrare. For 

loss of s see Hist. Gram. p. 81. — Der. de- 

DEMORDRE, vn. to let go (grip), swerve 

from. See de- and mordre. 



Denedre, adj . denary; from L. denarius. 
Denaire is a doublet of denier, q. v. 

DENATURER, va. to alter the nature of. 
See nature. 

D6n6gation, sf. denial; from L. denega- 

DENI, stn. a refusal (law term). See dinier. 

DENICHER, va. to take out of a niche, out 
of a nest. See nicher. — Der. denichem. 

DENIER, >sm. a denarius, denier (-J^ of a sou), 
mite; from L. denarius. For -arius 
= 'ier see § 198. Denier is a doublet of 

DENIER, va. to deny, refuse ; from L. de- 
negare. For loss of medial g see allier ; 
for e = i see § 58. — Der. d^ni (verbal 

D6liigrer, va. to revile, blacken (character, 
etc.); from L. denigrare. — Der. denigre- 

DENOMBRER, va. to number; from L. 
dentunerare. For numerare = «om6rer 
see nombre. — Der. denombrement. 

I>6noininatif, adj. denominative ; from L. 

D^nominateur, stn. a denominator ; from 
L. denominatorem. 

Denomination, sf. a denomination ; from 
L. denominationem. 

DENOMMER, va. to name (in a deed) ; from 
L. denominare. For letter-changes see 

DENONCER, va. to denounce; from L. 
demintiare. For nxintiare = noncer see 

D§nonciateur, $m. a denunciator, in- 
former; from L. denuntiatorem. 

D6nonciation,s/". a denouncement, declara- 
tion ; from L. denuntiationem. 

D6noter, va. to denote, describe ; from L. 

DENOUER, va. to untie, unravel. See dc- 
and nouer. — Der. denotement. 

DENREE,s^. food, commodity; from late 
nerata, found in the Capitularies of Charles 
the Bald : * Ministri Reip. provideant, ne 
ilH qui panem ... per deneratas . . . ven- 
dunt.' Originally merchandise generally, and 
specially such goods as were worth a denier. 
Similarly Sp. has dinerada, from dinero. 
From denier came O. Fr. deneree, just as 
from panier came panneree. Deneree is 
contrd. into den'ree, denree. Similarly in 
Bavaria pfenningwerth properly means a 
pfenning's worth of anything. For loss of 
the § (denSrdta) see § 52; for -ata = -ee 
see § 201. 

Dense, adj. dense; from L. densus. — Der. 

DENT, 5/ a tooth ; from L. dentem.— Der. 

eudent(\ ^dentk, dentier, dentiste, dentcWe. 
Dentaire, adj. dental; from L. dentarius. 

Dentaire is a doublet of O. Fr. dentier. 
DENTELLE, sf. lace, properly a little tooth. 

— Der. dentel6, dentelme. 
Dentifrice, stn. dentifrice, tooth-powder; 

from L. dentifricium (tooth-powder, in 

Dentition, s/. dentition; from L. denti- 

D6nuder, va. to denude, lay bare; from 

L. denudare. 
DENUER, va. to deprive, strip ; from L. 

denudare, by loss of medial d, see ac- 

cabler. — Der. rfeWment. 
DEPAREILLER, va. to render incomplete, 

spoil a pair. See pariel. 
DEPARER, va. to strip. See parer. 
DEPARLER, va. to cease speaking. See 

DEPARTEMENT, sm. a department. See 

DEPARTIR, va. to distribute. O. Fr. des- 

partir, from L. dispartire. Fordis = </e 

see de. — Der. depart (verbal subst.), de- 

DEPASSER, va. to pass by, go beyond. See 

DEPAYSER, va. to send abroad, expatriate. 

See pays. 
DEP]&CER, va. to break up (into pieces). See 

DEPECHER, va. to despatch, hasten. See 

empecker. — Der. d^peche (verbal subst.). 
DEPEINDRE, va. to depict, paint, describe ; 

from L. depingere. For -ingere = -eindre 

see ceindre. 
DEPENDRE, va. to take down (from a 

j;ibbet). See de- and pendre. 
DEPENDRE, vn. to be dependent (on); 

from L. dependere. For changes see 

pendre. Notice the displacement of the 

accent from dependere to dependere, 

whence the form dependre, not dependoir. 

(Hist. Gram. p. 133.) 
DEPENDRE, va. to spend ; from L. depen- 

jiere. For loss of e see § 51. 
DEPENS, sm. pi. expense, cost, charge. See 

DEPENSE, sf. expense, outlay. See depenser. 
DEPENSER, va. to spend. O. Fr. despenser, 

from L. dispensare. For 6is = de- see 

de-. Depenser is a doublet of dispenser, 

q. V. — Der. depens, depense, depensitx. 



Deperdition, sf. loss, waste; from L. de- 
perditionem*, from deperdere. 

D6p6rir, vn. to perish utterly; from L, de- 
peri re. — Der. c?e/)enssement. 

DEPftTRER, va. to disengage, extricate. 
O. Fr. despestrer, the opposite of einpetrer, 
O. Fr. empestrer. Empetrer signifies pro- 
perly to hobble a horse while he feeds 
afield, and depetrer is to free his legs from 
the bonds. These words come from medi- 
eval Lat. pastorium*, a clog for horses at 
pasture. Pastorium (der. through pas- 
tum, from pascere) is common in this 
sense in the Germanic Laws: 'Si quis in ex- 
ercitu aliquid furaverit, pastorium, capis- 
trum, frenum,' etc. (Lex Bavar. tit. IL vi. i). 
So also in the Lex Langobard. tit. L xx. 5 : 
' Si quis pastorium de caballo alieno tu- 
lerit.' Pastorium, by means of the two 
compounds, pastoriare *, dispastoriare *, 
has produced the two. O. Fr. verbs, empes- 
trer, despestrer, by changing (i) im. into 
in, then into en, see mettre ; (2) dis 
into des, then de, see de- ; (3) and pas- 
toriare into pestrer, by dropping the o, 
see § 52, whence the modern form pttrer. 
For loss of s see Hist. Gram. p. 81 ; for 
a = «, see § 54. 

DEPEUPLER, va. to depopulate. See peupler. 
— Der. depeuplement. 

D6piler, va. to take the hair off; from 
^L. depilare. — Der. c?e/>/7ation, d4pila.toire. 

DEPISTER, va. to track, hunt out. See piste. 

DEPIT, sm. despite, vexation. O. Fr. despit, 
from L. despectus. For des = de see de- ; 
for e = t see § 59 ; for ct = / see § 168. 
— Der. depitex. 

DEPLACER, va. to displace. See place.— 
Der. deplacemenU 

DEPLAIRE, va. to displease. See plaire. — 
Der. deplaisiT, deplaisa.nt. 

DEPLIER, va. to unfold, open. See de- and 

D6plorer, va. to deplore; from L. deplo- 
rare. — Der. deplorable. 

DEPLOYER, va. to unroll. See de- and 
ployer. — Der. deploiement. 

DEPLUMER, va. to pluck (a bird). See de- 
and plume. 

Depopulation, sf. depopulation; from L. 

D6porter, va. to deport, transport ; from L. 
deport are. — Der. deport, deportation, de- 

DEPOSER, va. to depose. See poser. 

Depositaire, sm. a depositary, guardian, 
confidant; from L. depositarius. 

Depositeur, sm. a depositor; from L. de- 

Deposition, sf. deposition; from L. depo- 

D6poss§der, va. to dispossess. See posse- 

DEPOUILLER, va. to strip, spoil. O. Fr. 

despouiller, from L. despoliare. For o 

= ou see affouage ; for li = ill see ail ; 

for loss of s see Hist. Gram. p. 81. — Der. 

depouille (verbal subst.), depotiillement. 
DEPOURVOIR, va. to deprive, strip. See 

pourvoir. — Der. depourvu. 
Depraver, va. to deprave, vitiate; from L. 

depravare. — Der. depravation. 
D6pr6cier, va. to depreciate; from L. de- 

pretiare. Deprecier is a doublet of de- 

priser. — Der. depreciation. 
D6pr6dation, sf. depredation; from L. 

Depression, sf. depression; from L. de- 

D6prinier, va. to depress; from L. depri- 

DEPUIS, prep, since. See puis. 
D6purer, va. (Chem.) to depurate, purify ; 

from L. depurare. — Der. depuration, de- 

D§puter, va. to depute; from L. depu- 

tare. — Der. deputation, depute. 
DERACINER, va. to uproot. See racine. 
DERAILLER, vn. to run off the rails. See 

DERAISON, sf. unreason. See raison. — 

Der. deraisonner, deraisonnahie. 
DERANGER, va. to derange, displace. See 

ranger. — Der. derangement. 
DERECHEF, adv. again, afresh; formerly 

written de rechef compound of re, marking 

repetition, and chef, meaning end, ex- 
tremity. We have seen under achever the 

medieval phrase venir a chef for venir a 

hout. See chef. 
DEREGLER, va. to derange, disorder. See 

regie. — Der. dereglement. 
Derision, sf. derision; from L. derisi- 

Derisoire, adj. derisive; from L. deriso- 

D6river, vn. to leave shore, drift ; to spring, 

derive; va. to turn off (a stream). — Der. 

derive (verbal subst.), derivation, deriv- 

Derme, sm. skin ; from Gr. Sippia. 
DERNIER, adj. last; formerly derrenier, 

derrainier, der. from O. Fr. derrain. Der- 

rain answers to L. deretranus*, deriv. of 



de-retro, properly one who walks behind. 
DerStrdnus, contrd. regularly (see § 52) 
into dertr'anus, softens tr into dr, then 
rr (see § 168), and changes a into ai (see 

DfiROBER, va. to rob, steal. See robe. 

D6roger, vn. to derogate (from) ; from L. 
^derogare. — Der. derogation. 

DEROULER, va. to unroll, spread out. See 

DfiROUTE, sf. rout, defeat. O.Fr. des- 
route, from L. disrupta, from disrum- 
pere, to break up an army in battle. For 
dis = de see de- ; for u = o« see § 90 ; 
for pt = / see acheter. 

DEROUTER, va. to lead astray. See route. 

DEKKltKE, prep and adv. behind; from L. 
de retro*. ' Visa itaque turba de retro 
et ab ante adorantes dicite ' (Baruch vi. 5). 
For retro = riere see arriere. 

DES, of the; contr. oi dels = deles. 
See for details Hist. Gram. p. 10 1. 

Y)r.S,prep. from; from L. deipso, sc. tem- 
pore, De-ipso, contrd, into d'ipso, be- 
comes dis. For i = e see mettre ; for ps = s 
jee caisse. 

DESAIMER, va. to cease loving. See de- 
^and aimer. 

DESAPPOINTER, va. to disappoint. See de- 
and appointer. — Der, desappointement. 

DfiSARROI, sm. disarray, confusion ; compd. 
of des (see de-) and O, Fr. arroi. Des- 
arroi therefore = des-ordre. A rroi is a 
compd. of O. Fr. roi, just as arranger is of 
ranger, arrondir of rond, etc. Roi, meaning 
in O. Fr. order, measure (a sense which re- 
mains in the phrase pied de roi), answers to 
the It, root redo*, to medieval L, redum*, 
and comes from Germ, source, Dan. rede, 
Swed, reda, to set in order, 

+ D6sastre, sm. a disaster; introd, in 
1 6th cent, from It. desastro. — Der, desas- 

DESAVANTAGE, sm. a disadvantage. See 

DESAVEU, sm. a disavowal. See aveu. 

DESAVOUER, va. to disavow. See avouer. 

DESCELLER, va. to unfasten, unseal. See 

DESCENDRE, vn. to descend ; from L. de- 
sc^nd§re. For loss of g see § 51, — Der, 
descents (partic. subst., see ahsoute), de- 
scendance, redescendre, condescendre. 

Descriptif, adj. descriptive; from L. de- 

Description, s/. a description; from L, 

DfiSEMPARER, va. and n. to quit, go away. 
See emparer. 

DESERT, adj. deserted ; from L, desertus, 
— Der, dherttr, deserteur, desertion. 

DESERT, sm. a desert ; from L. desertum, 

DESESPERER, vn. to despair. See d4- and 

DESESPOIR, sm. despair. See de- and 

DESHABILLER, va. to undress. See d4- 
and habiller. 

DESHERENCE, sf. escheat. See hoir. 

DESHONNETE, adj. immodest. See hon- 

DESHONNEUR, sm. dishonour. See hon- 

DESHONORER, va. to dishonour. See hon- 

Designer, va. to designate, describe ; from 
L. designare. Designer is a doublet of 
dessiner, q. v, — Der, designation. 

Desinence, sf. (Gram,) a desinence, termin- 
ation; from L. desinentia. 

DESINTERESSER, va. to buy out (creditors, 
etc.). See de- and interesser. — Der, desin- 

tD§sinvolture, sf. ease of carriage; 
from It. disinvoltura. 

DESIR, sm. desire, wish. See desirer. 

DESIRER, va. to desire. O.Fr, desirrer, from 
L. desiderare, Desiderdre, contrd, regu- 
larly (see § 52) into desid'rare, becomes 
desirer. For 6x = rr = r see § 168, — Der. 
desir (verbal subst,), desir&nx, desirabXt. 

D^sister (Se), vpr. to desist ; from L, de- 
sist ere, — Der, desistemtnt. 

DESGEUVRER, va. to throw out of work. 
See ceuvre. — Der, desceuvrement. 

D6soler, va. to desolate, ravage; from L. 
desolari. — Der, desohnt, desolation. 

D6sopiler, va. (Med,) to empty, clear out ; 
from L, dis-oppilare*, 

DfiSORDONNE, adj. disorderly. See de- 
and ordonner. 

DESORDRE, sm. disorder. See de- and 

DESORMAIS, adv. henceforth, O, Fr. des 
ore mais. Ore is from L. hora; mais from 
L, magis, Des ore mais properly means 
from this hour forward, i, e, dating from 
this present hour. For etymology see des, 
or, and mais. Similarly dormavant, q, v., 
which was in O. Fr. d'ore en avant, means 
from this present hour forward, 

DESOSSER, va. to bone. See os. 

Despote, sm. a despot ; from Gr, ScCTTc^riys. 
— Der. despotiqae, despotisme. 



DESSAISIR, va. to dispossess. See saisir. — 

— Der. rfessa/sissemetit. 
DESSECHER, va. to dry up. See seeker.— 

Der. dessechement. 
DESSEIN, sm. design. See dessin, which is 

its doublet. 
DESSERT, sm. dessert. See desservir. 
DESSERVANT, sm. an officiating priest. 

See desservir. 
DESSERVIR, clear away (after dinner). 

See servir. — Der. desservnr\t, dessert and 

desserie (partic. subst, of desservir, see 

absoute ; similarly O. Fr. had sert from 

Dessiceation, sf. desiccation; from L. 

DESSILLER, va. to open (eyelids). On this 

word, written in O. Fr. deciller, see § 13 

and oil. 
DESSIN, sm. design, drawing. See dessiner. 
DESSINER, va. to draw; in Regnier dessigner. 

It. disegnare, from L. designare. For 

8 — ss, cp. vessica, vessie; pulsare, pous- 

ser. For gn = w see assener. Dessiner is 

a doublet of designer, q. v. 
DESSOUS, adv. below. See sous. 
DESSUS, adv. above. See sus. 
DESTIN, sm. destiny. See destiner. 
Destination, sf. destination ; from L. 

DESTINEE, sf. destiny. See destiner. 
DESTINER, va. to destine, doom ; from L. 

destinare.— Der. destin (verbal subst.), 

destines (partic. subst.). 
Destituer, va. to dismiss ; from L. desti- 

tuere. — Der. destitution. 
DESTRIER, sm. a knight's warhorse, a horse 

led by the squire on his right hand (dextra), 

whence the deriv. dextrarius for a war- 
horse in medieval texts, as in an llth-cent. 

chronicle we read ' equo ejus militari, quem 

dextrariura vocant, ablato.' For x = s 

see ajouter; for -arius = -zer see § 198. 
Destructeur, sm. a destroyer ; from L. de- 

Destructible, adj. destructible; from L. 

destructibilis. — Der. indestructible. 
Destructif, adj. destructive; from L. de- 

Destruction, sf destruction; from L. 

Desuetude, sf. desuetude, disuse ; from L. 

DETACHER, va. to unfasten. See attacker. 

— Der. deiachement. 
DETAILLER, va. to cut up. See tailler.— 

Der. detail (verbal subst.), detailhnX. 

DETALER, va. to clear away, pack up. See 

DETEINDRE, va. to take colour from ; vn. 

to lose colour. See teindre. 
DETELER, va. to unyoke. See atteler. 
DETENDRE, va. to unbend, relax. See 

tendre. —Der. detente (partic. subst., see ah- 

DETENIR, va. to detain ; from L: detinere. 

For atonic i = e see mettre ; for e = i see 

§ 59 — Der. detenu. 
Detenteur, sm. a holder of property ; from 

L. detentorem. 
Detention, sf. detention; from L, deten- 

tionem. « 

Deterger, va. to clean (a wound) ; from L. 

Deteriorer, va. to deface, damage ; from 

L. deteriorare. — Der. deteriora.tion. 
Determiner, va. to settle, determine ; from 

L, determinare. — Der. determination. 
D6terrer, va, to dig up, exhume. See 

Detersif, adj. detersive; from L. deter- 

sivus*, from detersus, p.p. of detergere. 
D6tester, va. to detest ; from L. detestari. 

— Der. detestMe. 
Detoner, vn. to detonate; from L. de- 

Jtonare. — Der. detonation. 
DETONNER, vn. to sing out of tune. See 

Detorquer, va. to twist, wrest; from L. 

DETORS, adj. untwisted. See tordre. 
DETOURNER, va. to turn away. See tour- 

ner Der. detour (verbal subst.), detourne- 

Detracteur, sm. a detractor; from L. de- 

DETRAQUER, va. to spoil the paces (of a 

horse, etc.), disorder. See traquer. 
DETREMPER, va. to dilute. See tremper.— 

Der. detrempe (verbal subst.") 
DETRESSE, sf. distress. O. Fr. destrece, 

oppression, verbal subst. of destrecer, means 

to oppress, and represents the L. de- 

strictiare*, derived regularly from de- 

strictus, p.p. of destringere. De- 

strictiare becomes destrecer. For ct = / 

see § 168 ; for -tiare = -cer see ngencer and 

§ 264; fori=esee mettre. Next destrece 

becomes detresse. For loss of s see Hist. 

Gram. p. 81 ; for c = ss see agencer. 
Detriment, sm. detriment, loss ; from L, 

DETROIT, sm. a strait. O. Fr. destroit, from 

L. districtus. In medieval documents we 



find • districtus fluvii ' (rendered by Du- 
cange as a place where a stream is crossed). 
Distriotus becomes detroit as strictus 
becomes ^troit. For dia = di see de- ; for 
iot =» oit see attrait. Detroit is a doublet 
oi district, q. v. 

DETRUIRE, va. to destroy. O. Fr. destruire, 
from L. destruSre. For loss of s see 
Hist. Gram. p. 8l ; for e = f see § 59. 

DETTE, sf. a debt ; from L. d6bita, what 
is due, from debitum. For loss of i 
(d6b'ta) see § 51; for bt = « see § 168. 
— Der. endetter. 

DEUIL, sm. mourning, grief. See douloir. 

DEUXf num. adj. two ; from L. duos. For 
uo = see § 90 ; then for o = eu see cueiller ; 
for s = « cp sposus, epoux ; russus, roux; 
tnssi s, toux; cor ossus*, creux ; otiosus, 
oiseux ; and for suffix in osus = eux see 
§ 229. Deux is a doublet of duo. — Der. 

DEVALER, va. to let down, lower. See aval. 

DEVALISER, va. to rifle, plunder. See 

DEVANCER, va. to precede. See devant. — 
Der. devancieT. 

DEVANT, prep, and adv. before, in front. 
O. Fr. davant (d'avant), compd. of de and 
avant, q. v. — Der. devancer. 

IJ6vaster, va. to devastate; from L. de- 
vast a re. — Der. t/e'i/as/ation, devastAtem. 

DEVELOPPER, va. to develop. Formed 
from a radical ' velop.' Origin unknown. 
Cp. envelopper, q.v. — Der. developpement. 

DEVENIR, vn. to become; from L. de- 

DEVERGONDE, adj. dissolute; partic. of 
O. Fr. verb devergonder, to lose all shame ; 
compd. of de (q. v.) and vergonder, which 
from L. verecunddri. Verecundari, 
contrd. regularly (see § 53) into ver'- 
cundari, becomes vergonder. For c=g 

see adjuger ; for u = see annoncer Der. 


DEVERS, prep, towards. See vers. 

DEVERS, adj. leaning; from L. deversus. 
— Der. deversei (to bend a piece of wood). 

DEVERSER, vn. to lean, bend. See verser.— 
Der. deversoir. 

DEVIDER, va. to wind off. O. Fr. desvider ; 
see vide. Devider properly means to make 
the spindle bare {vide) of wool. — Der. 

Deviation, ./.deviation; from L. devia- 

DEVIER, vn. to deviate. O. Fr. desvier, from 
L. de-ex- viare* (to leave the right path). 

See under dS- and vote. Ddvier is a doublet 
of devoyer. 

DEVIN, sm. a diviner ; from L. divinus. — 
Der. deviner, devineur, rfmweresse. 

DEVIS, sm. (I) chat, talk; {2\ estimate; 
verbal subst. of deviser, signifying in 
O. Fr. to distribute, regulate, whence the 
meaning of devis as an estimate of all 
costs of a building. 

DE VISAGER, va. to scratch the face (of one). 
See visage. 

DEVISE, sf. device ; verbal subst. of deviser, 
O. Fr. to distribute. Devise was first a 
heraldic term, meaning a division or part 
of a shield in which some emblematical 
figure ( = corps de la devise) was inscribed, 
and above a legend or sentence explaining it 
(technically called dme de la devise). This 
motto, which was originally only a part 
of the device, presently took to itself the 
name of the whole. 

DEVISER, va. to chat, talk; in O. Fr. to 
regulate ; from L. divisare. Divisare 
is a frequent, of dividere, formed in the 
usual way from the p.p. divisus. For i = e 
see mettre. Deviser is a doublet of diviser. 
^ — Der. devis, devise. 

DEVISSER, va. to unscrew. See vis. 

DEVOIEMENT, sm. looseness, diarrhoea. See 

DEVOILER, va. to unveil. See voile. 

DEVOIR, va. to owe, be in debt ; from L. 
debere. For b = v see avant and § 113 ; 
for e = oi see accroire and § 61. — Der. de- 
voir (verbal subst.). 

D6volu, adj. vested, devolved ; from L. de- 

D6vorer, va. to devour; from L. devo- 

D6vot, adj. devoted, pious; from L. devo- 
tus. — Der. devotieux. 

Devotion, sf. devotion; from L. devo- 

DEVOUER, va. to devote, consecrate ; from 
L. devotare. For loss of medial t see 
abhaye ; for o = ou see affouage. — Der. de- 

DEVOYER, va. to mislead. See voie.— T>tr. 

Dexter it6, sf. dexterity; fromL. dexteri- 

Dextre, sf. the right hand ; from L. dextra. 

Diabdte, sm. (Med.) diabetes; from Gr. 

DIABLE, sm. the devil ; from L. di&bolus. 
For regular loss of 6 see § 52 and ancre. 
— Der. diablene, diable$se, diablotin. 



Diabolique, ac?/. diabolical ; from L. dia- 

Diaconat, sm. the diaconate; from L. dia- 

conatus (in St. Jerome). 
Diaconesse, sf. a deaconess; from L. dia- 

conissa (in St. Jerome). 
DIACRE, sm. a deacon. O. Fr. diacne, from 

L. diaconus (in Tertullian). Diaconus 

is contrd. regularly (see § 52 and ancre) 

into diac'nus. For n = r see coffre. 
Diaddrae, sm. a diadem ; from L. diadema. 
Diagnostic, sm. (Med.) diagnostic; from 

adj. diagnostique, from Gr. SiayvoicrriKSs. 
Diagonal, adj. diagonal; from L. diagon- 

Dialecte, sm. a dialect ; fromL. dialectus. 

— Der. dialect^]. 
Dialectique, sf. dialectics; from L. dia- 

Dialogue, sf. a dialogue ; from L. dialogus. 
Diamant, sm. a diamond ; from It. dia- 
mante. Diamant is a doublet oi aimant, 

adamant, q, v. 
Diamdtre, sm. a diameter ; from Gr. Stci- 

fifTpos. — Der. diametraX, diametr^lement. 
f Diane, s/. a morning gun, reveille ; introd. 

in 1 6th cent, from Sp. diana. 
+ Diapason, sm. diapason, octave; fromL. 

Diaphane, adj. diaphanous ; from Gr. 

Diaphragme, sm. (Med.) the diaphragm ; 

from L. diaphragma. 
"tDiaprer, va. to diaper, variegate; me- 
dieval diasprer, formed from O. Fr. subst. 

diaspre (a stuff of jasper-colour). Diaspre is 

from It. diaspro. 
Diarrh6e, sf. (Med.) diarrhoea; from L. 

Diath^se, s/. a disposition; fromGr.Sm^ects. 
Diatribe, sf a diatribe, philippic ; from L, 

Dietame, sm. (Bot.) dittany; from L. dic- 

Dictateur, sm. a dictator; from L. dicta- 
tore m. — Der. dictatonal. 
Dictature, sf a dictature ; from L. dicta- 

Dieter, va. to dictate; from L. dictare. — 

Der. dictee (partic. subst.). 
Diction, sf diction; from L. dictionem. 

— Der. dictionn&ire. 
+ Diet on, sm. a saying, bye-word, a word 
corrupted from L. dictum. It is a doublet 
of dit. 
Didactique, adj. didactic; from Gr. 5i- 


Di^r^se, sf diaeresis ; from Gr. Siaipems. 
Didse, sm. (Mus.) diesis, a sharp ; adj. sharp. 

— Der. diestx. 
Di§te, sf. (i) a diet, assembly ; from L. 
diaeta*, an assembly on a fixed day, deriv. 
of Gr. hlaira. (2) diet (food, etc.). 

DIEU, sm. God ; in the Oaths of a. d. 842 Deo ; 
from L. deus. From 9th-cent. deo comes 
modern dieu. For eo = zo see abreger; 

then for o = eu see accueillir Der. zdieu 

(lit. A Dieu), for a Dieu soyezl which 
was the complete form of the phrase in 

Diffamer, va. to defame; from L. diffa- 
mare. — Der. diffamzitm, diffamz\o\rt. 

Difference, s/. a difference; from L. differ- 

Different, adj. different; from L. differ- 
ent em. Differend is simply an orthogra- 
phic alteration of the word. 

DifPirer, va. (i) to put off, defer, (2) to 
differ; from L. differre. 

Diflacile, adj. difficult; from L. difficilis. 
— Der. difficilemtnt. 

Diflacult6, sf a difficulty; from L. diffi- 
cult a tem. — Der. dijfficultvitMX. 

fDifforme, adj. deformed; introd. in 
15th cent, from It. difforme. — Der. difform- ' 

DifFus, adj. diffuse; from L. diffusus. 

Dig6rer, va. to digest; from L. digerere. 

Digestif, adj. digestive; from L. diges- 

Digestion, sf digestion; from L. diges- 

Digitale, sf fox-glove, digitalis ; in botanical 
Lat. digitalis purpurea. 

Digne, adj. worthy; from L. dignus. — 
Der. dignement. 

Dignity, sf a dignity; from L. dignita- 
tem. — Der. dignitn'iTe. 

Digression, sf a digression; from L. di- 

DIGUE, sf. an embankment, bank. O.Fr. 
dicque, word of Germ, origin, Neth. dyk. 
— Der. endiguer. ' 

Dilapider, va. to dilapidate, waste ; from L. 
dilapidare. — Der. dilapidation, dilapid- 

Dilater, vfl. to dilate ; from L. dilatare. It 
is a Aowhltloi delayer, q.v. — Der.rfz'/a^ation. 

Dilatoire, adj. dilatory; from L. dila- 

Dilection, sf affection; from L. dilec- 

Dilemme, sm. a dilemma ; from L. di- 

I 2 



t Dilettante, sm. a dilettante, amateur; 
from It. dilettante. It is a doublet of de- 
lecfant, q. v. — Der. dilettantisms. 

Diligence,./, diligence; fromL.diligentia. 

Diligent, adj. diligent; from L. diligen- 
tem. — Der. diligenter. 

Diluvien, adj. diluvian; from L. diluvia- 
nus* from diluvium . — D er. znt^diluvien . 

DIMANCHE, sm. Sunday. O. Fr. diemenche, 
from L. dies-domiziica, the Lord's Day, 
in St. Augustine and Tertullian. Domin- 
ica loses its penult, i regularly (§ 51), 
and becomes domin'ca. Die-dominica 
having thus become die -domin'ca, loses 
medial d (see accabler), and becomes O. Fr. 
diemenche, whence dimanche. For ca = cA 
see §§126 and 54; for in = e« see Hist. 
Gram. p. 178. 'en = a« in modern Fr. 
is a very rare change, see § 65, note I. 

DIME, sf. tithe ; formerly disme, It. decima, 
from L. decima (found in Varro). D6- 
Cima loses its i regularly (§ 51), and is 
contrd. to dec'ma, whence disme. For 
e=t see § 59; for o = s seeamitie; for the 
loss of s at a later time, see Hist. Gram, 
p. 81. Dime is a doublet of decime, q. v. 

Dimension, sf. dimension ; from L. di- 

Diminuer, va. to diminish ; from L. di- 

Diminution, s/. diminution; from L. di- 

Dinde, sm. a turkey ; a word of hist, origin 
(§ .^3)> abbrev. of the phrase coq d'Inde. 
— Der. dindon, dindonnea.\i. 

DINER, vn. to dine ; formerly disner, in the 
9th- cent. Lat. disnare *, in the Vatican 
Glosses. Origin unknown. For loss of s 
see Hist. Gram. p. 81. — Der. diner (sm.). 

Diocdse, sm. a diocese; from L. diocesis, 
found in Tertullian. — Der. 

Diphthongue, sf. a diphthong; from L. 

Diplomate, sm. a diplomatist. See di- 
plome. — Der. diplomatic, diplomatique 

Dipldme, sm. a diploma ; from L. diploma. 
— Der. diplomate. 

Diptyque, sm. a diptych : from L. dipty- 

DIRE, va. to say ; from L. dicere. Di- 
cSre, contrd. regularly (§51) into dic're, 
becomes dire by reduction of cr to 
r, see henir. — Der. dire (sm.), contrerf/re, 
vnedire, d^dire, maurf/r, h^nir, xtdire, dit, 
disenr, disexise. 

Direct, adj. direct; from L. directus. It 
is a doublet of droit, <j. v. 

Directeur, sm. a director ; from L. direc- 
torem (deriv. of directus). 

Direction, sf. direction; from L. direc- 

Directoire, sm. a directory; from L. di- 
rectorium (deriv. of director). 

Diriger, va. to direct ; from L. dirigere. 

Dirimant, arf/. invalidating ; from L. diri- 
mentem, pres. part, of dirimere. 

Discerner, va. to discern ; from L. dis- 
cern ere. — Der. discernement. 

Disciple, sm. a disciple; from L. discipulus. 

Discipline, sf. discipline; from L. disci- 
pi ina. — Der. discipliner. disciplinAire. 

Discorder, vn. to be in a state of disagree- 
ment ; from L. discordare. — Der. discord 
(verbal subst.), discordzut (whence discord- 

Discorde, §f. discord; from L. discordia. 

DISCOURIR, vn. to expatiate, discourse; 
from L. discurrere. For changes see 
courir. — Der. discourexxx. 

Discours, sm. a discourse; from L. dis- 
cursus, found in the Theodosian Code. 

Discret. adj. discreet ; from L. discretus. 

Discretion, sf discretion, distinction ; from 
L. discretionem. — Der. discretionriAixe. 

Disculper, i/a. to exculpate; from L. dis- 
culpare * compd. of culpare. 

Discussion, sf. a discussion; from L. dis- 

Discuter, va. to discuss; from L. dis- 
cutere. — Der, discutzhXe, mdiscutzhXe. 

Disert, adj. eloquent; from L. disertus. 

DISETTE, sf dearth. Origin unknown. 

Disgrace, sf disgrace. See grace. — Der. 

Disgracieux, adj. ungraceful, uncomely. 
See gracieux. 

DISJOINDRE, va. to disjoin ; from L. dis- 
jungere. For changes seejoittdre. 

Disjonction, sf disjunction; from L. dis- 

Disloquer, va. to dislocate ; from dis (see 
de-) and locare. Disloquer properly means 
to displace ; so disloquer le bras, is to 
throw the arm out of joint. — Der. disloc- 

DISPARAtTRE, vn. to disappear. See pa- 
raitre. — Der. dispar'ition (formed after ap- 

Disparate, adj. incongruous; from L. dis- 
paratus (in Boethius). 

Disparition, sf disappearance. See dis- 

Dispendieux, adj. expensive, burdensome ; 
from L. dispendiosus. 



Dispenser, va. to dispense, distribute ; from 
L. dispensare, to grant, whence the use 
of dispenser de = to give permission to one 
not to do something, grant dispensation 
to. Dispenser is a doublet of depenser, 
q. V. — Der. dispense (verbal subst.). 

Disperser, va. to disperse; from L. dis- 
persare * a deriv. of dispersus, partic. of 

Dispersion, sf. dispersion; from L. dis- 

Disponible, adj. disposable ; from L. dis- 
ponibilis*, deriv. of disponere. 

DISPOS, adj. disposed ; from L, dispositus. 
For loss of the last two atonic syllables, see 

§§ 5o> 51- 
Disposer, va. to dispose. See poser. — Der. 

Disposition, sf. a disposition ; from L. 

dispositionem . — Der. dispositif. 
Disputer, va. to dispute; from L. dispu- 

tare. — Der. dispute (verbal subst.). 
Disque, sm. a disc: from L. discus. It is 

a doublet of da^is, q. v. 
Dissection, sf. a dissection; from L. dis- 

Diss^miner, va. to disseminate, spread 

abroad; from L. disseminare. 
Dissension, sf. dissension; from L. dis- 

Dissentiment, sm. dissent. See sentiment. 
Diss^quer, va. to dissect; from L. disse- 

Dissertation, sf. a dissertation ; from L. 

Disserter, va. to make a dissertation ; from 

L. dissertare. 
Dissidence, sf. dissidence, disagreement; 

from L. dissidentia. 
Dissident, adj. dissident; from L. dissi- 

Dissimulation, ./. dissimulation ; from L. 

dissimulationem. — Der. dissimulatenr. 
Dissimuler, va. to dissimulate; from L. 

Dissipateur, sm. a dissipator, spender ; 

from L. d issipatorem. 
Dissipation, sf. dissipation ; from L. d issi- 

Dissiper, va. to dissipate; from L. dissi- 

Dissolu, adj. dissolute; from L. disso- 

Dissolution, s/. dissolution ; from L. dis- 

Dissolvant, adj. dissolvent; from L. dis- 


Dissoner, vn. to be dissonant ; from L. 

dissonare. — Der. dissonznt, dissonance. 
DISSOUDRE, va. to dissolve ; from L. dis- 

solvere. For solveTe = soudre see ab- 

Dissuader, va. to dissuade; from L. dis- 

Dissuasion, sf. dissuasion; from L. dis- 

Distance, sf distance; from L. dis- 

Distant, adj. distant; from L. distantem. 
Distendre, va. to distend; from L. dis- 

Distiller, va. to distil; from L. dis- 

tillare. — Der. distilhteur, distilhtion. 
Distinct, adj. distinct; from L. dis- 

Distinctif, adj. distinctive; from L. dis- 

Distinction, sf distinction; from L. dis- 

Distinguer, va. to distinguish; from L. 

Distique, sm. a distich; from L. dis- 

Distraction, sf distraction; from L. dis- 

DISTRAIRE, va. to distract; from L. dis- 

trahere. For changes see traire. 
DISTRAIT, adj. distracted; from L. dis- 

tractus. For Qt = it see attrait. 
Distribuer, va. to distribute; from L. dis- 

Distributeur, sm. a distributer ; from L. 

Distributif, adj. distributive ; from L. 

distributivus*, from distribuere. 
Distribution, sf distribution ; from L. 

District, sf a district; from medieval L. 

districtum, a territory under one juris- 
diction. District is a doublet of detroit, q. v, 
DIT, sm. a saying, maxim. See dire. It is 

a doublet of dicton, q. v. 
Dithjrrambe, sm. a dithyramb; from L, 

+ Dito, adv. ditto ; from It. deito. 
Diurnal, adj. diurnal; from L. diurnalis. 

Its doublet is journal, q. v. 
Diurne, adj. diurnal; from L. diurnus. 

Its doublet IS jour, q. v. 
Divaguer, vn. to wander hither and 

thither; from L. divagari. 
+ Divan, sw. a divan; a word of Oriental 

origin, Ar. diouann. Its doublet is douane, 




Sive, adj. divine ; from L. diva. 
Diverger, vn, to diverge; from L. diver- 

Divers, adj. diverse; from L. di versus. 
Diversifier, va. to diversify; from L. di- 

versificare*, deriv. of diversus. 
Diversion, sf. a diversion; from L. diver- 

Diversit6, sf. a diversity; from L. diver- 

Divertir, va. to turn aside; from L. di- 
vert ere. — Der. tfji/er/issement. 
Dividende, sm. a dividend; from L. divi- 

denda, from dividere. 
Divin, flrf/. divine ; from L. divinus. Its 

doublet is devin, q. v. 
Divination, sf. divination ; from L. divin- 

Divinit6, sf. divinity ; from L. divini- 

Divis, adj. divided; from L. divisus. 
Diviser, va. to divide; from L. divisare, 

frequent, of dividere. Its doublet is de- 
viser, q. V. 
Diviseur, sm. a divisor; from L. divis- 

Divisible, adj. divisible; from L. divis- 

Division, sf. a division; from L. divis- 

Divorce, sm. a divorce; from L. divor 

Divulguer, va. to divulge; from L. divul- 

DIX, num. adj. ten ; frdm L. decern. For 

e = / see accomplir; for c = » see amide. 

Der. dizzin, diznine, dixihmc (whose 

doublet is dime). 
Docile, adj. docile; from L, docilis. 
Docility, sf. docility ; from L. docilitatem. 
+ Dock, sm. a dock ; from Engl. dock. 
Docte, adj. learned; from L. doctus. 
Docteur, sm. a doctor; from L. doctor. — 

Der. doctorat, doctoral. 
Doctrine, sf. doctrine; from L. doctrina. 
Document, sm. a document; from L. 

DODU, adj. plump. Origin unknown. 
i'Doge, sm. a doge; from It. doge. Its 

doublet is due, q. v. — Der. dogzt. 
Dogmatique, adj. dogmatic; from L 

Dogmatiser, vn. to dogmatise; from L. 

Dogmatiste, sm. a dogmatist; from L 

Dogme, sm. a dogma; from L. dogma. 

+ Dogue, sm. a dog; from Engl. dog. 

Gros chien d'Angleterre, says Menage in 

the 17th cent. 
DOIGT, sm. a finger ; from L. digitus. 

Digitus, regularly contrd. (see § 51) 

into dig*tu8, becomes doigt by changing 

i into oi, see boire. Doigt is a doublet of 

de, q. v. — Der. doigttx, doigixtx. 
Dol, sm. deceit, cozenage; from L. dolus. 
DOLEANCE, sf. complaint, grief; answering 

to a verb doleir, which represents a Lat. 

form dolicare. 
DOLENT, adj. suffering; from L. do- 

Doler, va. to chip with an adze; from L. 

+ Dollar, sm. a dollar, from Engl, dollar. 
+ Dolman, sm, a hussar's coat, a word 

of Magyar origin. Hung, dolman. See 


+ Dolmen, sm. a dolmen; a word of 
Low Breton patois, introd. into Fr. towards 
the end of the 18th cent. It is of Celtic 
origin, Gael, tolmen, a stone table. 

DOLOIRE, sm. an adze. O. Fr, doleoire, 
from L. dolatoria, in Vegetius : 'cum 
securibus et dolatoriis.' For loss of 
medial t see abbaye ; doleoire = doloire is a 
rare change. 

DOM, sm. lord ; from L. dominus, which is 
domnus in several Merov. documents. 
For loss of i see §51; for inn = m see 
§ 168, Dom is a doublet of dame^ q. v. 

DOMAINE, sm. domain; from L. domi- 
nium. For i = az, seen in daigne from 
digno, see marraine. — Der. domamzX. 

tD6me, sm. a dome; introd. about the 
15th cent, from It. duomo. 

Domesticity, sf. domesticity; from L. 

Dom.estique, adj. domestic; from L, do- 

Domicile, sm. a domicile; from L. do- 
mieilium. — Der. domiciliaiTe, domiciHer. 

Dominateur, sm. a dominator; from L, 

Domination, sf. domination ; from L, 

Dominer, va. to dominate; from L. domi- 

Dominical, adj. dominical; from L. do- 
minicalis, der. from dominus. 

+ Domino, sm. a domino; from Sp. do- 
mino, a black hood worn by priests. — Der. 
domino (a game composed of pieces of 
ivory, backed with black, and, so far, re- 
sembling a domino). 



DOMMAGE, sm. damage; originally damage, 
from L. damnaticum*, der. from dam- 
num. For in.n = mm~m see § i68. — 
Der. dommage'dhle, dedommager, endotn- 

DOMPTER, va. to daunt; from L, domi- 
tare, contrd. regularly (see § 52) into 
dom.'tare : the intercalated p is euphonic. 
— Der. dompttMT, domptahle, indompuhle. 

DON, sm. a gift; from L. donum. — Der. 
donation, c?owateur, c?o«ataire. 

DONC, adv. then ; aphaeresis of O. Fr. adonc. 
Adonc is from L. ad-tixnc, compd. of 
tunc. For u = ow see annoncer. 

DONJON, sm. a donjon, tower. Prov. 
dompnhon, from medieval L. domni- 
onem.*, a tower which dominates. Domni- 
onem is regularly contrd. from domini- 
6nem by loss of i, see § 52. Domini- 
onem is a deriv. of dominium. From 
domnionem we come to donjon. For mn 
= m (domionem) see § 168; for io=_;o 
see abreger ; for change of m into n 
(domjonem) see conge. 

DONNER, va. to give; from L. donare. 
For n = n« cp. inimicus, ennemi. — Der. 
doTinee. (partic. subst.), donneur. 

DONT, adv. then pron. whence, from 
whence, whose. In Clement Marot d'ond, 
from L. de-undd, whose etymol. mean- 
ing the Fr. of the 17th cent, had pre- 
served, as Corneille uses it in Nic. v, 2 : 
Le Mont Avenfin, dont // Vaurait vu 
faire une horrible descente. For u = o see 
annoncer. The second d here becomes /, 
as in subinde, soiwent. 

i Donzelle, sf. a damsel ; introd. in 16th 
cent, from It. donzella. Donzelle is a 
doublet of demoiselle, q. v. 

fDorade, sf. a dorado, gold-fish; introd. 
from Prov. daurada. Daurada signifies 
rightly 'gilded' (doree), partic. of Prov. 
verb daurar, from L. deaurare. Dorade 
is a doublet of doree. 

DORENAVANT, adv. henceforward. See 

DORER, va. to gild; from L. deaurare 
(in Seneca). Deaurare, contrd. regularly 
into d'aurare, becomes dorer. For au = 
see alouette. — Der. dorem, dedorer. 

DORLOTER, va. to coddle. Origin un- 

DORMIR, vn. to sleep ; from L. dormire. 
— Der. dormeuT, dormeuse, endormir. 

Dorsal, adj. dorsal; from L. dorsalis*, 
from dorsum. 

DORTOIR, sm. a bedroom, dormitory; from 

L. dormitorium. Dormitorium, regu- 
larly contrd. (see § 52) into dorm'torium, 
becomes dor'torium (for loss of m see 
Hist. Gram. p. 81), and then dorioir by 
attraction of the i ; see chanoine. 

DOS, sm. the back; from L. dossum, a 
form found (for dorsum) in several in- 
scriptions of the Empire. For rs = s see 
chine. — Der. rfoisier, adosser. 

Dose, sf. a dose ; from Gr. 86cns. — Der. 

DOSSIER, sm. back (of seats, etc.), a bundle 
of papers labelled on the back; from dos, 

Dot, sf. a dowry; from L. dot em. — Der. 
c?o/er (which is a doublet of doner, q. v.), 

Dotation, sf. a dotation; from L. dota- 

DOUAIRE, sm. a dowry; from L. dota- 
rium. For loss of medial t see abbaye; 
for o = ou see affouage. — Der, douairVext. 

fDouane, sf. custom-house; introd. to- 
wards the 15th cent, from It. doana, old 
form of dogana. Douane is a doublet of 
divan, q. v. — Der. douanier. 

DOUBLE, adj. double; from L. duplus. 
For u = OM see § 90 ; for p = 6 see 
abeille. — Der. doublet, dedoubler, redoubler, 
doublet, doublure. 

tDoublon, sm. a doubloon; introd. from 
Sp. doublon. 

DOUCET, adj. mild. See doux. 

DOUCEUR, sf. sweetness ; from L. dul- 
corem. For vlI — ou see agneau ; for 
6 = eu see § 79. — Der. doucereux, doucer- 

t Douche, sf. a douche, bath; introd. 
in 1 6th cent, from It. doccia. — Der. 

DOUELLE, sf. an archivolt. See douve. 

DOUER, va. to endow ; from L. dotare. 
For loss of t see abbaye; for o = o« see 
affouage. Doner is a doublet of doter. 

DOUILLE, sf. a socket ; from L. ductile * 
used in medieval Lat. for a culvert ; thus we 
have ' ductilis aquae ' in a Chartulary of 
1016. For ductile = douille see andouille. 
— Douille is a doublet of ductile, q. v. 

DOUILLET, adj. soft, downy, effeminate; 
dim. of O. Fr. donille (soft, tender), which 
is from L. ductilis. For ductilis = douille, 
see andouille. — Der. douilletiement. 

DOULEUR, sf. pain ; from L. dolorem. 
For accented o = eu see § 79 ; for atonic 
o = OM see affouage. 

DOULOUREUX, adj. painful, sorrowful, 



grievous; from L. dolor6su8. For 
-osu8 = -«/* see § 229; for atonic o — ou 
see affouafre. 

DOULOIR (SE), vpr. to mourn, grieve ; from 
L. ddlere. For 6 = ow see q^owa"-* ; for 
S = ot see § 61. — Der. deiiil (O. Fr. 
deul, verbal subst. of -doloir). For o = eu 
see § 79. 

DOUTER, vn. to doubt. Cat. duhtar, from 
L. dubitare. For loss of i in dubitare 
see § 52 ; for Vi = ou see § 90; for bt = ^ 
see § 168. — Der.doute (verbal subst.), dout- 
eux, redoufer. 

DOUVE, sf. stave (of casks). Origin un- 
known. — Der. ffowelle (for dou-v-elle). For 
loss of V see aieul. 

DOUX, adj. sweet, soft. O. Fr. dous, origin- 
ally dols, from L. dulcis. For ul = ow see 
agneau ; for G = x see agencer. — Der. 
zdoiich, doticet, douce&tre. 

DOUZE, adj. twelve ; from L. duodecim, 
by regular contr. of du6d§cini into 
duod'cim, see § 51. For uo = see 
deux; for d'c = c see § 168; for o = ou 
see affouage; for c = z see amitie. — Der. 
douzihmt, rfoMzaine. 

DOYEN, sm. a dean ; from L. decanus. 
For loss of medial c see affouage ; for 
e = oi see § 61 ; for -anus = -en see 
§ 194. — Der. doyenn6 (which is a doublet 
of decanat, q. v.). 

Drachme, s/". a drachma ; from L. drach- 

f Dr ag§e, 5/ a sugarplum ; introd. through 
Prov. dragea, from It. treggea. — Der, 

DRAGEON, sm. (Bot.) a sucker ; a word of 
Germ, origin, Goth, draibjain. 

DRAGON, sm. a dragon; from L. dra- 
conein. For Q=g see adjuger. — Der. 
dragon (a dragoon), dragonne, 

+ Drague, sf. a drag, dredge ; introd. from 
Eng. drag. — Der. dragutr, dragueur. 

t Drainer, va. to drain; introd. from 
Eng. drain. — Der. drainzgt. 

Dramatique, adj. dramatic; from L. dra- 

Dramaturge, sm. a dramatist, playwright ; 
from Gr. dpafxarovpyos. 

Drame, sm. the drama ; from L. drama. 

DRAP, sm. cloth ; from L. drappum *, in 
Charlemagne's Capitularies. Origin un- 
known. — Der. draper, drapier, drapene. 

DRAPEAU, sm. an ensign ; originally stuff, 
a rag ; dim. of drap, q. v. 

Drastique, adj. drastic ; from Gr. dpaan- 


DRfeCHE, sf. malt. O. Fr. dresche, crushed 
barley, which is Low L. drascus, coming 
from O. H. G. drascan (to thresh corn in a 
barn). For a. = e see § 54 ; for loss of 
s see Hist. Gram. p. 81. s 

DRESSER, va. to erect, set up, arrange. It. 
drizzare, dirizzaire, from L, drictiare*, a 
verb derived from drictus, a form explained 
under droit, q. v. For -ctiare (cciare) = 
-sser see agencer; for i = e see meUre. — 
Der. dressoxx, xedresser. 

DRILLE, s/. (i) rag (for paper-making), (2) 
drill, (3) a soldier, comrade; of Germ, 
origin, O. H. G. drigil, a servant, lad. 

f Drogman, sm. a dragoman; in Ville- 
hardouin drugkemant, It. drogomanno, a 
word of Eastern origin, introd. from Con- 
stantinople by the Cru«aders, who had bor- 
rowed it from the medieval Gr. Spayovfiavos, 
an interpreter. 

DROGUE, sf. a drug. Origin unknown. — 
Der. drogmste, droguer. 

DROGUE, sf. game of drogue (played by 
soldiers and sailors). Origin unknown. 

DROIT, sm. right; from L. directum, 
which came to have the sense of justice or 
right. (Thus we find * directum facere ' for 
'to do justice' in the Formulae of Marculfus.) 
Directus becomes dirictus in medieval 
Lat. documents, as in ' et ultro hoc debet 
habere dirictum,' for e = i see § 59 ; 
dirictum. soon became contrd. to dric- 
tum, to be seen in Charlemagne's Capitu- 
laries, ' Et plus per drictum et legem 
fecissent' : lastly drictum becomes droit, 
by regular change of ict into oil, see attrait; 
cp. St rictus, etroit. — Der. droilnre. 

DROIT, crrf/. straight, right; from L. direc- 
tus. For changes see above. Droit is a 
doublet of direct, q. v. — Der, zdroit. 

+ Dr61e, adj. droll; sm. a knave, sharp 
rogue. Formerly drolle. Introd. from Eng. 
droll. — Der. drolerie, drolesse, cfro/atique. 

Dromadaire, sm. a dromedary ; from L. 
dromadarius, which from L, dromadem, 

DRU, adj. fledged, lively, vigorous, thickset ; 
of Celtic origin, Kymr, drud, vigorous. 

Druide, sm. a druid; from L. druida, a 
Celtic priest. — Der. druidesse, druid- 

Drupe, sm. (Bot.) drupe; from L. drupa 
(properly the olive). 

Dryade, sf. a dryad ; from L, dryad em. 

DU, art. m. of the* O. Fr. deu, originally 
del, which is a contr. of de le. Del be- 
comes deu by softening / into u ; see 



DU, sm. due, duty ; formerly deii, p.p. of 

devoir used substantively. Under boire 

we have shown that the p.p. of debere 

should have been debutus. Fordebutus = 

deu^dii see boire. — Der, diim&xit (from 

fem. due and suffix merit). 
Dubitatif, adj. dubitative, expressive of 

doubt; from L. dubitativus. 
DUG, stn. a duke ; from L. ducem. Its 

doublet is doge, q. v. 
+ Ducat, 5m. a ducat; iromlt. ducato. Its 

doublet is duche. — Der. ducaton. 
DUCHE, sm. a duchy. See due. 
DUG HESSE, s/. a duchess. See disc. 
Ductile, adj. ductile; from L. ductilis. 

Its doublet is douille, q, v. — Der. ductilite. 
fDudgne, sf. a duenna; from Sp. duena. 

Its doublet is dame, q. v. 
Duel, sm. a duel ; from L. duellum. — Der. 

Dulcifier, va. to dulcify, sweeten ; from L. 

dulcificare * (which from dulcem), 
DUNE, sf. a down ; of Celtic origin, Irish diln, 

a hill. 

t Duo, sm. a duet ; from It. duo. Its doublet 

is deux, q. v. 
DUPE, sf. a dupe. Origin unknown. — Der. 

dnper, diiperie, dupeur. 
tDuplicata, swz. a duplicate, a Lat. word ; 

neut. pi. of duplicatus, p.p. of dupli- 

Duplicity, s/". duplicity; from L. duplici- 

DUR, adj. hard ; from L, d\irus. — Der. dur- 

et6 (L. duritatem), durillon, durcir. 
DURER, vn. to endure, last ; from L. durare. 

— Der. dur^e (partic. subst.), rfwrant, dur- 

DUVET, sm. down, wool, nap ; from L. du- 

metum, through a form dubetum*, 

whence diwet; for b=i/ see § 113. 
Dynastie, sf. a dynasty ; from Gr. Svva- 

Dyspepsie, sf dyspepsia; from Gr. Sva- 

Dyssenterie, sf. dysentery ; from Gr, 8u<r- 

Dysurie, sf. dysuria ; from Gr. hvaovpia. 

EAU, sf water; in T5th cent, eawe, earlier 
eave, originally eve, from L. aqua. Aqua 
becomes aqva by the consonification of 
u (see Janvier), thence ava by reduction 
of qv into v (see Janvier and suivre). 
Ava becomes eve by regular softening 
of a into e (see § 54); cp, faba, sapa, 
feve, seve. Eve soon changed e to the 
diphthong ea {eave); cp. bel, beal, whence 
beau. Eave next vocalises v into w (see 
aurone), whence the form eaue which was 
reduced to eau from the 16th cent. 

EBAHIR, vn. to be amazed; an onomatopoetic 
word formed from the interj. bah I — Der. 

EBARBER, va. to pare, scrape. See barbe. — 
Der, e6ar6age, 

EBATTRE, vn. to sport, frolic. See battre. 
— Der. ebat (verbal subst,), 

EBAUBI, adj. wonderstruck. Ebaubi is p.p, 
of O, Fr, ebaubir. Ebaubir means ' to make 
baube,' just as faroucher means ' to make 
farouche'; O.Yr. baube, — begue, stammering, 
is from L. balbus by softening 1 into u, see 

EBAUGHER, va. to sketch out. Origin un- 
known. — Der. ebauche (verbal subst.), 

EBAUDIR, vpr. to frisk, frolic ; lit. to make 

gay. For etymology of baud see baudet. 
ifib^ne, §/". ebony ; from L. ebenus. — Der. 

ebemer, ebeniste, eftmisterie. 
EBLOUIR, va. to dazzle. Origin unknown. — 

Der. e'Wowissement, 
EBORGNER, va. to make blind of one eye. 

See borgne. 
EBOULER, vn. to fall (like a ball). See 

boule. — Per, eboulement. 
EBOURIFFE, panic, disordered (of the hair). 

Origin unknown. 
EBRANLER, va. to shake. See branler.-^ 

Der. ebranlement. 
EBRECHER, va. to make a breach in, 

impair. — See breche. 
EBROUER (S'), vpr. to snort, sneeze. Origin 

tifibrouer, va. to wash (before dyeing 

a stuff) ; from Germ, bruhen. 
EBRUITER, va. to make known, noise 

about. See bruit. 



Ebullition, s/. ebullition; from L. ebul- 

feCACHER, va. to crush ; formerly escacker, 
compd. of intensive prefix ez and O. Fr, 
verb cacher, q, v. 

l^CAILLE, sf. scale, shell. O. Fr. escaille, 
originally escale, a word of Germ, origin, 
Goth, scalja. Germ, schale. For initial sc — 
ec, see Hist. Gram. p. 78. Scaille isa doublet 
of tcale, q. v. — Der. icailltx, icaillhxe. 

6CALE, sf. hull (of beans, etc.). shell; 
formerly escale. For its etymology see its 
doublet ecaille. — Der. ecaler. 

ECARLATE, adj. scarlet ; formerly escarla(e, 
word of Eastern origin, Pers. scarlat. For 
sc = esc = tc, see Hist. Gram. p. 78. 

ECARQUILLER, va. to open (one's eyes, 
etc.). Origin unknown. 

ECART, sm. a step aside, flight, digression, 
fault. See ecarter. 

ECARTELER, vn. to quarter ; formerly 
escarteler, compd. of ex and cartel : ecar- 
ieler is to make into cartel. Cartel is from 
L, quartellus*, dim. of quartus. For 
qu = c see car. — Der. ecartelemQw^.. 

^CARTER, va. to divert, turn aside; for- 
merly escarter, compd. of ex and carte, 
^carter, originally a term of card-playing, 
means properly to put the cards aside, 
reject them ; thence by extension to reject 
generally. — Der. ecart (verbal subst.), ecarte, 

Ecchymose, sf. ecchymosis ; from Gr. 

Ecclesiastique, adj. and sm. ecclesiastical, 
an ecclesiastic; from L. ecclesiasticus. 

ECERVELE, adj. harebrained. See cervelle. 

£CHAFAUD, sm. a scaffold. O. Fr. escha- 
faud, eschaafaut ; originally escadafaut, 
meaning first a platform whence to see a 
tourney, etc. Escadafaut, from Low Lat. 
scadafaltum, is compd. of ex and 
cadafaltum. Cadafaltum is in Prov. 
cadafalc, in It. catafalco. This form 
catafalco is compd. of cata and falco : 
cata is derived from a Romance verb catar 
(to see), origin unknown ; falco is of 
Germ, origin, answering to O. H. G. palcho. 
Catafalco is properly a scaffolding whence 
one sees a show. As to changes from exca- 
dafaltum * to eschadafaut, eschaafaut, es- 
chafaut ; for c = cA see § 126 ; for loss of d 
see accabler; for loss of s see Hist. Gram. 
p. 81 ; for l = tt see agneau. Schafaud is 
a doublet of catafalque, q. v. — Der. echa- 

-^ faudzge. echafaudtx. 

ECHALAS, sm. a. lath, stake ; formerly es- 

chalas, escalas ; originally escaras, from L. 
ex-oaratium *. Caratium, a pale or 
stake in the Lex Langobardcrum (' Si 
quis palum, quod est caratium, de vite 
tulerit'), is from Gr. X'^P°i- 

Ex-caratixim becomes escaras, then 
eschalas. For o — cA see § 126; for r = / 
see § 154 ; for x^s see ajouter. 

ECHALOTE, ./. a shalot ; formerly escha- 
lote ; corruption of eschalone, escalone, the 
O. Fr. form. Escalone is from L. asca- 
lonia (Pliny). For a = « see § 54; for 
c = cA see § 126; for loss of s see Hist. 
Gram. p. 81. 

ECHANCRER, va. to hollow out, slope, cut 
in form of a chancre. Chancre is from L. 
cancriim ; properly a crab, then a canker, 
crab-shaped. For <i = ch see § 126. — Der. 

ECHANGER, va. to exchange, barter. See 
changer. — Der. echange (verbal subst.), 
echange^hle, echanglsie. 

ECHANSON, sm. a cupbearer. O. Fr. es- 
fhancon, from L. scantionem* (used in 
the Germanic laws). Scantio is from 
O. H. G. scenfo. For initial 8G = esc = ec 
see Hist. Gram. p. 78 ; for c = ch see § 1 26 ; 
for ti = f! = s see agencer. 

ECHANTILLON, sm. a sample, pattern; 
dim. of O. Fr. echantil. Schantil, originally 
eschantil, escantil, is compd. of ex and 
O. Fr. cant (a corner, piece), which comes 
from L. cantlius. For G = ch see § 126. 
— Der. echantillonnex. 

ECHAPPER, va. to escape, avoid ; formerly 
eschaper, escaper; properly to get out of 
the cape (of the cloak), thence by 
extension, to flee, escape. A parallel 
metaphor exists in Gr. hKlv^aOai ; for 
this analogy of metaphors see § 15. 
The It. confirms this derivation by having 
two verbs scappare (to escape), formed 
from ex and cappa (a robe) ; and incappare 
(to fall into), formed from in and cappa. — 
Der. echappee (verbal subst., whose doublet 
is escapade, q. v.), echappexnent, echappzlo'ut. 

ECHARDE, sf. a prickle (lit. of a thistle), 
splinter. O. Fr. escharde, compd. of ex 
and charde, which from L. carduus. For 
e = cA see § 126. 

ECHARPE, sf. a scarp, sling (for a broken 
arm, etc.); in middle ages a great purse 
hung round a pilgrim's neck. Joinville 
speaks of one who put in son escharpe 
grant foison d'or et d'argent. Then it 
designated the belt or band from which the 
purse hung. For this change of meaning 

ScHARPER — Colore. 


see § 13. Scharpe, O. Fr. esckarpe, escherpe, 
is a word of Germ, origin, O.H.G. scherbe. 
This Germ, word gave to Low Lat. a type 
Scarpa *, whence the dim. scarpicella *. 
Scarpicella becomes escarcelle. For the 
regular loss of i see § 52, whence scarp'' - 
cella; for &o=esc see Hist. Gram. p. 78; 
for pc = c see caisse. Echarpe is a doublet 
o( escarpe. q. v. 

ECHARPER, va. to slash, cut to bits ; second- 
ary form, with change of conjugation, of 
O. Fr. echarpir, originally escharpir, which 
from L. excarpere, compd. of ex and 
carpere. For c = cA see § 126; fore = i 

, see § 59. 

ECHASSE, sf. a stilt, tressel. O. Fr. eschace, 
word of Germ, origin, O. Flem. schoetse. 
For sch = esch = ech see Hist. Gram. p. 78. 
— Der. echassier. 

ECHAUDER, va. to scald ; formerly chauder, 
from L. excaldare (in Apicius), For 
G = ch see § 126, for aX = au see agneau. 
— Der. echaude, echaudoir. 

ECHAUFFER, va. to warm, heat. See 
chauffer. — Der. echai-iffement, rechauffer. 

ECHAUFFOUREE, sf. an affray; partic. 
subst. of O. Fr. echauffbnrer, compd. of ex 
and O. Fr. chajiffourer. Origin unknown. 

ECHAULER, va. to steep in lime-water. See 

ECHE, sf. a bait. O. Fr. escke, from L. esca. 
For csL = che see §§126 and 54, For loss 
of s see Hist. Gram. p. 81. 

ECHEANCE, sf. expiration, falling due (of 
bills, &c.). See echoir. 

^CHECS, sm. pi. (i) chess. (2) in the sing. 
a check, defeat. For such metaphorical 
senses see § 12. O. Fr. eschac: both the 
game and name are oriental ; Pers. schah, a 
king, the game taking its name from the 
principal piece. From the Pers. phrase 
sckach-mai = the king is dead, comes the 
expression echec et mat (checkmate). Echec 
is a doublet of schah. — Der. echiqnitr. 

ECHELLE, sf a ladder. O. Fr. eschele, from 
L. scala. For o = ch see § 126, for sc = 
esc = ec see Hist. Gram. p. 78, for a = e see 
§ 54. Echelle is a doublet of escale. — 
Der. echelon, echelonner. 

ECHEVEAU, sm. a skein. O. Fr. echevel. 
For el = eau see agneau. Echevel is verbal 
subst. of echeveler. See echevele. 

ECHEVELE, partic. dishevelled ; from O. Fr. 
echeveler. See cheveu. 

ECHEVIN, sm. an alderman, judge ; formerly 
eschevin. It. scabino, from L. scabinus * ; 

- a Carolingian word of Germ, origin, from 

0*H. G. skepeno. For oa, = che see §§126 
and 54; for 80 = esc = ec see Hist. Gram. p. 
78: for b = v see avant and § 113. — Der. 
echevinnge, echevinzl. 

ECHINE, sf. a spine, chine ; formerly eschine, 
Prov. esquina ; of Germ, origin, O. H. G. 
sJiina. Its doublet is esquine. 

ECHIQUIER, sm. a chess-board, exchequer. 
See echecs. 

^cho, sm. an echo; from L. echo. 

ECHOIR, vn. to fall to, become due ; formerly 
eschoir, from L. excadere *. For ca- 
dere = choir see choir. — Der. ech6^nt (pres. 
partic), whence sf. echeauce. 

ECHOPPE, sf a graver. Origin unknown. 

ECHOPPE, sf a carved stall (in market); 
formerly eschoppe, from Germ, schoppen. 
For sc = esc = ec see Hist. Gram. p. 78. 

ECHOUER, vn. to run aground, to fail, mis- 
carry. Origin unknown. 

ECLABOUSSER, va. to splash. Origin un- 

ECLAIR, sm. lightning; verbal subst. of 

ECLAIRCIR, va. to clear up, brighten. See 
clair. — Der. eclaircie (partic. subst.), eclair- 

ECLAIRER, va. to light, illuminate ; formerly 
esclairer, from L. exclarare. For a, = ai 
see aigle ; for x = s see ajouter; for loss of 
s see Hist. Gram. p. 81. — Der. eclair, 
eclainge, eclairem. 

ECLANCHE, sf. a shoulder of mutton. Origin 
unknown. * 

ECLAT, sm. a fragment, an explosion, splen- 
dour. See eclater. 

ECLATER, vn. to fly into fragments, burst, 
shine brilliantly; of Germ, origin, O.H.G. 
skleizan, afterwards sMeitan, whence O. Fr. 
esclater, then eclater. — Der. eclat, eclaUnt. 

ificlectique, adj. eclectic ; from Gr. €k\€k- 
TiKos. — Der. eclectisme. 

Eclipse, s/. an eclipse; from L. eclipsis. 
— Der. eclipser. 

ificliptique, sf the ecliptic ; from L. eclip- 

ECLISSE, sf. split wood ; compd. of clisse, 
a piece of split wood ; of Germ, origin, 
O. H. G. kliozan, to cleave. 

ECLOPPE, adj. lame. See clopin-clopant. 

ECLORE, vn. to hatch, open, dawn ; formerly 
esclore, from L. ex-claudere *. The 
compd. ex-claudere signified to hatch, 
come out. Columella often uses ' ex- 
cludere ova ' for ' to hatch eggs.' For 
olaudere = clore see clore ; for x = s see 
ajouter.-— Dex. eclos, ec/osion. 



ECLUSE, §^. a mill-dam ; formerly escluse,^ Sp. 
esclusa, from L. ezclusa. Exclusa aqua, 
properly water dammed up, is used thus in 
Fortunatiis and several Merov, documents. 
Exolusa becomes sclusa in the 8th cent, 
in the Lex Salica : * Si quis sclusam de 
molendino alieno rumperit.' For x = s see 
ajouter; for loss of s see Hist. Gram. p. 8l. 
— Der. edusier, eclusdt. 

ECOLE, s/l a school; formerly escole, from 
L. schola. For ch = c see § 135; for sc 
= esc = cc see Hist. Gram. p. 78. — Der. 
e'co/ier (whose doublet is scolaire). 

ilSconome, smf. an economist; from L. 
oeconomus, so used in the Theodosian 
Code. — Der. econom\e, econotnlser, econom- 

Ilconomique, adj. economical; from L. 
oeconomicus, so used in Quintilian. 

ECORCE, ^. bark; formerly escorce. It. 
scorzxi, in 7th cent, scorzia, in the 
Vocabulary of St. Gall, from L. excor- 
ticea*, deriv. of corticem. For ex = e 
see ecluse; for corticea = cort'cea see 
§ 51 ; for cort'cea = cortcia see agencer. 
— Der. ecorcei. 

tCORCHER, va. to flay, skin; formerly 
escorcher, from L. excorticare, to take 
away the bark (corticem) ; then in the 
Salic law to flay. Excorticare is scorti- 
care in the Capitularies of Charlemagne : 
' antea flagellatus et scorticatus.' 

Excorticdre, contrd. regularly (see 
§«S2) into excort'care, excor'care, be- 
comes escorcher. For x = s see ajouter; 
for ca, = che see §§126 and 54. Scorcher 
is a doublet of ecorcer. — Der. e'corcAeur, 

ECORNER, va. to break the horn, curtail. 
See corne. — Der. ecorniBer. 

ECORNIFLER, va. to sponge on (any one). 
See ecorner. — Der. ecornijleur. 

ECOSSER, va. to husk, shell. See cosse. 

ECOT, sm. branch of a tree. O. Fr. escot ; of 
Germ, origin, O. Norse skot. 

ECOT, sm. share, 'scot'; formerly e^cot; of 
Germ, origin, Engl, scot, contribution. 

ECOULER (S'), vpr. to run off", drain ; formerly 
escouler, from L. excolare (occurring in 
a Latin version of the Bible). For x = s see 
ajouter ; for loss of s see Hist. Gram. p. 8 1 ; 
for o = oti see affouage. — Der. ecoulement. 

ICOURTER, vn. to curtail, shorten. See court. 

ECOUTE, s/. a listening-place. See ecouter. 

ECOUTE, sf. sheet (of a sail); formerly escow^e, 
of Germ, origin, Dan. skicede, Swed. skot. 

JECOUTER, va. to listen to, hearken, O. Fr. 

escolter, from L. auscultfire, which in lat" 

Lat. is often written asoultare. For a = * 

see § 54; for esc = ec see Hist. Gram. 

p. 78; for ul=OM see Hist. Gram, p. 54. 

Its doublet is ausculter, q. v. 
ECOUTILLE, s/^. a hatchway. Origin unknown, 
ECOUVETTE, sf. a broom, brush ; dim. of 

4couve *, O. Fr. escouve, from L. scopa. 

For sc = esc = ec see Hist Gram. p. 78 ; for 

o = OM see affouage ; for p = 6 = v see § ill. 

Another dim. of ecouvi is ecouvillon. 
ECOUVILLON, sm. a gunner's sponge. See 

ecouvefte. * 
EC RAN, sm. a screen ; formerly escran. 

Origin unknown. 
ECRASER, va. to crush; formerly escraser, 

compd. of a radical eraser, of Germ, origin, 

Swed. krasa. — Der. ecrasement. 
ECREVISSE, sf. a crayfish; in 13th cent. 

crevice, from O. H. G. krebiz. 
ECRIER(S'), vpr. to exclaim, cry out. Seecrier. 
ECRIN, sm. a casket, shrine ; formerly escrin, 

from L. scrinium. For 80 = esc = ec see 

Hist. Gram. p. 78. 
ECRIRE, va. to write ; formerly escrire, from 

L. scribere. For regular loss of penult. 6 

see § 51 ; for br = r see boire ; for sc = esc 

= ec see Hist. Gram. p. 78, — Der. ecnveur, 

ECRIT, sm. a writing ; formerly escrit, from 

L. scriptum. For sc = ec see Hist. Gram. 

p. 78; for pt = / see § 168. — Der. ecnVeau. 
ECRITOIRE, sf. an inkstand ; from L. scrip- 

torixim. For script- =ecrit- see ecrit; for 

O = oi, see chanoine. 
ECRITURE, sf. writing ; from L. scriptiira. 

For script- = ecrit- see ecrit. 
ECRIVAIN, sm. a writer, author; from L. 

scribanus *, deriv. of scriba. For scri- 
= ecri- see ecrit ; for b = v see § 113; for 

-anus = -am see § 192. 
ECROU, sm. a screw-nut; formerly escrou, 

from L. scrobem. For sc = esc = 6c see 

Hist. Gram. p. 78 ; for o = ou see affouage ; 

for loss of b see aboyer and §113. 
ECROU, sm. a gaol register. See ecro7/er. 
ECROUELLES, sf. pi. scrofula, the king's 

evil; formerly escronelles, from L. scro- 

fella*, a secondary form of scrofula. For 

loss of f see antienne ; for o = ou see affou- 
age ', for sc = esc = ec see Hist. Gram. p. 78. 
ECROUER, va. to enter in the gaol register. 

Origin unknown. — Der. eVrow (verbal subst.). 
ECROUIR, va. to harden. Origin unknown. 
ECROULER, vn. to fall to pieces. See 

crouler. — Der. ecroulemexit. 
ECRU, adj. unbleached; compd. of cru, q. v. 



Cuir ecru is what the Romans called cru- 
diim scorium, untanned leather. 

ECU, sm. a shield, a crowu-piece, money ; for- 
merly escw, originally escw/, from L. scutum. 
For so = esc = ec see Hist. Gram. p. 78 ; for 
loss of t see aigu. The sense of crown 
piece comes from the three fleur-de-lys 
stamped on the coin as on a shield. — Der. 
e'cwsson (properly a little ecu, from L. 
seutionem ; for ti = ss see agencer). 

ECUEIL, sm. a rock ; formerly escueil, from 
L. scopulus. For regular contr. into 
scop'lus see § 51; for pi = il see Hist. 
Gram. p. 8i ; for o — ue see accueillir ; for 
sc = ec see Hist. Gram. p. 78,' 

ECUELLE, sf. a porringer, O. Fr. escuelle, 
Prov. escudela, from L. scutella. For loss 
of t see abbaye ; for sc = esc = ec see Hist. 
Gram. p. 78. 

ECULER, va. to tread down the heels (of 
boots). See cul. 

Legume, sm. foam; ioxxnexly escume ; of Germ, 
origin, Q, H. G. scum. — Der. ecumtr, ecum- 
eux, ecjwtGUT, ecumoixe. 

ECURER, va. to scour (pots and pans). See 
curer. — Der, recurer. 

ECUREUIL, sm. a squirrel ; formerly escu- 
reuil, from L. sciuriolus, dim. of sciurus. 
For -iolus = -ewz7 see § 253; forsc = esc = 
ec see Hist. Gram. p. 78. 

ECURIE, sf. a stable ; formerly escurie, from 
Merov. L. scTiria (' Si quis scuriam cum 
animalibus incenderit,' Sahc Law). For sc 
~esc=^ec see Hist. Gram. p. 78. Scuria is 
of Germ, origin, O. H. G. skura. 

ECUSSON, sm. a knob, shield, escutcheon. 
See ecu. — Der. ecusso?ier (to bud). 

ECUYER, sm. a squire; formerly escuyer, 
Prov. escudier. It. scudiere, from L. scuta- 
rius * (who carries the scutum of a 
knight). For loss of medial t see abbaye ; 
for -arius = -ier see §198; for sc = esc = ec 
see Hist. Gram. p. 178. — Der. ecuyhie. 

!!fiden, sm. Eden (in St. Jerome). 

EDENTER, va. to break the teeth of. See 

^dificateur, sm. a builder; from L. aedi- 

Edification, sf. building, edification ; from 
^ L. aedificationem. 

Edifice, sm. an edifice; from L. aedificium. 

:fidifier, va. to build, edify; from L. aedi- 

ifidile, sm. an aedile ; from L. aedilis. 

Edilit6, sf. aedileship ; from L. aedilitatem. 

Edit, sm. an edict; from L. edictum. For 
Ct = ^ see § 168. 

Editer, va. to edit; from L. edit are, fre- 
quent, of edere, to publish. 
Editeur, sm. an editor; from L. editor em, 

deriv. of edere, to publish. 
Edition, sf. an edition; from L. editio- 

fEdredon, sm. eider-down; formerly 

ederdon, from Germ, eiderdune. 
jfiducation, sf. education; from L. educa- 

Edulcorer, va. (Chem.), to sweeten ; from 

L. e and dulcorem. 
EFFACER, va. to efface ; meaning originally 

to erase, wipe out, a face. See face. — Der, 

Capable, in^a^able, effacexntnt. 
EFFARER, va. to scare, make to look wild ; 

from L. eflPerare. For e = a see amender. 
EFFAROUCHER, va. to scare away. See 

EflPectif, adj. effective; from L. effec- 

EfFectuer, va. to effect, execute ; from L. 

effectuare*, dim. verb from effectus. 
Effeminer, va. to effeminate; from L, 

E£Eervescent, adj. effervescent; from L. 

EFFET, sm. effect ; from L. efifectum. For 

ct = / see § 168. 
Efficace, adj. efficient; from L, effica- 

Efficacit^, sf. efficacy; from L, efficaci- 

Efi&cient, adj. efficient; from L. effici- 

Effigie, sf. an effigy; from L. effigiem. 
EFFILE, sm. a fringe. EFFILER, va. to 

ravel out, Seefil. 
EFFILOCHER, va. to unravel. Seefiloche. 
EFFLANQUER, va. to render lean. See 

EFFLEURER, va. to graze, rub a surface. 

See fleur. 
Ef9.orescent, adj. efflorescent; from L. 

Eflorescence, sf. efflorescence; from L. 

efflorescentia,deriv.of efflorescentem. 
Effluve, sm. effluvium; from L. efflu- 
EFFONDRER, vn. to fall in. ?>&e fond 

Der. effondrement. 
EFFORCER (S'), vpr. to make an effort. See 

forcer. — Der. effort (verbal subst,). 
Effracteur, va. a breaker open; from L, 

effractor em. 
Effraction, sf. a breaking open ; from L. 




EFFRAYER, va. to frighten, affray; for- 
merly eff'royer,es/royer,'Prov. esfreidar; from 
L. exfrigidare*, compd. of frigidus, so 
properly to freeze with fright. Exfrigi 
ddre, contrd. regularly (see § 52) into 
exfrig'dare, reduces gd to d (see amande), 
whence exfridare, whence es/royer. For 
X = s see ajouter ; for i = oi see boire ; for 
loss of d see accabler. Next it loses s and 
X = s becomes effroyer, see Hist. Gram. p. 81 ; 
then effrayer by changing oi into ai, see 

§ 61 Der. (from O. Fr. effroyer) effroi 

(verbal subst.), ^^royable. 

EFFRENE, adj. unbridled; from L. efifre- 
natus. For -atus = -e see § 201. 

EFFROI, va. fright. See effrayer. 

EFFRONTE, adj. bold-faced. See front.— 
Der. effronttnt. 

EFFROYABLE, adj. frightful. See effrayer. 

Effusion, sf. effusion; from L. effu- 

EGAL, adj. equal ; from L. aequalis. For 
ae = « see § 104; for qu=^ see aigle. — 
Der. egaler, egalistr, egalit^. 

EGARD, sm. regard. See garder. 

EGARER, va. to mislead. See garer. — 
Der. egarement, egare. 

EGAYER, va. to enliven. See gai. 

!]£gide, sf. an aegis, protection; from L, aegi- 

6GLANTIER, sm. eglantine, dog-rose ; for- 
merly aiglentier, properly a plant covered 
with aiglents, thorns. Aiglent is from L. 
aculentus*, deriv. of actQeus*. Acu- 
lentus, contrd. regularly (see § 52) 
into aclentus, becomes aiglent. For cl 
=ge, and for & = ai, see aigle. — Aiglant 
has produced two Fr. derivations : aiglaniiei 
(now eglantier), aiglantine (now eglan- 

^ tine). 

EGLANTINE sf. eglantine, columbine. See 

EGLISE, sf. a church; from L. ecclesia. 
For e = 2 see § 59 ; for cl =gl see aigle. 

Eglogue, sf. an eclogue; from L. ecloga. 

ifigoisme, sm. egotism, selfishness ; der. 
from L. ego. — Der. egdiitt. 

EGORGER, va. to cut the throat, slay. See 
gorge. — Der. egorgemctvt, egorgeur. 

EGOSILLER, va. to make the throat sore, 
make hoarse. See gosier. 

EGOUT, sm. a fall (of water), sewer. See 
Sgoutter. — Der. egoutier. 

EGOUTTER, va. to drain. See goutte.— 
Der. egout (verbal subst.). 

EGRATIGNER, va. to scratch (the skin). 
See gratter. — Der. egratignutc. 

EGRENER, va. to shell (seeds), pick grapes 

(from the bunch) ; formerly egrainer. See 

EGRILLARD, adj. brisk. Origin unknowo. 
t Ifigriser, va. to clean (diamonds); 

compd. of a radical grise*, which is Germ. 

gries. Egrisee is diamond-powder, used to 

polish diamonds. 
EHONTE, adj. shameless. See honte. 
!£|jacillation, sf. ejaculation ; from L. 

ifilaboration, sf. elaboration ; from L. 

Ifilaborer, va. to elaborate; from L. ela- 

ELAGUER, va. to prune, curtail ; of Germ. 

origin, Dutch lalten. — Der. elagngt. 
ELAN, sm. a burst, spring. See 6lancer. 
t !filan, sm. an elan (a kind of elk) ; from 

Germ, elenn. 
ELANCER. va to dart, shoot, push on. See 

lancer. — Der. elan (verbal subst), elance, 

ELARGIR, va. to widen. See Ibrge. — Der. 

ifilastique, arf/. elastic; from Gr.kKaaTiKos. 

— Der. elasticite. 
t Eldorado, sm. Eldorado; from Sp. 

^lecteur, sm. an elector; from L. elec- 
tor em. — Der. e/ec/oral, electorzX. 
ifilectif, adj. elective; from L. electivus*, 

der. from electus. See elire. 
ifilection, sf an election; from L. elec- 

ifilectrique, adj. electrical; from L. elec- 

trum. — Der. electricite. electriser. 
Ifilectuaire, sm. an electuary; from L. 

!fil6gance, s/. elegance; fromL. elegantia. 
!fil6gant, ac?/. elegant ; from L. elegantem. 
]Sl6giaque, adj. elegiac; from L. eligi- 

I6l6gie, sf. an elegy ; from L. elegia. 
l6l6nient, sm. an element; from L. ele- 

mentum. — Der. eUmenta'ne. 
I6l6phant, sm. an elephant; fromL. ele- 

phantem. Its doublet is O. Fr. olifant. 
ELfeVE, sm. a pupil. See lever. 
ELEVER, va. to raise, bring up, educate. See 

lever. — Der. eleve (verbal subst.), elevQ, 

eUvztion, elevtnx. 
ifilider, va. to elide, cut off; from L. eli- 

ifiligible, adj. eligible; from L. eligibilis. 

Der. eligibility. 
ELIMER, va. to file out. See limer. 



ifiliminer, va. to eliminate; from L, elim- 
inate. — Der. e'/fm/wation. 

ELIRE, va. to elect, choose ; from L. elig- 

. ere. The e disappears (§ 51) whence 
eli'gre ; then gr becomes r (see § i68\ 
whence elire. Eligere, signifying to choose, 
try, the O. Fr. elire, meant the same ; whence 
the O. Fr. p.p. elite, now used as a subst., 
signifying that which has been chosen, 
choice. Slite represents L. electa. For e 
= i see § 59; for ct = t see § 168. 

]Slision, */■. elision; from L. elisionem, 

ELITE, sf. the elite, chosen ones. See elire. 

fifilixir, sm. an elixir; of Eastern origin, 
together with many other chemical terms. 
It represents Ar. al-ahsir, quintessence, 

ELLE, pers. pr. she ; from L. ilia. For i = e 
see mettre. 

E116bore, sm. hellebore; from L. elle- 

Ellipse, sf. an ellipsis, ellipse; from L. ellip- 
sis (found in Priscian). — Der. ellipt'ique. 

!filocution, sf. elocution ; from L. elocu- 

^filoge, sm. an eulogium, eulogy; from L. 
elogium. — Der. elogieux. 

ELOIGNER, va. to remove afar. See loin. 
— Der. eloignement. 

Eloquence, sf. eloquence; from L. elo- 

Eloquent, ac?/, eloquent; from L. eloquen- 

iSlucider, va. to elucidate; from L, eluci- 

Ifilucubration, sf. a lucubration ; from L, 

ifiluder, va. to elude ; from L. eludere. 

^Iys6e, sm. elysium; from L, elysium. 

EMAIL, sm. enamel ; formerly esmail. It, 
smalto; of Germ, origin, O, H.G. smalti, 
that which has been fused, melted. For 
sm = esm = em see Hist. Gram, p. 78, — 
Der. emailler, emailleur. 

Emancipation, sf. emancipation ; from L. 

iSmanciper, va. to emancipate ; from L, 

Emaner, vn. to emanate; from L. ema- 
nate. — Der, emamtion. 

fiMARGER, va. to wtite in the margin. See 
marge. — Der. emargement. 

EMBALLER, va. to pack up. See balle.— 
Der. embalhge, emballeuv. 

fEmbarcaddre, sm. a wharf, place 
of embarkation ; from Sp. emharcadero. 

t Embarcation, sf. embarkation ; from 
Sp. embarcacion. 

t Embargo, sm. an embargo; from Sp. 

EMBARQUER, va. to embark, ship. See 
barque, — Der. embarquement. 

EMBARRASSER, va. to obstruct, embarrass; 
DEBARRASSER, va. to disembarrass; 
compds, of radical barras*, which in Sp. is 
also barras, whence verb active barrasser* 
(cp, barrer from harre). Barras* is from Fr. 
barre, q.v. — Der, embarras (verbal subst,). 

EMBAUCHER, va. to hite, seduce. See de- 
baucher. — Der. embauch^ge, efnbaucheur. 

EMBAUMER, va. to embalm. See baume. 
— Der, embaumeur, embanmement. 

EMBELLIR, va. to embellish. See beau.— 
Der. emfc^Z/issement. 

EMBLAVER, va. to sow with corn ; from L. 
imbladare*, from bladum, q. v. Imbla- 
dare is a common word in medieval docu- 
ments, and has also given birth to It. imbia- 
dare, which answers exactly to emblaver. 
Imbladare drops its medial d, see 
accabler ; it intercalates an euphonic v, see 
corvee. For i = e see mettre. — Der. em- 

EMBLEE, adv. at the first onset ; an adverbial 
phrase, compd. of de and emblee, partic. 
subst. of embler, O. Fr. verb meaning to 
steal. It comes from L. involare, written 
irabolare in the Germanic Laws. For v = 6 
see bachelier ; for contr. of imboldre into 
imbl'lare see § 52, whence embler; for 
i = e see mettre. 

Embl6matique, adj. emblematic See 

Embldme, sm. an emblem ; from L, em- 
blem a. — Der. emWe'matique. 

EMBOIRE, va. to cover (with wax or oil). 
See boire, 

EMBOtTER, va. to fit in, joint. See boite. 

EMBONPOINT, sm. stoutness, plumpness, 
O. Fr, en bon point. See point. 

EMBOSSER, va,(Naut,) to bring the broadside 
to bear (on) ; compd, of en and bosse (the 
name of certain parts of a ship's rigging). 
— Der, embossage. 

EMBOUCHER, va. to put to the mouth. See 
bouche. — Der. embouchure, embouchoir. 

EMBOURBER, va. to thtust into mite. See 

EMBRANCHEMENT, sm. branching off; 
deriv. of embrancher, compd. of en and 
branche, q. v. 

EMBRASER, va. to set on fire. — Der. em- 
brasement, embrasure ; originally a term of 
fortification, a narrow window in a parapet, 
through which to lay a cannon, or fire a 



gun : properly a window whence one sets 
fire to (embraser) a gun. 

EMBRASSER, va. to embrace. O. Fr. evi- 
bracer, properly to take in one's arms 
(brace). For explanation and etymology of 
O. Fr. brace see bras. — Der. embrassement, 
embrasszde, embrasse (verbal subst.). 

EMBRASURE, sm. an embrasure. See em- 

EMBROCHER, va. to spit (a fowl). See 

EMBROUILLER, va. to embroil, confuse. 
See brouiller. 

Embryon, sm. an embryo; from Gr. 
• efi,0pvov. 

EMBUCHE, sf. an ambush, snare ; verbal sf. 
of O. Fr. embucher, originally embuscher. 
It. imboscare, Low L. imboscare, pro- 
perly to allure into the boscum, or bush. 
For origin of boscus, see bois. Imbos- 
care becomes embiicher. For i = e see 
mettre ; for o = w see curee ; for ca = ch 
see § 126 and § 52; for loss of s see Hist. 
Gram. p. 81. 

fEmbuscade, sf. an ambuscade; in- 
trod. in i6th cent, from It. imboscata. It 
is a doublet of embusquee. 

fEmbusquer, va. to place in ambush; 
introd, in i6th cent, from It. imboscare. 

ifimender, va. to amend; from L. emen- 

tMERAUDE, sf. an emerald. O. Fr. esme- 
ralde. It. smeraldo, from L. smaragdus. 
For ara. = esm = em see Hist. Gram. p. 78; 
for a = e see § 52; for ed = ld^ud see 
amande and agneau. 

^merger, vn. to emerge; from L. emer- 
ge re. — Der. emergent, emergence. 

•)■ iSmeri, sm. emery ; formerly esmeril, in- 
trod. in 1 6th cent, from It. smeriglio. 

EMERILLON, sm. a merlin ; formerly es- 
merillon, dim. of a form esmerle*, compd. 
of the prefix es and merle, q. v. 

£in6rite, adj. superannuated, who has served 
his time ; from L. emeritus. 

EMERVEILLER, va. to amaze. See merveille. 

^in6tique, sm. an emetic; from Gr. c/xe- 
TiKus. — Der. emelisei. 

EMETTRE, va. to emit ; from L. emittere. 
See mettre. 

EMEUTE, sf. a riot, disturbance; from L. 
exiuota (that which is disturbed, troubled). 
For x = s see ajouter; for loss of s see Hist. 
G am. p. 81 ; iox o = eu see accueillir. — 
Der. emsutlex, 

•ifimigrer, va. to emigrate; from L. emi- 
grate — Der. e'TMi^ration, 4migr2int, €migr6. 

Eminence, sf. eminence; from L. emi- 

Eminent, adj. eminent; from L. eminen- 

£missaire, sm. an emissary ; from L. emis- 

Amission, sf. emission; from L, emis- 

EMMANCHER, va. to haft, put handle to. 
See manche. 

EMMENER, va. to lead away. See mener. 

EMOI, sm. anxiety, emotion ; fromerly esmoi, 
originally csma/. Prov. esmag, It. smago; 
verbal subst. of esmaier (to be anxious). 
This O. Fr. verb, answering to It. smagare, 
is of Germ, origin, being compd. of prefix 
es (Lat. ex) and O. H. G. magan, and 
means properly to lose all one's ' main,* 

ifimollient, adj. emollient ; from L. emol- 

Emolument, sm. emolument ; from L. 

ifimonctoire, sm. (Med.) an emunctory ; 
from L. emunctorius. 

ifimonder, va. to prune, trim ; from L. 
emundare. — Der. emondaige. 

Emotion, sf. an emotion; from L. emo- 
tionem. — Der. emotionnex. 

EMOUDRE, va. to grind ; formerly emoldre, 
from L. emolere. For regular contr. of 
emolere into emorre, see § 52 ; for lr = 
Idr see Hist. Gram. p. 73 ; for o = ou see af- 
fouage. — Der. emouleux, xemouleux. 

EMOUSSER, va. to blunt, dull the edge of. 
See mousse. 

EMOUSTILLER, va. to exhilarate, rouse. 
Origin unknown. 

EMOUVOIR, va. to move; from L. emS- 
vere. Fox o = ou see affouage; for ere = 
oir see Hist. Gram. p. 132. 

EMPALER, va. to empale. See pal. 

EMPAN, sm. a span ; formerly espan. It. 
spanna, a word of Germ, origin. Germ. 

EMPARER, va. to fortify, in O. Fr. ; compd. 
of en and parer, to prepare. S'emparer in 
15th cent, meant to fortify oneself, hence to 
grow strong, acquire, seize. — Der. xemparer 
(compd. of re and emparer, whence verbal 
subst. rempar, now remparl). 

EMPATER, va. to cover with paste. See 
pate. — Der. empdtement. 

EMPfeCHER, va. to hinder; formerly em- 
pacher, from L. impactare *, deriv. of 
impactus, partic. of impingere. Im- 
pactare becomes first empacher, then 



empecher. For ct = ch see allecher ; for 
a = c see § 54 ; for i = e see mettre. 
— Der, empbchement, depecher (answering 
to a type dis-pactare * ; see de- and em- 
pecher for changes. Depecher signifies pro- 
perly to free oneself from hindrances, 
opposed to empecher, to embarrass oneself). 

EMPEIGNE, sf. the upper leather, vamp (of 
a shoe). Origin unknown. 

EMPEREUR, sm. an emperor ; formerly em- 
pereiir, originally empereor, emperedor, 
from L. imperatorem. For i = e see 
mettre; for a = e see § 54; for loss of t 
see abbaye; for eo~eu see aieul and § 79. 

EMPESER, va. to starch. It rnay be seen 
in §§ 102, 103 why the deriv. of empois is 
empeser, and not empoiser. 

EMPESTER, va. to taint. See pesle. 

EMPETRER, va. to entangle, embarrass. 
See depitrer. 

Emphase, sm. emphasis ; from L. empha- 
sis. — Der. emphai\<\\xe. 

Emphyt^ose, sf. emphyteusis (legal) ; for- 
merly emphyteuse, from L. emphyteusis. 

EMPIETER, va. to encroach. See pied. — 
Der. empieiement. 

EMPIRE, sm. empire ; from L. imperixun. 
For i =» e see mettre ; for e = i see 

§ 59- 

EMPIRER, va. to make worse, aggravate. 
See pire. 

Empirique, adj. empiric; from L. empi- 
ricus. — Der. empirhme. 

Empirisme, sm. empiricism. See empir^ 

EMPLACER, va. to place, establish. See 
place. — Der. emplacement, xemplacer. 

Empl^tre, sm. plaster ; formerly emplastre, 
from L. emplastrum. 

EMPLETTE, sf. a purchase ; from L. impli- 
cita *. This word means ' expenditure ' in 
several medieval texts : thus a 1 2th-cent. 
regulation says, ' implicitam vero decla- 
ramus emptionem mercium per commit- 
tentes ordinatam.' Implicita, regularly 
contrd. (§ 51) into implic'ta, becomes 
emplette. For i = e see mettre ; for 
ct = tt see § 168. Emplette is a doublet 
of implicite, q. v. 

EMPLIR, va. to fill ; from L. implere. For 
i = e see mettre ; for e = i see § 59. — 
Der. xemplir. 

EMPLOYER, va. to employ ; from L. impli- 
care, which in medieval documents means 
to employ for some one's profit. We read 
in a I3th-cent. document, ' Dedit 40 
libras implicandas in augmentum com- 

munitatis.* For loss of c, impli(cUre, see 
affouage ; for i = e see mettre ; for i = oi 
see boire. Employer is a doublet of impli- 
quer, q. v. — Der. emploi (verbal subst.), em- 

EMPOIS, sm. starch. See poix. 

EMPOISONNER, va. to poison. See poison. 
— Der. e?npoisonnement, empoisonnenr. 

EMPORTER, va. to carry oflf; formerly en- 
porter, for entporter, from L. indd portare. 
For inde = ent see souvent ; for ent = en see 
en. — Der. emportement, emporte, lemporter. 

EMPOTER, va. to pot (flowers, etc.). See 

EMPREINDRE, va. to imprint ; from L. 
imprimere. For imere = eindre see 
geindre. Empreindre is a doublet of im- 
primer, q. v. — Der. empreinte (strong partic. 
subst., see absoiite). 

EMPRESSER (S'), vpr. to be eager, ardent. 
See presse. — Der. empresse, empressement. 

EMPRUNTER, va. to borrow : from L. im- 
promutuare *, compd. of promutuari, 
which is from promutuum, a loan. 
Inipromutud,re, contrd. into improm'- 
tuare (see § 52), changes ua into a, see 
§ 52 ; whence impromtare, whence em- 
prunter. For i = e see mettre; for m = « 
see change ; for o = « see ctiree. — Der. em- 
primt (verbal subst.), emprnnttnt. 

Empyree, sm. the empyrean ; from Gr. 

Empyreume, sm. the empyreum ; from L. 
empyreuma. — Der. empyreumntique. 

ifimulation, sf. emulation ; from L. aemu- 
lationem. — Der. emulateur. 

ifimule, sm. a rival ; from L. aemulus. 

ifimulgent, adj. emulgent ; from L. emul- 

ifimulsion, sf. an emulsion ; from L. emul- 
sion em *, deriv. of emulsus. — Der. emul- 
sionner, emulsif. 

EN, prep, in ; in 9th-cent. Fr. tn, from L, in, 
by change of i into e, see mettre. 

EN, rel. pron. of him, her, etc. ; formerly ent^ 
originally int, from L. inde. For i = e see 
mettre ; for nd = nt = n see § 121. 

Indd had, in popular Lat., the sense of 
ex illo, ab illo : ' Cadus erat vini ; indS 
implevi Cirneam ' (Plautus, Aniphyt. i. l). 
This use of ind§ was very common in 
Low Lat., and Merovingian documents 
have many examples of it : thus in a For- 
mula of the 7th cent., • Si potes inde man- 
ducare ' = si tu peux e n manger ; in a Di- 
ploma of 543, ' Ut mater nostra ecclesia 
Viennensis indd nostra haeres fiat,' etc. 



Indd becomes in O. Fr. inl, a word extant 
in the Oaths of 842 ; in the loth cent, it is 
ent, a form still surviving in souvent, from 
subinde ; in the 12th cent. en. 

ENCM)RER, va. to frame. See cadre. 

ENCAISSER, va. to pack in a case. See 
caisse. — Der. encaisse (verbal subst.), en- 

ENCAN, stn. an auction. O. Fr. encant, 
en quant, originally inquant, from L. in- 
quantum. For qu = c see car; for i = e 
see meltre. 

ENCAQUER, va. to pack in barrels. See 

Encastrer, va. to fit in, set in ; from L. 
incastrare (in Isidore of Seville). 

Eucaustique, sf. encaustic; from L. en- 

ENCEINDRE, va. to encircle, surround ; from 
L. incingere. For changes see ceindre. — 
Der. enceinte (a circuit of walls, which sur- 
rounds a city). 

ENCEINTE, s/. circuit (of walls), enclosure; 
from L. incincta (used of a pregnant 
woman in Isidore of Seville). For i = esee 
met(re; for ct = t see § 168. 

ENCENS, sm. incense ; from L. incensum 
(in Isidore of Seville). For i = e see mettre. 
— Der. encensei, encefisoir, 

Enc6phale, sm. the brain ; from Gr. kyai- 
(paXov. — Der. encephalic, encephalite. 

ENCHANTER, va. to enchant, bewitch; 
from L. incantare. For changes see 
chanter. — Der. enchantemtnl, enchanteuT, 

ENCHERIR, va. to bid for, outbid. See 
chere. — Der. enchere (verbal subst.), en- 
cAerissement, encherisseur, xencherir, sxxren- 
cherir, surenchere. 

ENCHEVfiTRER, va. to halter, entangle in a 
noose; from L. incapistrare, used by 
Apuleius. For i = e see mettre; for ca = 
che see § § 126 and 54 ; for p = v see ar river ; 
for loss of s see Hist. Gram. p. Si. — Der. 

ENCHIFRENER, va. to stop up the nose- 
passages. Origin unknown. 

Enchymose, sf. enchymosis; from Gr. 

Enclaver, va. to enclose; from L. incla- 
vare*, a medieval word, meaning to shut 
in. Its doublet is ejiclouer, q. v. — Der. 
enclave (verbal subst.). 

ENCLIN, adj. inclined, prone ; from L. in- 
clinis. For i=e see mettre. 

ENCLORE, va. to enclose ; from L. inclau- 
dere* (forincludere). Forolaudere = 

clore see clore. Enclore is a doublet of in- 
clure. — Der. enclos (partic. subst.). 

ENCLOS, sm. a close, enclosure. See enclore. 

ENCLOUER, va. to prick (a horse's foot), to 
spike (a gun). See clouer. — Der. enclouzge. 

ENCLUME, sf. an anvil; from L. incu- 
dinem. For in = en see mettre ; for -udi- 
nem = -vme see amertume : the intercala- 
tion of / is remarkable. 

ENCOGNER, va. to wedge in, to strike in. 
See cogne and coin. — Der. encognxat. 

ENCOGNURE, sf. a corner. See encogner. 

ENCOLURE, sf. neck and shoulders (of a 
horse), appearance, mien (of man). See 

ENCOMBRE, sm. an impediment. See de- 
combres, compd, of the prefixes de and en 
and a radical combre*, signifying a heap. 
The Lat.CTimiiluslost its u regularly(§ 51), 
so becoming cum'lus ; m'l intercalating a 
regular b (see absoudre), it became ctim- 
blus ; the 1 became r (see apotre), and 
thus we have cumbrus, a heap, found in 
several Merovingian documents, e. g. in the 
Gesta Regum_^Francorum, chap. 25. 

ENCONTRE (A L'), against, counter; pro- 
perly a verbal subst. of O. Fr. encontrer, 
compd. of contre. — Der. rencontrer. 

ENCORBELLEMENT, sm. (Archit.) a corbel- 
table. See corbeau. 

ENCORE, adv. again ; formerly ancore, from 
L. banc boram, by loss of initial b ; see 

ENCOURAGER, va. to encourage. See 
courage. — Der. encouragement. 

ENCOURIR, va. to incur ; from L. incur- 
rere. For changes see coiirir and en. 

ENCRASSER, va. to dirty, soil. See crasse. 
Its doublet is engraisser, q. v. 

ENCRE, sf. ink; formerly enque, originally 
enca ; from L. encaustum, by intercalating 
r (see chanvre). This word preserves the 
Gr. accentuation (eyKavarov), not the Lat. 
(encailstum). — Der. encrier. 

Encyclique, adj. encyclical ; from Gr. 

€yKVK\l0S., sf. an encyclopaedia ; from 

Gr. kyKv/cXonaiSda. — Der. encyclopediqxic, 

End6mique, adj. endemic; from Gr. 

ENDfiVER, vn. to be vexed, wild, mad. 

Origin unknown. 
ENDIVE, sf. endive ; from L. intyba *, fern. 

of intybus (chicory). For i = « see mettre; 

for b = z; see avant and § 1 13 ; for t = c? see 

aider and §117. 



ENDOLORIR, vn. to be in pain. See dou- 

ENDORMIR, va. to lull to sleep. See dor- 

ENDOSSER, va. to don, put on one's back. 

See dos. — Der. endos (verbal subst.), en- 

dossement, endosseur. 
ENDROIT, sm. a place ; compd. of en and 

droit, q. v. Endroit, an adv. in O. Fr., 

meaning ' right before one,' became later a 

subst,, meaning ' a place right before one.' 

Endroit is a doublet of indirect, q. v. 
ENDUIRE, va. to coat, cover ; from L. in- 

dueere. For regular contr, of inducere 

into induc're see § 51; for cr = ir see 

benir ; for in = en see mettre. Enduire 

is a doublet of induire. — Der. enduit (partic. 

ENDURCIR, va. to harden. See dur. — 

Der. ewrfwrcissement, 
ENDURER, va. to endure ; from L, indu- 

rare. For i = e see mettre. — Der. endur- 

ifinergie, sf. energy; from L, energia*. 

— Der. energ'xqat. 
!finerguin%ne, smf. a demoniac, fanatic; 

from Gr. kvepyovfievos. 
jfinerver, va. to enervate ; from L, ener- 

ENFANCE, sf. infancy; from L. infantia. 

For tia, = ce see agencer. 
ENFANT, sm. a child, infant ; from L. in- 

fantem. For m=e« see mettre. Its 

doublet is infant, q. v. — Der. enfanttx, en- 

fant'm, fw/h«rillage, enfanttmtnt. 
ENFARINER, va. to flour, Seefarine. 
ENFER, sm. hell. Prov. enfern, It. inferno, 

from L. infer mim. For i = e see mettre; 

for rn = r see aubour. 
ENFERMER, va. to shut in. See fermer.— 

Der. renfermer. 
ENFILER, va. to thread. See;?/,— Der. enjil- 

ENFIN, adv. at last. See en znd Jin. 
ENFLAMMER, va. to inflame ; from L. in- 

flammare. For i = e see mettre. 
ENFLER, va. to inflate ; from L. inflare. 

For i = e see mettre. — Der. desenfler, xen- 

fler, enflnre. 
ENFONCER, va. to sink, plunge, bury. See 

fond. — Der. enfoncement, lenfoncer. 
ENFORCIR, va. to strengthen. See force. 
ENFOUIR, va. to bury, dig in ; from L. in- 

fodere. For loss of medial d see accabler ; 

for i = e see mettre; for e = z see § 59; for 

o = ou see affouage. — Der. enfouKse- 


ENFOURCHER, va. to stride, bestride. See 

ENFOURNER, va. to put in the oven. Sec 

ENFREINDRE, va. to infringe. Seefreindre. 

ENFUIR (S'), vpr. to run away. See en and ' 

ENGAGE ANT, adj. engaging. See engager. 

ENGAGEMENT, sm. an engagement. See 

ENGAGER, va. to engage. See gage. — Der. 
engagea.nt, engagement. 

ENGAINER, va. to sheath. See gatne.— 
Der. rengainer. 

ENGEANCE.s/. breed (of animals). See enger. 

ENGELURE, sf. a chilblain; from O. Fr. 
verb engeler. See geler. 

ENGENDRER, va. to engender; from L. 
ingenerare. For regular contr. of in- 
generare to ingen'rare see § 52; for 
i = e see mettre; for n'r = ndr see ab- 

ENGER, va. to burden, multiply. Origin 
unknown. — Der. engennce. 

ENGIN, sm. skill, engine. It. ingegno, from 
L. ingenium, used for a war-engine by 
Tertullian, de Pallio : ' Cum tamen ultima- 
rent tempora patriae et aries jam Romanus 
in muros quondam suos auderet ; stupuere 
illico Carthaginienses ut novum extraneum 
ingenium ' ; and by Isidore of Seville, 
* Apud antiquos Minerva vocata quasi Dea 
et manus artium variarum. Hanc enim 
multorum ingeniorum prohibent.* For 
i = e see mettre ; for e = i see § 59. 

ENGLOBER, va. to unite. See globe, 

ENGLOUTIR, va. to engulf, absorb ; from 
L. inglutire, in Isidore of Seville. For 
u = OM see § 90. — Der. englout'issement. 

ENGORGER, va. to obstruct, choke. See 
gorge. — Der. engorgement, rengorger. 

ENGOUER, va. to obstruct (the throat). 
Origin unknown. — Der. engouement. 

ENGOURDIR, va. to benumb. See gourd. 
— Der. engourdissement. 

ENGRAISSER, va. to fatten, manure ; vn. to 
grow fat; from L. incrassare. For i=e 
see mettre; for G=g see adjuger; for 
B, = ai see § 54. Engraisser is a doublet of 
encrasser, q. v. — Der. engrais (verbal 
subst.), engraissement, engraisseur. 

ENGRAVER, va. to bed in sand. See gravier. 
— Der. engravement, 

ENGRENER, va. to put corn (into the hopper); 
formerly engrainer. See grain. 

ENGRENER, va. to tooth (a wheel) ; from 
L. increnare *, from crena, tooth of a 
K 2 



wheel. For 1 = « see mettre ; for O — g' 

see adjuger. — Der. engremge. 
ENHARDIR, va. to embolden. See hardi. 
£nigrQatique, adj. enigmatic. See enigme. 
£lligm.e, sm. an enigma ; from L. aenigma. 

— Der. 6nigmaA(\Mc. 
ENIVRER, va. to intoxicate. See ivre. — 

Der. enivremtnX., c«ivrant. 
ENJAMBER, va. to stride. See jamhe.— 

Der. enjambemtnt, enjamb^e. 
ENJOINDRE, va. to enjoin; from L. in- 

jungere. For changes see en and joindre. 
ENJOLER, va. to inveigle. See geole Der. 

ENJOLIVER, va. to adorn, embellish. See 

jolt. — Der. ««;o/*Wment, enjolitfuxt, enjoliv- 

ENJOUE, adj. playful ; properly p. p. of O.Fr. 

enjouer, corapd. oijouer, q. v. — Der. enjoue- 

ENLACER, va. to entwine, clasp. See lac. 

— Der. enlacemtnl. 
ENLEVER, va. to raise, lift, carry oflF. See 

en and lever. — Der. etilevevataX. 
Enluminer, va. to illuminate ; from L. in 

(see en and Ituninare) properly to brighten, 

whence to paint with brilliant colours. Its 

doublet is illuminer, q. v. — Der. enlumin- 

eur, enluminuTe. 
ENNEMI, sm. an enemy ; from L, inimicus. 

For icus = i see § 212 ; for i = « see mettre. 

n here becomes nn, as in m on eta, mon- 

ENNUI, sm. ennui, weariness ; formerly enui, 

meaning annoyance, pain, hatred. Sp. 

enojo, O. Venet, inodio, from L, inodio. 

In the Glosses of Cassel (Charlemagne's 

time) we have in odio habut, i. e. I was 

sick and tired of. For iii = en see en, for 

odio = tti see alouette and cuider. — Der. 

ennuyer, ennuytxxx. 
ENONCER, va. to enunciate, state ; from L. 

enuntiare. For changes see annoncer. — 

Der. e«o«ciation, enonce. 
ENORGUEILLIR, va. to make proud. See 

^nornie, adj. enormous; from L. enormis. 

— Der. enormement. 
^normit^, sf. an enormity; from L. enor- 

ENQUERIR, vn. to enquire ; from L. in- 

qxiirere. For changes see en and acquerir. 
ENQUfiTE, sf. inquiry ; formerly enqueste, 

from L. inquisita; strong partic. subst., 

see absoute. For regular contr. into in- 

qtiis'ta see § 51; for i = e see mettre ; 

for loss of s see Hist. Gram. p. 8i. — 

Der. enquktuT (whose doublet is inquisiteur, 

ENRAGER, va. to enrage. See rage. 
ENRAYER, va. to put spokes in a wheel. 

See rayon. — Der. enrayme. 
ENREGISTRER, va. to register, enrol. See 

registre. — Der. enregistrement. 
ENRICHIR, va. to enrich. See riche. 
ENR6lER, va. to enrol. See role. Its doublet 

is enrouler, q.v. — Der. enrolement, enroleur. 
ENROUER, va. to make hoarse ; from L. 

inraucare, deriv. of raucus. For loss of 

medial c see affouage; for au = ow see 

alouette ; for i = e see mettre. — Der. enroue- 

ENROULER, va. to roll up. See rouler. 

Its doublet is enroler, q. v. 
ENSABLER, va. to run on a sandbank. See 

sable. — 'Der. ensablemtnt. 
ENSEIGNE, sf. a sign, ensign. It. insegne, 

from L. insignia *. For i = e see mettre ; 

for i = ei see ceinture. Enseigne is a doublet 

of insigne. 
ENSEIGNER, va. to teach; from L. insig- 

nare *, properly to engrave, then to teach. 

For changes see enseigne. — Der. enseigne- 

ment, renseigner. 
ENSEMBLE, adv. together; from L. in- 

simul. For i = e see mettre, for siniul = 

semble see assembler. 
ENSEMENCER, va. to sow. See semence. 
ENSEVELIR, va. to bury ; from L. insepe- 

lire*, compd. of sepelire. For i = c see 

mettre ; for p = v see §111. — Der. ensevel- 

ENSQRCELER, va. to bewitch. See sorcier. 

— Der. ensorce/lement, ensorceleut. 
ENSUITE, adv. afterwards. See en and suite. 
ENSUIVRE (S'), vpr. to ensue. See en and 

ENTABLEMENT, sm. an entablature. See 

ENTACHER, va. to infect. See tacher. 
ENTAILLER, va. to cut away. See tailler. 

• — Der. entaille (verbal subst.), entaillme. 
ENTAMER, va. to cut in, attack. Prov. enta- 

menar, from Lat. form intaminare, compd. 

of in and a radical taminare, which is found 

also in contaminare, attaminare. Inta- 
minare, contrd. regularly (see § 52) 

to intam'nare, becomes entamer. For 

i = e see mettre, for nin = m see § 168. 
ENTASSER, va. to heap up. See ^as.— Der. 

ENTE, sf a graft. See enter. 
ENTENDRE, va. to hear, understand ; from 

L. intendere, to apply to, direct towards. 



thence pay attention, thence hear. For 

- changes see en and attendre. — Der. entente 
(partic. subst., see absoute), en/e«c?ant (whose 
doublet is mtendant),entendement, entendeur, 

ENTENTE, sf. a meaning, agreement. See 

ENTER, va. to graft, engraft ; from L. im- 
potare *, deriv. of impotus, a graft, in 
the Lex Sahca. Impetus is Gr. e/xipvTov. 
Irapot^re, contrd. regularly (see § 52) 
into imp'tare, becomes e?iter. For pt = / 
see acheter, for m = « see changer, for i = e 
see mettre. — Der. eiite (verbal subst.), ewAire. 

ENTERINER, va. to ratify; "from O. Fr. 
enterin, entire, complete, which answers to 
a Lat. type integrinus *, deriv. of in- 
tegrum. For in = m see en, for gr = r 
see § 168. — Der. enterinement. 

ENTERRER, va. to inter, bury. See terre. — 
, Der. enterrement. 

ENTETER, va. to affect the head, make 
giddy, vain. See tete. — Der. entetement. 

Enthousiasme, sm. enthusiasm ; from- Gr. 
h9ovaiacfx6s. — Der. enthousiasmtr, enthou- 

Enthousiaste, sm. an enthusiast. See 

Enthym^me, sm. an enthymeme; from L. 

ENTIER, adj. entire. Prov. enteir, It. intero, 
from L. integrum. For in. = en see en, 
for e = ie see § 67, for gr = r see § 168. 
Entier is a doublet of integre, q. v. 

ENTICHER, va. to spoil, taint. Origin 

Entite, sf. an entity; in schol. Lat. enti- 
tatem *, deriv. of entem. 

Entomologie, sf. entomology; from Gr. 
evTo/jLov and A.070S. — Der. entomologique, 

ENTONNER, va. to tun. See tonne.— Der. 

ENTONNER, va. to begin (a song), to sing. 
See ton. 

ENTORSE, ./. a sprain. See tordre. 

ENTORTILLER, va. to twist, wind. See 

ENTOUR, sm. neighbourhood. See tour. — 
Der. entourtx, entourz^Q, alentour. 

ENTOURNURE, sf. slope (of sleeves, etc.). 
See tournure. 

ENTRAILLES, sf. pi. bowels, entrails. Prov. 
intralia, from L. intrania*, in the Lex 
Salica : ' Si vero intra costas vulnus in- 
traverit, et usque ad intrania pervenerit.' 
Intrania is from L. interanea (Pliny). 

For regular loss of e see § 5 2 ; for ea — ia 
see abreger. Intrania in turn becomes 
enlrailles. For in = en see en; for n = / 
see § 163. 

ENTRAIN, sm. spirits, animation. See 

ENTRAINER, va. to carry away, hurry on, 
inspirit. See en and trainer. — Der. entrain 
(verbal subst.), entralnement. 

ENTRAVER, va. to clog, trammel, put an 
entrave to act as a clog. From L. tra- 
bem comes a compd. intrabare *, whence 
entraver. For in = en see en, for b = v 
see § 113. — Der. entrave (verbal subst.). 

ENTRE, prep, between ; from L. intra. 
For in — en see eti. 

ENTRE-BAILLER, va. to half-open. See 
entre and bailler. 

tEntrechat, sm. cutting (in dancing), 
introd. in 1 6th cent., with many other dance- 
terms, from It. intrecciato, in the phrase 
capriola intrecciata. 

ENTREE, sf. entrance, admission. See entrer. 

ENTREFAITES, sf. (in the) interval, i.e. entre. 

ENTRELACER, va. to interlace. See lacer. 
— Der. efitrelacs, entrelacement. 

ENTREMELER, va. to intermingle. Seemeler. 

ENTREMETS, sm. a side-dish. See mets. 

ENTREMETTRE, va. to interpose (an ob- 
stacle). See mettre. — Der. entremetteui . 

ENTREMISE, sf. mediation. See mise. 

ENTREPOSER, va. to warehouse. See e?itre 
and poser. Its doublet is interposer. — Der. 
entrepot (like depot from deposer), entre- 
poseuT, entreposxizirt. 

ENTREPRENDRE, va. to undertake. See 
prendre. — Der. entreprise (partic. subst.), 
entreprena.nt, e?itrepreneuT. 

ENTRER, va. to enter; from L. intrare. 
For in = c« see en. — Der. entree (partic. 
subst.), rentrer. 

ENTRE-SOL, sm. the suite of rooms between 
ground-floor and first-floor. See entre and sol. 

ENTRETENIR, va. to hold together, sup- 
port. See entre and tenir. — Der. entre^ca 
(verbal subst.). 

ENTREVOIR, va. to see imperfectly, catch a 
glimpse of. See entre and voir. — Der. 
entrevwe (partic. subst.). 

^nura^ration, sf. enumeration; from L. 
enumerationem . — Der. enumeratit 

^num^rer, va. to enumerate; from L. 

ENVAHIR, va. to invade. Sp. envadir. It. 
invadire, from L. invaders. For loss of 
medial d see accabler ; for intercalation of 
h see Hist. Gram. p. 72; for xa. = en see 



mettre ; for ere = ir see § 59. Invadere 
having lost its d became in O. Fr. enva-ir ; 
the intercalated h is put in to save the hiatus, 
as is also done in trader e, trahir. h is added 
at the beginning of words, such as altus, 
haut, see Hist. Gram. p. 79, Even in Lat. 
we find the forms hornamentum, hobi- 
tus, hac, for ornamentum, obitus, ac, 
in Griiter's Recueil d'Inscriptions. The as- 
piration of the letter k in Fr. words is due 
to the influence of corresponding Germ, 
words, such as, hoch, heulen, etc., compd. 
with Fr. haut, Hurler, etc. This remark is 
due to Professor Max Miiller, who has 
worked it out in detail in the Zeitschrift fiir 
vergleichende Sprachforschung (v. 11-24: 
•iiber deutsche Schattirung romanischer 
Worte'). In my Historical Grammar 
(Engl. ed. 1869) I rejected Professor Max 
Miiller's theory, but I now believe it to be 
entirely correct. — Der. envahisseni, envah- 

ENVELOPPER, va. to wrap up. See develop- 
per. — Der, enveloppe (verbal subst.). 

ENVENIMER, va. to envenom. See venin. 

ENVERGUER, va. to bend (sails). See ver- 
gue. — Der. tnvergwxt (the bending of sails, 
thence metaph. the unfolding of birds' 

ENVERS, sm. the reverse, wrong side (of 
Stuffs); from L. inversus. For in. = en 
see en. Envers is a doublet of inverse, q. v. 

ENVERS, prep, towards ; from L. en and 
vers, q. v. 

ENVI, prep, in emulation of. For etymology 
of this word see renvier. 

EN VIE, sf. envy, desire; from L. invidia. 
For in = en see en ; for loss of d see ac- 
cabler. — Der. enviev. 

ENVIER, va. to envy. See envie. — Der. en- 
wable, envieux. 

ENVIRON, adv. about. See virer.—Der. en- 

ENVISAGER, va. to look at, consider. See 

ENVOI, sm. a sending, parcel. See envoyer. 

ENVOLER (S'), vpr. to fly away. See en and 

ENVOOTER, va. to enchant (by melting etc. 
a wax figure) ; originally envolter, from 
medieval L. invultudre*, i. e. to make a 
waxen face, deriv. of vultus. For loss of 
ii see § 52; for a = e see §54; for 
in = en see en; for iil = o/ = Ott see agneau. 
— Der. envotkemcnt. 

ENVOYER, va. to send ; formerly enveier, 
originally entveier, from L. indSviare*. 

For inde = ent = en see en ; for viare = 
voyer (by change of i to oi) see boire. — 
Der. envoi (verbal subst.), xenvoyer. 

£pacte, sf. the epact; from L. epactae. 

EPAGNEUL, sm. a spaniel ; in Montaigne 
espagneul, in Rabelais espagnol. Avec une 
demi-douzaine d'espagnols, et deux levriers, 
vous voila roy des perdrix et lievres pour 
tout cet hyver, says Gargantua, i. 12. 
This breed coming from Spain got the 
name of chiens espagnols, or, as is now 
said, chiens epagneuls. For o = eu see § 79 ; 
for e$p=iep see Hist. Gram. p. 81. £pag- 
neul is a doublet of espagnol, q. v. 

EPAIS, adj. thick ; formerly espais, originally 
espois, from L. spissus. For i = o/ see 
boire; for oi = at see § 62; for sp = 
esp = ip see Hist. Gram. p. 78. — Der. epais- 
sir, epa/sseur, epct/ssissement. 

EPANCHER, va. to pour out ; formerly es- 
pancher, from L. expandicare * (deriv. of 
expandere. Expandicdre, contrd. re- 
gularly (see § 52) into expand'care, be- 
comes epancher. For x = s see ajouter; 
for es = e see Hist. Gram. p. 81 ; for dc = 
c see § 168 ; for e = cA see § 126; for a = e 
see § 54. — Der. epanchemtnX. 

EPANDRE, va. to spread; ioxmexXy espandre , 
from L. expanders. For regular loss of 
penult, e see § 51; for ex = es see ajouter ; 
for es = e' see Hist. Gram, p. 81. — Der. re- 

EPANOUIR, va. to expand, smoothen ; for- 
merly espanouir, developed from O. Fr. 
espanir from espandir, which from L. ex- 
pandere. For expandere = expandere 
see courir ; for ex = es = e see ajouter ; for 
e = t see § 59. — Der. epanouissement. 

EPARGNER, va. to spare. Origin unknown. 
— Der. epargne (verbal subst.). 

EPARPILLER, va. to scatter, disperse ; for- 
merly esparpiller, properly, in the middle 
ages, to scatter, fly off like a butterfly. 
Esparpiller is compd. of ex and the radical 
parpille *, which answers to L. papilio. 
For addition of r see chanvre. This ety- 
mology is fully proved by It. sparpagliare, 
similarly formed from parpaglione ; and 
Prov. esfarfalha ixom falfalla. — Der. epar- 

EPARS, adj. scattered, straggling ; formerly es- 
pars, from L. sparsus. For 8p = esp = ep 
see Hist. Gram. p. 78. 

E PATER, va. to break off the foot (of 
a glass). See palte. 

EPAULE, sf. a shoulder; formerly espaule, 
originally espalle, from L. spatula (used 

^PA VE — Episode. 


by Apicius). Spatula, contrd. regularly 
into spat'la (see able and § 51), becomes 
espalle by assimilation of tl into // (see 
§ 168), and by sp = esp (see Hist. Gram. p. 
78). Espalle then becomes espaule by al 
= au (see agneau); lastly epaule by loss of 
s (see Hist. Gram. p. 81). Epaule is a 
doublet of spatule, q. v. — Der. epaulet, 
epaulement, epaulette. 

EPAVE, adj. stray, sf. a waif; formerly es- 
pave, a word now applied only to things 
lost, though still used, in some legal phrases, 
of animals, aszm cheval epave. In O.Fr. epave 
was only applied to animals, not to things. 
Espave comes from L, expavidus, i. e. 
frightened, then running away, strayed. 
For ex = e5 = e see aj outer and Hist, Gram, 
p. 8 1 ; for loss of two last atonic syllables 
see Hist. Gram. p. 34. 

EPEAUTRE, sm, spelt, bearded wheat ; for- 
merly espeautre, Sp. espelta. It. spelta, from 
L. spelta. For s-p = esp = ep see Hist. 
Gram. p. 78 ; for el = eal see eau ; for eal 
= eau see agneau; for intercalation of r 
see chanvre. 

EPEE, sf. a sword ; formerly espee, originally 
spede, It. spada, from L. spatha (Tacitus). 
For sip = esp = ep see Hist. Gram. p. 78; 
for ata = ee see § 201, Spee is a doublet 
of spathe, espade, 

EPELER, va. to spell ; formerly espeler 
(meaning in the middle ages to explain, 
enunciate generally), a word of Germ, 
origin, O. H. G. spellun. — Der. epellation. 

EPERDU, adj. distracted. See perdu. 

EPERLAN, sm. a sprat, smelt ; formerly es- 
perlan, originally esperlanc, from Germ. 
spierling. For sp = esp = ep see Hist. Gram. 

. p. 78- 

EPERON, sm. a spur ; formerly esperon, es- 

poron, from O. H. G. sporon. For sp = esp — 

ep see Hist. Gram. p. 78. — Der. eperonner. 
EPERVIER, sm. a sparrow-hawk; formerly 

espervier, Prov. esparvier, It. sparviere, 

from O. H. G. sparvari. For sp = esp = ep 

see Hist. Gram. p. 78. 
fiph61ide, sf. a freckle; from L. epheli- 

!fiph.6m5re, adj. ephemeral ; from Gr. I<^^- 

;fiphem§rides, sf. pi. ephemerides, journal ; 

from L. ephemeridem. 
EPI, SOT. an ear (of corn), spike ; formerly espi, 

from L. spicus * (a masc. form of spica). 

For sp = esp = ep see Hist. Gram. p. 78 ; 

for icu8 = i see § 212. 
EPICE. sf. spice, pi. sweetmeats; formerly 

espice, from L. species (used for spice in 
the Digest, de Publicanis et vectigalibus : 
' species pertinentes ad vectigal, cinna- 
monum, piper longum.' For sp = esp =: ep 
see Hist. Gram. p. 78; fore = zsee § 59. 
Epice is a doublet of espece, q. v. — Der, 
epicier, epicene, epicet. 

!]6pid6inie, sf. an epidemic ; from Gr. 
km^fxios, sc. voaos. — Der. epidemiqae. 

!]6pideniique, adj. epidemic See epidemic. 

Ifipiderme, sm. epidermis, cuticle ; from L. 

EPIER, va. to spy ; formerly espier. It. 
spiare, a word of Germ origin, Engl, to spy, 
O. H. G. spehen. For sp = esp = ep see 
Hist. Gram. p. 78. 

EPIEU, sw. a boar-spear; formerly espieu, 
originally espiel, from L. spiculum. For 
regular contr. into spic'lum see § 51. 
For sp = esp = ep see esperer ; for cl = il see 
abeille ; for espiel = espieu see agneau. 

Epigrammatique, adj. epigrammatic ; 
from L. epigrammaticus. 

ifipigramme, sf. an epigram; from L. 

ifipigraphe, sf an epigraph; from Gr. 

i^pilepsie, sf. epilepsy; from L, epilepsia. 

ifipileptique, a^'. epileptic ; from L. epi- 

ifipiler, va. to depilate, strip of hair; from 
L.epilare.deriv. of pilus. — Der. epihto'ire. 

Epilogue, sm. an epilogue; from L. epilo- 
gus. — Der. epiloguex. 

EPINARD, sm. spinach. See epine. 

EPINE, sf. a thorn ; formerly espine, from L. 
spina. For 8jp = esp = €p see Hist. Gram, 
p. 78. — Der. epineux, epinoche, epinihre, 
epimxA (so called from the thorn-shaped 
dents in its calyx), epine-vinette. 

t Epinette, sf. a spinet ; in the l6th cent. 
espinette, from It. spinnetla. 

EPINGLE, sf. a pin : formerly espingle, from 
L. spiniila, properly a little thorn. For 
regular contr. into spin'la see able and 
§ 51; for n'l = ngl see absotidre ; for 
sp = esp = ep see Hist. Gram. p. 78. Epingle 
is a doublet of spinule. — Der. epinglette, 

EPINOCHE, sm. a stickleback. See epine. 

Epique. adj. epic ; from L. epicus. 

ifipiscopal, adj. episcopal; from L. epi- 

ifipiscopat, SOT. the episcopate; from L. 
episcopatus. Its doublet is eveche, q. v, 

ifipisode, SOT. an episode ; from Gr. kmiff- 
udiov. — Der. episodiqne. 


Spispastique — EquitjE. 

ifipispastique, adj. (Med.) epispastic; 

from Gr. (manaaTiKot. 
fePISSER, va. to splice ; formerly espisser, 
word of Germ, origin, Engl, to splice. — 
Der. epissoire, epissmc. 
fipistolaire, arf/. epistolary ; from L. epi- 

st Claris. Its doublet is epistolier. 
ifipitaphe, sm. an epitaph; from L. epi- 

iJ^pithalame, sm. a marriage song; from L. 

]]@pithdte, sm. an epithet; from L. epi- 

thetum, used by Macrobius. 

Epitome, sm. an epitome; from L. epitome. 

EPITRE, sf. an epistle, letter; formerly 

epistre ; originally epistle, from L. episto- 

la. For regular contr. into epist'la see 

§51; for 1 = r see apotre ; for loss of s 

see Hist. Gram. p. 81. 

;fipizootie, sf. distemper; from Gr, inl 

and ^wov. — Der. epizootique. 
EPLORE, adj. weeping. See pleurer. 
EPLOYE, adj. spread (eagle) ; from L. expli- 
catus. For changes see ployer; for -atus = 
-^' see §201. Eploye \sz6.o\ih\tloi explique. 
EPLUCHER, va. to pick, examine closely; 
formerly esplucher, espelucher. See peluche. 
— Der. epluchsige, epluchement, epluchenr, 
epluchoir, epluchure. 
EPOINTER, va. to break the point off. See 
^ pointe. 

EFOIS, sm. branches (of horns) ; formerly 
espois, from O. H. G. spiz, a pointed piece 
of wood, whence the pointed antlers of the 
stag. For sp = esp = ep see Hist. Gram, 
p. 78 ; for i = oi see boire. 
EPONGE, sf. a sponge; formerly esponge, 
from L. spongia. For 8p = esp = ep see 
Hist. Gram. p. 78. — Der. eponge.r. 
;fipop6e, sm. an epopee ; from Gr. eiroiroiia. 
^poque, sf. an epoch ; from Gr. eiroxv- 
EPOUSER, va. to espouse, marry; formerly 
espouser, originally esposer. It. sposare, from 
L. sponsare (used in the Digest). For 
ns = s see atne ; for sp = esp = ep see Hist. 
Gram. p. 78; for o = ow see affouage. 
EPOUSSETER, va. to dust. See ponssiere. — 

Der. epoussete. 
EPOUVANTER, ra. to scare, frighten; for- 
merly espouvanter, originally espaventer. It. 
spaventare, from L. expaventare (deriv. 
of expaventem, p. p. of expavere). For 
ex=es = e see ajouter and Hist. Gram, 
p. 78 ; a = ou and e = a are peculiar changes 
which have taken place since the word be- 
came French. — Der. epouvante (verbal 
subst.), epouvantzWt, epouvantzW. 

EPOUX, sm. a spouse, husband; from L. 
sponsus. For changes see ipouser, — Der. 
e.pousziWts, ^pouseur. 

EPREINDRE, va. to express, squeeze out ; 
from L. exprimere. For primere =prein- 
dre see empreindre. Epreindre is a doublet 
of exprimer, q. v. — Der. epreinte (verbal 

EPRENDRE (S'), vpr. to become enamoured. 
See prendre. — Der. epris. 

EPREUVE, sf. a trial, proof. See eprouver. 

EPROUVER, va. to try. See prouver.—Dtx. 
^preuve (verbal subst.), eprouvette. 

EPUISER, va. to exhaust. See puiser. — Der. 
epuisemtnt, epuisMe, inepw/sable. 

EPURER, va. to purify. See pur.— Dei. 
epure (verbal subst.), epur&tion. 

EQUARRIR, va. to quarry, cut into an equerre, 
q. V. — Der. equarriss&ge, equarrisseuT. 

Ifiquateur, sm. the equator; from L. ae- 
quatorem * (i. e. a circle dividing the earth 
into two equal parts). — Der. equaiona\. 

ifiquatorial, adj. equatorial. See equateur. 

Equation, sf. an equation; from L. aequa- 

EQUERRE, sf. a square (instrument); formerly 
esquerre, originally esquarre, verbal subst. 
of a type esquarrerer * , answering to L. 
exquadrare *, whence the name equerre 
for the instrument which enables us to draw 
right angles. Squerre is a doublet oi square, 
escadre, q. v. Exquadrare * produces es- 
quarrer* by ex ==65, see ajouter; by es = e, 
see Hist. Gram. p. 81; by dr = rr, see 
§ 168. — Der. equarrh (formerly esquarrir, 
from esquarre, O. Fr. form of equarre). 

^questre, adj. equestrian ; from L. eques- 

ifiquidistant, adj. equidistant; from L. 

;fiquilat6ral, adj. equilateral; from L. ae- 

Ifiquilibre, sm. equilibrium ; from L. aequi- 
librium. — Der. equilibrtr. 

ifiquinoxe, sm. the equinox; from L. ae- 
quinoctium. — Der. e'y7««o»ial. 

EQUIPER, va. to equip, fit out (a ship), purvey 
(generally). Equiper, O. Fr. esquiper, to rig 
a ship, is from Goth. skip. For sq = esq = eq 
see Hist. Gram. p. 78. — Der. equips (verbal 
subst.), equipage, equipee, equipement. 
Ifiquipollent, stn. an equivalent ; from L. 

equipoUentem. — Der. equipollence. 
ifiquitation, sf. horsemanship: from L. 

Equity, sf. equity ; from L. aequitatem. — 

I Der. equitable. 

Equivalent — escient. 


Equivalent, sm. the equivalent; from L. 
aequivalentem. — Der. equivalence. 

ilfiquivaloir, vn. to be equivalent; from 
L. aequivalere. See valoir. 

iSquivoque, adj. equivocal ; from L. aequi- 
vocus. — Der. equivoquer. 

ERABLE, sm. the maple; formerly erabre, 
erarbrejxom L. acer and arbor. For arbor 
= arbre see arbre; for acer = ac'r see § 5 2 ; 
for cr = r see benir and § 168; for a = e 
see § 54. Erabre becomes erable by chang- 
ing r into /, see a^itel. 

6RAFLER, vn. to graze. See rafle.—Dtr. 

ERAILLER, va. to fray, fret; O. Fr. esrailler, 
from L. exrallare*, properly to heat by 
friction, der. from rallum, a scraper. For ex 
= es = e see Hist. Gram. p. 78. — Der. eraille- 
ment, eraillnre. 

Ere, sf. an era; from L. aera. 

Ifirectile, adj. erectile; from L. erectilis*. 

!!Srection, sf. an erection, raising ; from L. 

EREINTER, va. to break the back of, tire 
out. See rein. 

ifir^sipdlCj sm. erysipelas. See erysipele. 

ERGOT, sm. spur (of a bird). Origin un- 
known. — Der. ergo(e. 

Ergoter, vn. to quibble, weary a disputant 
with syllogisms; der. from L. ergo, sign of 
the conclusion in syllogism. — Der. ergotcui. 

ifiriger, va. to erect; from L. erigere. 

ERMITE, sm. a hermit; from L. eremita. 
j For loss of e see § 52. — Der. ermitage. 

Erosion, sf. erosion ; from L. erosionem. 

Erotique, adj. erotic: from L. eroticus. 

+ Errata, errata; a Lat. word. 

Erratique, arf/. erratic; from L. erraticus. 

ERREMENTS, sm. track, way, manner; from 
O. Fr. errer, to travel, which remains in 
verbal subst. erre, and in the knightly word 
errant. Errer, Prov. edrar, is from L. 
iterare* (to travel, from iter), contrd. 
regularly into it'rare, see § 52. For tr = 
rr see § 168 ; for i = e see mettre. 

ERREUR, sm. an error, wandering ; from L. 
errorem. See accueillir. 

Erron6, adj. erroneous; from L. erroneus. 

jfiruetation, sf. eructation, belching ; from 
L. eructationem. 

ifirudit, adj. erudite; from L. eruditus. 

Erudition, sf erudition; from L. erudi- 

ifirugineux, adj. (Med.) eruginous ; from 
L. aeruginosus. 

Erysipdle, sm, erysipelas; from L. erysi- 

ES, contr. of en les (enls, then ens, whence es, 

by regular reduction of ns to s, see aine). 

Es {en les) has left some few traces in the 

language, as in the phrases maitre es arts, 

docteur es sciences, es mains, Saint-Pierre 

es liens, etc. 
ESCABEAU, sm. a stool ; from L. scabellum. 

For sc = esc see Hist. Gram. p. 78 ; for 

elluni = eaM see agneau. 
t Escadre, sf. a squadron; introd. from It. 

squadra. Its doublet is equerre, q. v. 
t Escadron, sm. a squadron (of cavalry) ; 

introd. in 1 6th cent, from It. squadrone. 
+ Escalade, s/. escalade, scaling (of walls); 

introd. in 16th cent, from It. scalata Der. 

t Escale, 5/ putting in (naval) ; from It. 

scala. Its doublet is echelle, q. v. 
tEacalier, sm. a staircase; from Prov. 

escalier, which from L. scalarium,* deriv. 

of scala. Its doublet is echalier. 
tEscamoter, va. to juggle; from Sp. 

escamotar. — Der. escamotsige, escamottuT. 
"Y Escamper, vn. to scamper off, decamp ; 

from It. scampare, whence the phrase 

prendre la poudre c?'escampette. 
t Escapade, sf an escapade, frolic; from 

It. scappata. Its doublet is echappee. 
ESCARBOT, sm. a stag-horn beetle ; dim. of 

a type escarbe*, answering to L. scara- 

baeus. Scarabaeus is contrd. to scar'- 

baeus (see § 52), whence escarbot. For 

BG = esc see Hist. Gram. p. 78; and for 

addition of o^ see chabot. 
ESCARBOUCLE, 5/. a carbuncle; from L. 

carbunculus, with prosthesis of s. Ex- 

carbunculus loses its u, see § 51. For 

nc — c see coque ; for u = ou see accouder. 

Escarboucle is a doublet of carboucle. 
ESCARCELLE, sf a purse. See echarpe. 
ESCARGOT, sm. an edible snail ; originally 

escargol, from ex and the root cargo}, 

answering to Sp. caracol and It. caragollo. 

Origin unknown. 
t Escarmouche, sf. a skirmish; from 

It. scaramuccia. 
t Escarpe, s/". a scarp, escarpment ; from 

It. Scarpa. It is a doublet of echarpe, q.v. — 

Der. escarper, escarpment, contrescarpe. 
+ Escarpin, sm. a pump (shoe) ; from It. 

tEscarpolette, sf a swing; from It. 

Escarre, sf. (Med.) a slought (of a wound) ; 

better written escharre, from L. eschara. 
Escient, sm. knowledge; from L. scientem. 

For so = es see Hist. Gram. p. 78. 



ESCLANDRE, sm. a scandal; formerly es- 
candle, from L. soandalvun. So&nd&- 
luxn, regularly contrd. (see § 51), be- 
comes scandlvim, whence O. Fr. escandle. 
For sc = esc see Hist. Gram, p, 78 ; then 
esclandre by intercalation of /, which is un- 
common ; for dl = dr (see apotre). Esclan- 
dre is a doublet of scandale, q. v. 

ESCLA VE, sm. a slave; in lOth cent, sclavus, 
in 9th cent, slavus, a word which rightly 
means a Slavonian, and was originally 
applied only to Charlemagne's Slavonian 
prisoners, who were reduced to slavery. 
After the loth cent, the word sclavus 
takes the general sense of slave, without 
distinction of nationality. For -bo\ = -escl 
see Hist. Gram. p. 78, Esclave is a doublet 
of slave. — Der. esclavage. 

Escobarderie, sf. subterfuge, shuffle ; of 
hist, origin, see § 33 , meaning to use 
Escobar's reticence. Escobar was a Spanish 
casuist immortalized in Pascal's Provincial 

ESCOGRIFFE, sm. a sharper. Origin un- 

+ Escompter, va. to discount; from It. 
scontare. — Der. escompte (verbal subst.). 

+ Escopette, sf. a carbine; from It. 

fEscorte, sf. an escort; from It. scoria. 
— Der. escorter. 

tEscouade, /. a squad, i6th cent. 
escouadre and scouadre, from It. squadra. 
It is a doublet of escadre and equerre, q. v. 

ESCOURGEE, sf. a scourge; from L. ex- 
oonigiata *. Excorrigidta, contrd. 
regularly (see § 52), becomes escourgee. 
For ex = es see ajouter; for o = ou see 
affouage ; for -ata = -e« see § 201. 

ESCOURGEON, sm. winter barley. Origin 

ESCOUSSE, sf. a run (before leaping) ; from 
L. excussa*. — Der. rescousse. 

t Esc rimer, vn. to fence ; from It. scher- 
m^re. — Der. escrime (verbal subst.). 
, +Escroc, sm. a swindler ; from It. scrocco. 
— Der. escroquer, escroqueur, escroqutx\e. 

ESPACE, sm. a space ; from L, spatium. 
For 8p = esp see Hist. Gram. p. 78 ; for ti 
= c see agencer. — Der. espacei, espacement. 

i'Espadon, sm. a sword, sword-fish ; from 
It. spadone. 

fEspagnolette, ./. baize; introd. in 
17th cent, from It, spagnoletta. 

tEspalier, sm. a fruit-wall; from It. 

ESPECE, sf. a kind; from L, species. For 

sp = esp see Hist. Gram. p. 78. Espece is 
a doublet of epice, q, v, 

ESP^RER, vn. to hope; from L. sperare. 
To the initial sounds sc (scribere), sm 
(smaragdus), sp (sperare), st (status), 
which were hard to pronounce, the Roman 
people early prefixed the letter i to divide 
the two consonants in pronunciation. As 
early as the 4th cent, we find in Roman in- 
scriptions ispatium for spatium, istare 
for stare, istatua for statua, ispiritu 
for spiritu, istabilis for stabilis, isma- 
ragdus for smaragdus. This i soon be- 
came e (see mettre), and in the 5th cent, 
we find in Christian inscriptions the forms , 
estatua, espatium ; in Merov. Diplomas; 
especiem, esperare, estudium. This I 
change of sc into esc, sm into esm, sp into , 
esp, st into est, went on in Fr. in suchj 
words as spatium, espace. Since the i6th 
cent, many of these words have been again j 
modified by loss of the s, see Hist, Gram. J 
p, 80, and the suppression is marked by the ; 
acute accent on the initial e, as in statu m^i 
etat. Even farther, a false assimilation led 
to the prefixing of e before words which had 
no Latin s ; thus c orticem, ecorce ; car- 
bunculus, escarboucle, etc.— Der. esper- 
ance, d6sesperer. 

Espidgle, adj. frolicsome ; of hist, origin, see 
§ 33, £s/)zeg'/e isa wordof the l6th cent., 
at which time a very popular German tale 
(Eulenspiegel) was translated and introduced 
into Fr. under the title of ' L' Histoife 
joyeuse de Till Ulespi^gle.' In this story 
the hero performs a number of waggeries 
and tricks. This ' Histoire de Tiel Ules- 
piegle,' or, as it was written, * Histoire 
de I'Espiegle,' soon became popular, and the 
word espiegle became a name for a tricky, 
mischievous spirit. — Der, espiegleiie. 

fEspion, sm. a spy; from It. spione. — 
Der. espionner, espionnage. 

t Esplanade, sf. an esplanade. In 
Montaigne splanade, from It, splanata. 

ESPOIR, sm. hope ; from L. speres *. For 
sp = ^s/> see esperer ; for e = oi see § 61. 

fEsponton, sm. a spontoon; from It. 

ESPRIT, sm. spirit; from L. spiritus, by 
displacing the Lat. accent (spiritus for 
spiritus) and by sp = esp, see esperer ; for 
loss of i see § 52. Esprit is a doublet of 

ESQUIF, sm. a skiff; from O. H. G. sMf 
For sli = esq see esperer. 

ESQUILLE, sf. a splinter ; from L. schidu- 



lae*, dim, of schidiae, splinters of wood, 
by the regular contr. (see § 51) into schid'- 
lae. For dl=:// see §168; for sch. = sc 
— esq see esperer and Hist. Gram, p. 63. 

fEsquinancie, &f. the quinsey. i6th 
cent, sqninancie, from It. schinanzia. 

fEsquisse, sf. a sketch; from It.schizzo. 
— Der. esquisser. 

ESQUIVER, va. to evade (a blow), avoid ; 
from O. H. G. skiuhan. 

ESSAI, sm. a. trial ; from L. exagium, weigh- 
ing, a trial of exact weight. For :s. = ss see 
aisselle ; for -agivim = -a« see allier. — Der. 
essay&r, essayeuv. 

ESSAIM, sm. a swarm; from L. examen. 
For x = ss see aisselle; for -amen = -aim 
see airain. Essaim is a doublet of examen. 
— Der. essaimer. 

ESSARTER, va. to grub up; from L. ex- 
saritare *, a frequent., der. from ex- 
saritum, p. p. of ex-sarire. Exsari- 
tare becomes essarter by regular fall of 
i, see § 52; by xs = ss, see aisselle. — Der. 

ESSAYER, va. to essay. See essai. 

Essence, sf. essence; from L. essentia. 

Essential, adj. essential; from L. essenti- 
alis, in Isidore of Seville. 

ESSIEU, sm. an axle-tree ; in Amyot aissieu, 
in Montaigne aixieu, from L. axicvilus. 
For Sb = ai = e see § 54; for x = ss see 
aisselle ; for iculus = ieu see epieti. 

ESSOR, sm. flight (of birds). See essorer. 

ESSORER, soar; from L. exaurare*, 
deriv. of aura. For :s. = ss see aisselle ; for 
au = o see alouette. Essorer in O. Fr. 
meant to balance in air, soar, whence verbal 
subst. essor. 

ESSORILLER, va. to crop ears (of dogs); 
from L, exauriculare *, der. from auri- 
cula. For regular contr. of exaxu-icu- 
Idre into exauriclare see § 52; for 
X = ss see aisselle ; for au = see alouette ; 
for cl = il see abeille, 

ESSOUFFLER, va. to put out of breath. See 

ESSUYER, va. to wipe, wipe away. It. as- 
ciugare, from L. exsuccare. Exsuccare, 
reducing cc to c (see bee), becomes exsu- 
(c)are, thence essnyer. For xs=ss see 
aisselle ; for loss of medial c see affouage. 
Essuyer is a doublet of essucquer.—T)Qx. 
essui (verbal subst.). 

EST, sm. the east ; of Germ, origin, Germ. 
qst, Engl. east. 

+ Estacade, sf. a stockade ; from It. 

t Estafette, sf. an express; from It. 

+ Estafier, sm. a tall footman; from It. 

t Estafilade, sf. a gash; from It. 

Estaminet, sm. a smoking-room. Origin 

f Estampe, sf. a print, stamp; from It. 

stampa. — Der. estampxWt. 
fEstamper, va. to print, stamp; from 

It. stampare. 
Estampille, sf. a stamp. See estampe. 
ESTER, vn. (Legal) to appear (in court) ; from 

L. stare. For st — est see esperer. 
Esth6tique, adj. aesthetic; from Gr. ai- 

Estimation, s/. esteem ; from L. aestima- 

tionem. — Der. estimateur, estimatif. 
Estimer, va. to esteem ; from L. aesti- 

mare. — Der. estime (verbal subst.), estim- 

able, vcxQiestimer, mesestime. 
ESTOC, swz. (l) a stick, (2) a sword. It. stocco, 

from Germ, stock. For st = est see esperer. 
t Estocade, sf. a stockade; from It. stoc- 
ESTOMAC, sm. a stomach ; from L. stoma- FoT 8t = est see esperer. 
fEstompe, sf. a stump; from Germ. 

fEstrade, sf. a route; from It. strada, 

whence the phrase battre Vestrade. Its 

doublet is estree. 
fEstrade, /. a platform ; from It. strata. 
ESTRAGON, sm. (Bot.) tarragon ; corruption 

of L. draconem (primitive of dracuncu- 

lus) with prefix ex. For Fr. words which 

spring from corruption see § 172. 
tEstram.a90n, sm. a two-edged sword ; 

from It. stramazzone. 
fEstrapade, sf. a strappado; from It. 

fEstropier, va. to cripple, maim; from 

It. stroppiare. 
Estuaire, sm. an estuary; from L. aestu- 

arium. Its doublet is O. Fr. eV/er. 
ESTURGEON, sm. a sturgeon. Sp. esturion, 

medieval Lat. sturionem. Sturio is de- 
rived from O. H. G. sturio. For st = est see 

esperer; for io = jo =geo see abreger. 
ET, conj. and ; from L. et. 
ETABLE, sf. a stable ; formerly estable, from 

L. stdbulum. For loss of u see § 51 ; for 

&t — est = et see esperer and Hist. Gram. p. 81. 
ETABLIR, va. to establish ; formerly establir, 

from L. stabilire. Stabilire, contrd. 

regularly (see § 52) into stab'lire, becomes 



etablir. For st = «/■=<?/ see esperer and 
Hist. Gram. p. 8l. — Der. elabli (verbal 
subst.), etablissement. 

£TAGE, sm. a story (of a house) ; formerly 
estage, Prov. eslatge, from L. staticum* 
(properly a place where one establishes 
oneself), deriv. of status. Staticum in- 
dicates the state or order of the rooms of a 
house. For -aticum == -o^^ see age; for 
st = est = <f/ see esperer and Hist. Gram, 
p. 81. Elage is a doublet of stage, q. v. — 
Der. etagtr, etaghre. 

£TAI, stn. stay, support; formerly estay, word 
of Germ, origin, Flem. staeye. — Der. etaytx. 

£TAIM, sm. fine carded wool ; formerly 
estaim, from L. stamen. For -amen = -aim 
see airain; for at=^est=et see esperer and 
Hist. Gram. p. 81, 

6TAIN, sm. tin, pewter ; formerly estain. It. 
stagno, from L. stagnum* (archaic form of 
stannum*). For sX = e&t = et see esperer 
and Hist, Gram. p. 81 ; for gn = m see 
§ 131. — Der. etamtx (from etain, like veni- 
meux from venin). 

ETAL, sm. a stall, butcher's shop ; formerly 
estal. It. stallo, word of Germ, origin, 
O. H. G. stal, Engl, stall. Etal is a doublet 
of stalle, q. v. — Der. etaler, detaler (to 
gather in one's goods and be gone). 

ETALER, va. to expose for sale. See etal. 
— Der. etalige, etahgiste. 

ETALON, sm. a stallion; formerly estalon, 
It. Stallone (a horse kept in the stall, and 
not worked). It. Stallone is derived from 
L. stalla, similarly the Fr. estalon is from 
medieval L. btallum. For s,X, = est = et see 
esperer and Hist. Gram. p. 81 ; for addition 
of suffix on see aiglon. Stallum is O.H.G. 
stall. The certainty of this etymology is 
proved by the Germanic Laws, in which we 
find 'equus ad stallum,' for a stallion. The 
Lex Wisigothoruni, viii. 4, has ' qui alie- 
num animal aut quemcumqae quadrupedem 
qui ad stallum servatur, castraverit.* 

ETALON, sjn. a standard (measure) ; for- 
merly estalon, in Low Lat. stallonem, from 
O. H. G. stihil, a stick (measure). For 
st = est = et see esperer and Hist. Gram. p. 8 1 . 

ETAMER, va. to tin. See etain.— Det. 
etamage, etamtnr. 

ETAMINE, sf. stamin, bolting - cloth ; for- 
merly estamine, from estame, which from 
L. stamen. For 8t = est =et see esperer 
and Hist. Gram. p. 81. 

ETAMINE, sf. a stamen ; from L, stamina. 
For st = est = et see esperer and Hist. 
Grifai. p. 81. 

fiTANCHER, va. to stanch. Origin unknown. 

ETANCON, sm. a stanchion ; formerly 
estanfon, from O. Fr. estance, which from L. 
stantia* (that which stands upright). For 
st = est = et see esperer and Hist. Gram. p. 8 1 ; 
ior -%iQ. = -ce stt agencer. — Der. etanfonner. 

ETANG, sm. a pond, pool, O. Fr. estang, 
from L. stagnum. For st = est =et see 
esperer and Hist. Gram. p. 81 ; for gn = «^, 
as in pugnus, poing, etc., see Hist. Gram. 

_ P- 77. 

ETAPE, sf. rations, halting-place; formerly 
estaple, = a warehouse full of necessaries of 
life (so used even by Montesquieu), then 
specially a dep6t of food for troops on 
march; and lastly the place where troops 
halt. Etaple, in medieval Lat. stapula, is 
of Germ, origin, Flem. stapel. Stdpula, 
regularly contrd. (§ 51) hito stap'la, be- 
comes estaple, then estape, etape. For st = 
est = et see esperer and Hist. Gram. p. 81 ; 
for loss of 1 see able. 

ETAT, sm. state, condition; formerly estat, 
from L. status. For st = est =et see 
esperer and Hist. Gram. p. 81. 

ETAU, sm. a vice ; formerly estau, from 
Germ, stock, in the Germ, compd. schraub- 
stock. For st = est = et see espdrer and 
Hist. Gram. p. 81. 

ETAYER, va. to stay, shore up. See etai. — 
Der. etayement. 

ETE, p.p. V. subst. been. See etre. 

ETE, sm. summer; formerly este, from L. 
aestatem. For ae = e see § 103; for 
-atem = -e see § 230; for loss of s see 
Hist. Gram, p. 81. 

ETEINDRE, va. to extinguish; formerly 
esteindre, from L, exstinguere. Ex- 
stinguere becomes exstinggre, then ex- 
sting're (see § 51), whence exstin're ; 
whence esteindre by intercalation of d (see 
Hist, Gram, p, 73), lastly eteindre by loss of 
s (see Hist, Gram. p. 81). — Der. eleignoxx. 

ETENDARD, sm. a standard, flag; der. 
with suffix -ard from L. extendere. For 
changes see etendre. 

ETENDRE, va. to extend, stretch forth; 
formerly estendre, from L, extendere. For 
ex. = es = e see ajouter and Hist. Gram, 
p. 8 1 ; for tendere = tendre see tendre, 
— Der, etendue (partic, subst.). 

^ternel, adj. eternal; from L. aeternalis. 

ifiternit^, s/". eternity; from L. aeterni- 
tatem, — Der, eternher. 

ETERNUER, vn. to sneeze ; formerly estern- 
uer, from L. sternutare. For loss of 
medial t see abbaye; for at = est =et see 



esperer and Hist. Gram. p. 81. — Der. 

ETEULE, sf. stubble ; formerly estenle, origi- 
nally estuble, from L. stiptQa. Stipilla, 
regularly contrd. (see § 51) into stip'la, 
becomes estuble. For st = est =^et see es- 
perer and Hist. Gram. p. 81 ; for p = 6 see 
abeille. Estuble, by changing bl into ul 
(see aurone and alouette), becomes estule, 
whence esteule by changing u into eu (see 
beugler), then eteule by loss of s (see Hist. 
Gram. p. 81). Eteule is a doublet of 
stipule, q. v. 

:fither, sm. the aether; from L. aether. — 
Der. ethere. 

Ifithique, adj. ethical; from L. ethica. 

Ethnique, adj. ethnical ; from L. ethnicus. 

Ethnographie, sf. ethnography; from Gr. 
eOvos and ypdcpeiv. — Der. ethnographique, 

ETIAGE, sm. low water ; from L. aestirati- 
cum*, properly summer (i.e. low) level of 
waters. For loss of medial v see a'ieul ; 
for loss of s, see Hist. Gram. p. 81 ; for 
-aticum = -age see age ; for ae = e see 

, § 103- 

ETINCELLE, sf. a spark ; formerly estincelle. 
It. scintilla, from L. scintilla, by trans- 
position of scintilla into stincilla* (see 
Hist. Gram. p. 77), whence etincelle. For 
i = e see mettre; for 8t = est = et see esperer 
and Hist. Gram. p. 8l. — Der. etinceler 
(whose doublet is scintiller, q. v.). 

ETIOLER, va. to emaciate ; from L. stipu- 
lare. Its doublet is stipuler, q. v. — Der. 

!fitiologie, sf. (Med.) etiology; from Gr. 
airioXoyia, that part of medicine which 
treats of causes of disease. 

ifitique, adj. consumptive, hectic. See hec- 
tiqne (of which it is a doublet). — Der. 

Etiquette, sf. a label. Ongin unknown. 
— Der. etiqjieter. 

ETOFFE, sf. stuff, cloth ; formeriy estoffe. It. 
stoffa, from Germ, sioff. — Der. etofftx. 

ETOILE, sf. a star ; formerly estoile, from L. 
Stella. For e = ot see § 61; forst = es/ 

^ =et see esperer and Hist. Gram. p. 81. 

ETOLE, sf. a stole ; formerly estole, from L. 
stola. For st = est = ei see esperer ant^ 
Hist. Gram. p. 81. 

ETONNER, va. to astonish ; formerly eston- 
ner, from L. extonare, compd. of ex and 
radical tonare, seen in at-tonare. For 
ex = es see ajouter; for es = e see Hist. 

. Gram. p. 81. — Der. etonnement. 

ETOUFFER, va. to stifle ;'^ formerly estouffer, 
compd. of ex and a radical touffer *, deriv. 
of Gr. TV(pos, a word which remains in 
Prov. touffe, and Sp. tttfo. Etouffer is then 
rightly ' to stifle in vapour.' — Der. etouffee 
(partic. subst.), eto